Record Details

NHER Number:1802
Type of record:Monument
Name:Holkham Park

Summary

One of the most important landscape parks in England, originally laid out in the 1720s by William Kent, who also designed many of the buildings with the park. In 1762 Lancelot 'Capability' Brown worked on naturalising some aspects of the park's design, and William Emes and Humphry Repton also worked here during the late 18th century. In the mid 19th century the formal gardens around the Hall were laid out, the park was extended, and new plantations created. The remains of earlier formal gardens are visible as parchmarks on aerial photographs in the parkland surrounding the house.

Images

  • Holkham Hall, one of the most important and influential Palladian houses in England  © Norfolk Museums & Archaeology Service

Location

Grid Reference:TF 891 416
Map Sheet:TF84SE
Parish:HOLKHAM, NORTH NORFOLK, NORFOLK

Full description

Important as last surviving complete formal park of its size in Norfolk.
Park wall added 1833 to 1839 is the longest in Britain.

County number formerly included those structures built as ancillary to the park design: Coke monument, Obelisk, Temple, Octagon, Almshouse Gates, Church Lodge, Mausoleum, Model Farm, West Lodge, Great Barn, Triumphal Arch, Palmers Gate, Longlands Farm most of which designed by Wyatt.
These are all now recorded under separate numbers.

The park was first laid out by Kent in the 1720s.
Eames and Repton as well as Brown worked here.
EH Historic Parkland Grade I, see (S1).
See extract from (S1) in file and (S2).
E. Rose, (NLA) 9 November 1990.

See Holkham Estate Heritage Landscape Management Plan produced in 1994 (S9)-(S14), particularly Williamson's history of the park (S13).

Landscape management plan 1998 in file.

19 July 1994. NLA air photography (S3).
Air photos showing views of:
Context 11 - garden cottage
Context 13 - triumphal arch
Context 15 - Longlands Park.
And of the park and avenue itself.
S. Massey (NLA), 19 April 2001.

6 March 1995. NLA Air Photography (S4).
Parchmarks visible.
M. Brennand, 23 April 2001.

19 July 1994. NLA air photography (S5).
Photographs show parchmarks of relict formal garden features and walls, to south of hall.
Also photographed walled garden and views of park.
S. Massey (NLA), 24 April 2001.

28 June 1996. NLA air photography (S6).
Parchmarks and earthworks visble to north and south of hall.
These may be remnants of garden features as previously suggested, although it is more likely that these relate ot the pre-park structures of medieval Holkham village, which was removed prior to the emparking.
S. Massey (NLA), 28 September 2001.

19 July 1996. NLA air photography (S7).
Parchmarks of garden features visible to south of hall, photographs also taken of monument in Straithe wood.
S. Massey (NLA), 1 May 2001.

2004.
Heritage Protection Reform pilot.
See (S8) in file.
D. Gurney (NLA), 7 July 2004.

Monument Types

  • GARDEN FEATURE (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • GARDEN WALL (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • ORNAMENTAL LAKE (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • PARK WALL (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • PLANTATION (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • LANDSCAPE PARK (Post Medieval to Modern - 1734 AD to 2050 AD)
  • POOL (Post Medieval - 1734 AD to 1803 AD)
  • FOUNTAIN (Post Medieval to Modern - 1849 AD to 2050 AD)
  • PARTERRE (Post Medieval to Modern - 1849 AD to 2050 AD)
  • AIR RAID SHELTER (World War Two - 1939 AD to 1945 AD)

