Record Details

NHER Number:42026
Type of record:Monument
Name:Medieval or post medieval boundary banks, and earthworks of probably natural origin


Boundary banks, probably of medieval or post medieval date and perhaps associated with Santon Warren (NHER 54065) were identified during a site visit and subsequently recorded by an earthwork survey. These are now recorded as part of the more extensive group of boundaries NHER 62073. More irregular and poorly defined earthworks identified to their east, which may be of partial or wholly natural and modern origin, are now recorded as NHER 62076. A few prehistoric flint flakes were recovered. It has been suggested that this is the site of the deserted medieval village of Caldecote but this seems unlikely.

Images - none


Grid Reference:TL 83068 88128
Map Sheet:TL88NW

Full description

September-October 2005.
An extensive area of earthworks has been revealed by felling and clearing, some of which appear to extend into the adjacent compartments.
These features are quite prominent and up to 1.5m high. To the northwest there is a right angled bank and parallel linear. The central area includes possible trackways and platform-like features. These may represent a mix of of warren boundary features and possible settlement.
Is this possibly 'Caldecote'? See NHER 5691.
This area should be subject to a detailed earthwork survey.
D. Gurney (NLA), October 2005.

September 2005. Earthwork Survey.
Detailed survey of previously identified features.
Recorded a possible warren boundary bank and other features including platform-like mounds, irregular depressions and scarps. However, medieval settlement here (or that this is Caldecote) seems unlikely.
A few prehistoric flints were also recovered (details to follow).
See report (S3) for further details. The results of this work are also summarised in (S4).
D. Gurney (NLA), 7 November 2005.

October/November 2005. Surface collection.
Three flakes/fragments: one small secondary with slight patination, the other two unpatinated. Unmodified.
Identified by P.A. Robins (NCM), 14 November 2005.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 7 December 2005.

See (S2).

December 2011. Field visit.
A low bank, about 5-7m wide. This bank does not appear on modern maps or (S1), suggesting it may be an early post medieval or even medieval feature. It appears to pre-date two parallel plantation banks (HER 57839).
This is the possible warren bank recorded during the 2005 earthwork survey (S2). As it extends further to the west than recorded in 2005, the area of HER mapping has been extended.
D. Robertson (HES), 18 May 2012.

February 2018. 'Brecks from Above' and Breckland National Mapping Programme.
The boundary banks described above, which are likely to be of medieval or post medieval date, are visible as earthworks on imagery from a recent lidar survey (S5). They have been recorded as part of the much more extensive group of boundaries and trackways of which they form part (NHER 62073). As suggested above, they could be associated with Santon Warren (NHER 54065), as they lie within its recorded limits. Given the recent date of the lidar survey, it is likely that the earthworks still survive.
The area of more irregular earthworks, including platforms, described above is now recorded as NHER 62076.
S. Tremlett (Norfolk Historic Environment Service), 7th February 2018.

Monument Types

  • BANK (EARTHWORK) (Unknown date)
  • BOUNDARY (Unknown date)
  • LINEAR FEATURE (Unknown date)
  • PLATFORM? (Unknown date)
  • RABBIT WARREN? (Unknown date)
  • TRACKWAY (Unknown date)
  • FINDSPOT (Late Prehistoric - 4000 BC to 42 AD)
  • DESERTED SETTLEMENT? (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)

Associated Finds

  • FLAKE (Late Prehistoric - 4000 BC to 42 AD)

Protected Status


Sources and further reading

---Secondary File: Secondary File.
<S1>*Verbal Communication: Riley, R. (Forest Enterprise). 2005. [unknown].
<S2>Unpublished Contractor Report: Rolfe, J. 2005. Forest Survey. A Report on the Rapid Identification Survey, 2005. Suffolk County Council Archaeological Service. 2005/175.
<S3>Unpublished Contractor Report: Cushion, B. 2005. Archaeological Earthwork Survey. Lynford, Norfolk, HER Site 42026. Brian Cushion Archaeological & Cartographical Surveyor.
<S4>Article in Serial: Gurney, D. and Penn, K. 2006. Excavations and Surveys in Norfolk in 2005. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XLV Pt I pp 124-136. p 129.
<S5>LIDAR Airborne Survey: Various. LIDAR Airborne Survey. LIDAR Santon Forest Research 0.5m DTM 15-JUL-2015 (BNG Project, FC England, Fugro Geospatial).

Related records

62076Parent of: Amorphous, undated earthworks, perhaps relating to quarrying, natural processes and/or modern activity (Monument)
62073Part of: Irregular spread of boundary banks, ditches, and trackways, of probable medieval to post medieval date (Monument)
54065Part of: Medieval to post medieval rabbit warren, Santon (Monument)

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