Record Details

NHER Number:30470
Type of record:Monument
Name:Lynford Hall Park


The Old Hall (NHER 5138) was surrounded by extensive and elaborate gardens. The present formal garden was designed in the mid 1860s by William Burns and William Andrews Nesfield. There is also an early 20th century Japanese water garden. These are set within a landscape of park and woodland originating in the 18th century and greatly expanded in the mid 19th century. Earthwork banks and ditches which may have related to possible garden or park features have been recorded from aerial photographs and visualised lidar data.

Images - none


Grid Reference:TL 8183 9329
Map Sheet:TL89SW

Full description

Lynford Hall (NHER 5138 and 30470), built in 1717, was surrounded by extensive parkland; Blomefield notes that James Nelthorpe built ‘a very agreeable seat, with pleasant gardens, plantations, canals &c.’ There is, however, little direct evidence and Faden’s map (S5), surveyed in 1794, is very vague. It suggests that pleasure grounds lay east and west of the Hall, but the east was fairly densely planted with trees. This map shows a park of c.35 hectares.
The Sale Map of 1856 (S6) shows a park of c.88 hectares with wide tree belts along the east and western borders of the park. By this date the park has expanded south and east. There is also a narrow lake north of the Hall running across the length of the estate. There is a north drive running south to the Hall from the Mundford-Tofts road, and there is one running south from the Hall. To the east of the south driveway are a series of small buildings. The sale catalogue notes that the Hall was surrounded by ornamental flower gardens.
The 1904 6 inch Second Edition Ordnance Survey map (S7) shows the new Hall (NHER 5150), built in the late 1850s, situated north of the lake with a formal garden to the south. This park is now c.105 hectares. There is a long Wellingtonia avenue running slightly south-west from the Hall, lined to the north by a Wellington Plantation. The south-west of the park has filled out south of the lake creating a squared corner filled in with woodland. There is woodland north, west and east of the Hall. The park directly south of the Hall contains some standing trees. The drive running south from the site of the old Hall has been tree-lined. A chapel (NHER 5153), built in 1879, is east of this drive and south of the park. The south drive has been extended north so it stretches the entire length of the park. A short drive to the house extends east off this drive, directly in line with the avenue. There is a kitchen garden west of the Hall. Possible fragments of formal gardens associated with former Hall remain (see NHER 5145) but around present Hall is an important Italianate garden by W. Nesfield.
Today, much of the parkland is owned by the Forestry Commission, and there is an Arboretum east of the Hall, which contains a brick former water town which supplied the fountains (S4).
See unpublished reports (S2) and (S3), newspaper article (S4), and historic maps (S5), (S6) and (S7).
E. Rose (NLA), 7 March 1994; 30 August 1996, 2002, 5 December 2006.
Updated by C. Hurst (UEA), 14 November 2011.

March 2019. Breckland National Mapping Programme.
Multiple earthworks dating to the post-medieval and possibly medieval period are seen on aerial photographs (S8) and visualised lidar data (S9). The earthworks relate to multiple features including boundaries, extraction pits, garden features, drainage, parkland features, trackways and possibly modern forestry features. There is a large group of bank and ditches centred at TL 8198 9361 which most likely relate to former garden features (NHER 61072, NHER 61073, NHER 61074, NHER 61076, NHER 61075, and NHER 61080) and may have been associated with either the current hall (NHER 5150) or the “old hall” (NHER 5138) in close proximity. To the west of these features at TL8181 9356 there is a large mounded area with a large curved ditch, possible quarry and two large curved banks forming a roughly oval shape, with a central pit (NHER 61001, NHER 61035, NHER 61036, NHER 61038, and NHER 61039). Previous surveys have suggested that these features may relate to further former garden features. The earthworks centred at TL 8198 9361 & TL8181 9356 may also relate to Lynford deserted medieval village and church remains (NHER 5145) documented to have be in the surrounding area. It is most likely the majority of the features presently survive as earthworks due to the recent date of the BNG lidar visualisations (2015) and recent field visits (2014) undertaken by a previous survey.There are further earthworks to the east of the mapping, however these have not been mapped as they fall outside of the survey area. Some of the mapped features can be seen on the historic mapping (S10 and S11) and further work is needed to synthesise the earthwork remains, documentary evidence and records to further enhance the interpretation for Lynford park and gardens.
The mapped extent of this record has been slightly amended [1].
J.Powell (Norfolk Historic Environment Service), 20 March 2019.

Monument Types

  • BANK (EARTHWORK) (Unknown date)
  • BOUNDARY (Unknown date)
  • BOUNDARY BANK? (Unknown date)
  • BOUNDARY DITCH? (Unknown date)
  • DITCH (Unknown date)
  • PIT (Unknown date)
  • BANK (EARTHWORK) (Medieval to 19th Century - 1066 AD? to 1900 AD?)
  • BOUNDARY (Medieval to 19th Century - 1066 AD to 1900 AD)
  • BOUNDARY BANK? (Medieval to 19th Century - 1066 AD? to 1900 AD?)
  • BOUNDARY DITCH? (Medieval to 19th Century - 1066 AD to 1900 AD)
  • DITCH (Medieval to 19th Century - 1066 AD? to 1900 AD?)
  • AVENUE (LANDSCAPE FEATURE) (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • EXTRACTIVE PIT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD? to 1900 AD?)
  • FLOWER GARDEN (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • FORMAL GARDEN (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • GARDEN (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • GARDEN FEATURE (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • GARDEN HOUSE (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • GARDEN WALL (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • KITCHEN GARDEN (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • ORNAMENTAL LAKE (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • PARK (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • PIT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD? to 1900 AD?)
  • PLEASURE GARDEN (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • QUARRY? (Post Medieval - 1540 AD? to 1900 AD?)
  • TREE BELT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • WATER TOWER (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • ARBORETUM (Early 20th Century to 21st Century - 1901 AD to 2100 AD)
  • JAPANESE GARDEN (Early 20th Century to 21st Century - 1901 AD to 2100 AD)