Associated Finds - none

Protected Status

  • Registered Park or Garden

Sources and further reading

---Aerial Photograph: Edwards, D.A (AAF). 1977. NHER TF8442D-E (NLA 306/GKL15, GKM1) 15-APR-1977.
---Article in Serial: 1980. NIAS Journal. Vol II, no 5.
---Monograph: Williamson, T.. 1998. Archaeology of the Landscape Park: Garden Design in Norfolk, England, c. 1680-1840.. BAR (British Series). Vol 286. pp 59-72 and 100.
---Aerial Photograph: Edwards, D.A. (NLA). 1997. TF 8742ABQ - ABV.
---Monograph: Davison, A.. 1988. Six Deserted Medieval Villages in Norfolk.. East Anglian Archaeology. Vol 44 p 71ff-.
---Aerial Photograph: Edwards, D, NLA. 1986. NHER TF 8842P, AD-AE (NLA 176/DAY 1, DAY 2, DAY 3) 27 JUL 1988.
---Aerial Photograph: Edwards, D, NLA. 1988. NHER TF 8842AH-AL (NLA 208/DJJ10, DJJ11, DJJ12, DJJ13) 27- JUL-1988.
---Aerial Photograph: Edwards, D, NLA. 1992. NHER TF 8842U-AC (NLA306/GKL8-14) 29-JUN-1992.
---Aerial Photograph: Edwards, D, NLA. 1984. NHER TF 8841C (NLA143/AVA23) 4-APR-1984.
---Aerial Photograph: Edwards, D, NLA. 1984. NHER TF 8643B-C (NLA 143/AVC9-10) 4-APR-1984.
---Aerial Photograph: Edwards, D, NLA. 1984. NHER TF 8839A-C (NLA 143/ AVA5-7) 4-APR-1984.
---Aerial Photograph: Edwards, D, NLA. 1985. NHER TF 8743G,H (NLA 164/ AYX25-26) 10-JUL-1985.
---Archive: Heywood S. (HES). 1998. Norfolk County Council Site Record - Holkham park , Wall.
---Secondary File: Secondary file.
---Fiche: Exists.
<S1>Scheduling Record: English Heritage. Register of Parks and Gardens of Special Historic Interest in England..
<S2>Unpublished Document: Norfolk County Council. Inventory of Historic Parks and Gardens of Special Historic Interest in Norfolk..
<S3>Aerial Photograph: Edwards, D.A. (NLA). 1994. TF8742/ABA - ABK; TF8839/F - J.
<S4>Aerial Photograph: Edwards, D.A.. 1995. TF8842/ABB - ABL; TF8843/C,D.
<S5>Aerial Photograph: Edwards, D.A. (NLA). 1994. TF8842/ABY - ACD; TF8843/E; TF8742/ABL - ABP; TF8743/L.
<S6>Aerial Photograph: Edwards, D.A. (NLA). 1996. TF 8842ACE - ACH; TF 8843.
<S7>Aerial Photograph: Edwards, D.A. (NLA). 1996. TF8842/ABW - ABX; TF 8843/F - G.
<S8>Unpublished Document: Oldnall, L.. 2004. Heritage Protection Reform Pilot Project. The Holkham Estate, Norfolk..
<S9>Unpublished Report: Popham, J. 1994. Holkham Estate Heritage Landscape Management Plan. Volume 2. Appendices to Volume 1 (Part 1).
<S10>Unpublished Report: Popham, J. 1994. Holkham Estate Heritage Landscape Management Plan. Volume 2. Appendices to Volume 1 (Part 2).
<S11>Unpublished Report: Popham, J. 1994. Holkham Estate Heritage Landscape Management Plan. Volume 3. Landscape Restoration Proposals.
<S12>Unpublished Report: Popham, J. 1994. Holkham Estate Heritage Landscape Management Plan. Volume 4. History (Part 1) Development of the Estate.
<S13>Unpublished Report: Williamson, T. 1994. Holkham Estate Heritage Landscape Management Plan. Volume 5. History (Part 2) The Park.
<S14>Unpublished Report: Tinsley, M. and MacMullen, D. 1994. Holkham Estate Heritage Landscape Management Plan. Volume 6. Tree Survey and Compartment Notes.

Related records

39804Parent of: Almshouses Gates or North Gates (Building)
39816Parent of: Branthill Lodge (Building)
39810Parent of: Church Lodge (Building)
39800Parent of: Coke Column or Leicester Monument (Building)
27848Parent of: Cropmarks of medieval banks and post medieval enclosure (Monument)
36839Parent of: Cropmarks of medieval road and post medieval garden features (Monument)
39801Parent of: Garden temple (Building)
39814Parent of: Longlands Farm (Building)
39811Parent of: Mauseoleum, St Withburga's churchyard (Building)
27840Parent of: Medieval and post medieval earthworks (Monument)
39806Parent of: Model Farm and Model Farm Cottages (Building)
39805Parent of: Octagon Cottages (Building)
39813Parent of: Palmers Lodge or East Lodge (Building)
36032Parent of: Post medieval earthwork dam (Monument)
27846Parent of: Post medieval earthworks and cropmarks (Monument)
39815Parent of: South Gates (Building)
39809Parent of: The Great Barn (Building)
12463Parent of: The Icehouse (Building)
39802Parent of: The Obelisk (Building)
39803Parent of: The Temple (Building)
39812Parent of: The Triumphal Arch (Building)
39807Parent of: West Lodge (Building)
1801Part of: Holkham Hall (Building)

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