Associated Finds - none

Protected Status

  • Listed Building
  • Registered Park or Garden
  • Listed Building

Sources and further reading

---Secondary File: Secondary File.
<S1>Designation: English Heritage. Register of Parks and Gardens of Special Historic Interest in England..
<S2>Unpublished Document: Norfolk County Council. [unknown]. Inventory of Historic Parks and Gardens of Special Historic Interest in Norfolk..
<S3>Unpublished Document: Norfolk County Council. Appendix 8 Lynford Hall Historical Data Norfolk County Council Topic Paper.
<S4>Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 1991. [Photograph of the support remains at Lynford arboretum]. 30 January.
<S5>Publication: Faden, W. and Barringer, J. C. 1989. Faden's Map of Norfolk in 1797.
<S6>Map: Fairbrother, Clark and Lye. 1856. Sale Particulars of Lynford Hall Estate.
<S7>Map: Ordnance Survey. 1906 to 1907. Ordnance Survey 2nd edition 6 inch map.
<S8>Vertical Aerial Photograph: Various. Vertical Aerial Photograph. RAF/3G/TUD/UK/59 V 5046-5047 05-FEB-1946 (HEA Original Print).
<S9>LIDAR Airborne Survey: Various. LIDAR Airborne Survey. LIDAR Lynford Forest Research 0.5m DTM 15-JUL-2015 (BNG Project, FC England, Fugro Geospatial).
<S10>Map: Ordnance Survey. 1885-1891. Ordnance Survey Map. Six inches to the mile. First Edition. 1:10,560.
<S11>Map: Ordnance Survey. 1902-7. Ordnance Survey second edition 25 inch (1902-7) map. 25 inches to 1 mile.

Related records

61045Parent of: Bank in Lynford Arboretum (Monument)
61046Parent of: Bank in Lynford Arboretum (Monument)
61068Parent of: Bank in Lynford Park (Monument)
61010Parent of: Boundaries of Pumphouse Plantation, Lynford Park (Monument)
61013Parent of: Boundary bank in Lynford Park (Monument)
61014Parent of: Boundary banks within Lynford Park (Monument)
61015Parent of: Boundary features in a plantation at Lynford Park (Monument)
61037Parent of: Brick lined hollow in Zig Zag Covert (Monument)
61049Parent of: Brick structure in Lynford Arboretum (Monument)
61077Parent of: Bridge in Lynford Park (Building)
61079Parent of: Cascade in Lynford Park (Monument)
5153Parent of: Church of Our Lady of Consolation, Lynford (Building)
61043Parent of: Concrete cricket wicket in Lynford Park (Monument)
61042Parent of: Ditch and brick wall in Lynford Park (Monument)
61074Parent of: Ditch in Lynford Park (Monument)
61012Parent of: Embanked avenue in Lynford Park (Monument)
61040Parent of: Embankment, path and culvert within Lynford Park (Monument)
61041Parent of: Historic pond in Lynford Park (Monument)
61039Parent of: Hollow and water filled pool in Lynford Park (Monument)
61075Parent of: Hollow in Lynford Park (Monument)
61017Parent of: Hollow way in Lynford Park (Monument)
61066Parent of: Hollows and ponds in Lynford Arboretum (Monument)
61034Parent of: Late 19th century garden wall in Zig Zag Covert (Monument)
61036Parent of: Mound or possible building platform in Zig Zag Covert (Monument)
61050Parent of: Possible hollow way in Lynford Arboretum (Monument)
61038Parent of: Possible pool in Zig Zag Covert (Monument)
61080Parent of: Probable garden earthworks associated with 18th century Lynford Hall (Monument)
61073Parent of: Probable ornamental pond in Lynford Park (Monument)
61044Parent of: Quarry in Lynford Arboretum (Monument)
61047Parent of: Quarry in Lynford Arboretum (Monument)
61048Parent of: Quarry in Lynford Arboretum (Monument)
61065Parent of: Quarry in Lynford Arboretum (Monument)
61067Parent of: Quarry in Lynford Park (Monument)
61069Parent of: Quarry in Lynford Park (Monument)
61070Parent of: Quarry in Lynford Park (Monument)
60133Parent of: Quarry in Wellington Plantation (Monument)
60134Parent of: Quarry in Zig-Zag Covert (Monument)
61035Parent of: Quarry or garden feature in Zig Zag Covert (Monument)
61081Parent of: Remains of a bridge in the central lake at Lynford Park (Monument)
61001Parent of: Sunken path and bridge in Lynford Park (Monument)
61002Parent of: Two hollow ways in Lynford Park (Monument)
61003Parent of: Woodland boundary in Zig Zag Covert, Lynford Park (Monument)
5150Related to: Lynford Hall (Building)
5138Related to: Site of Old Hall (Monument)

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