Record Details

NHER Number:1402
Type of record:Find Spot
Name:Prehistoric, Roman and medieval finds

Summary

A number of finds were recovered during the original excavation of this lake, including Upper Palaeolithic and Mesolithic worked flints, a Late Neolithic/Early Bronze Age barbed and tanged flint arrowhead and Roman pottery. Further Roman pottery and a number of medieval sherds were recovered a number of years later in 1923, when the lake was cleaned and expanded. These discoveries and a number of other made in the area led to the suggestion that Heacham Park was the site of some form of Roman settlement.

Images - none

Location

Grid Reference:TF 6775 3803
Map Sheet:TF63NE
Parish:HEACHAM, WEST NORFOLK, NORFOLK

Full description

February 1914. Stray Find.
Various finds recovered during excavation of ornamental lake, described in (S1). These included a number of unabraded worked flint flakes and a scraper that were recovered from a sandy layer overlying the natural gravelly sand. These flints were identified as Aurignacian (Upper Palaeolithic). Other finds included a Late Neolithic/Early Bronze Age barbed and tanged arrowhead, which was found much higher up, just below the turf. See (S1) for a photograph of this arrowhead and several of the earlier flakes. A Roman 'vase' and a red deer antler were also recovered. These finds are now held by the Norwich Castle Museum (NWHCM : 1923.148). Noted by (S2), (S3) and (S4).

The potentially early flints are mentioned in (S5), (S6) and (S7). Although the date of these finds is not entirely clear from (S1) a number of Late Upper Palaeolithic and/or Mesolithic flints have now been identified in the collection held by the NCM. R. Jacobi identified a complete Late Upper Palaeolithic flint blade and the proximal portion of another (S8). The former is also listed in (S9). This collection is also listed in listed in (S10) as including 1 Mesolithic core, 9 blades/flakes and 2 scrapers. Jacobi recorded these as finds as comprising 1 'tortoise' core, 1 scraper, 1 end scraper on blade, 4 punch blades, 3 blade fragments and 3 flakes. Jacobi's records suggest that the core and the scrapers may also be Upper Palaeolithic, rather than Mesolithic.
Amended by P. Watkins (HES), 16 December 2013.

1923. Stray Find.
Additional finds recovered during cleaning and enlargement of lake.
Second Roman pot found. This discovery was reported in (S11), which notes that the custodian of the material at the Ruskin School (presumably B. Lowerison) had accumulated a sufficient range of Roman finds from the area of the park (including pottery, burials, coins and a millstone) to make it "…probable that a Roman 'villa' or some other residence existed in the park, or near it…".

The pottery recovered during this work was also given to the NCM (NWHCM : 1923.148). See drawings (S12) and (S13). These sherds are listed in (S14) and the site is also noted in (S15).

The NCM collection also includes a number of medieval sherds. Information from (S16).
Amended by P. Watkins (HES), 16 December 2013.

Monument Types

  • FINDSPOT? (Upper Palaeolithic - 40000 BC to 10001 BC)
  • FINDSPOT? (Mesolithic - 10000 BC to 4001 BC)
  • FINDSPOT? (Late Neolithic to Early Bronze Age - 3000 BC to 1501 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Beaker - 2300 BC to 1700 BC)
  • FINDSPOT? (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • SETTLEMENT? (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FINDSPOT? (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)

Associated Finds

  • BLADE (Upper Palaeolithic - 40000 BC to 10001 BC)
  • CORE (Upper Palaeolithic to Late Mesolithic - 40000 BC to 4001 BC)
  • END SCRAPER (Upper Palaeolithic to Late Mesolithic - 40000 BC to 4001 BC)
  • SCRAPER (TOOL) (Upper Palaeolithic to Late Mesolithic - 40000 BC to 4001 BC)
  • BLADE (Mesolithic - 10000 BC? to 4001 BC)
  • FLAKE (Mesolithic - 10000 BC? to 4001 BC)
  • BARBED AND TANGED ARROWHEAD (Beaker - 2300 BC to 1700 BC)
  • POT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • POT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • POT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)

Protected Status - none

Sources and further reading

---Serial: 1915. British Academy Supplementary Papers. Vol 11. p 21.
---Record Card: Ordnance Survey Staff. 1933-1979?. Ordnance Survey Record Cards. TF 63 NE 12.
---Record Card: NAU Staff. 1974-1988. Norfolk Archaeological Index Primary Record Card.
---Secondary File: Secondary File.
<S1>Article in Serial: Lowerison, B. 1914. An Aurignacian Floor at Heacham, Norfolk. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society of East Anglia. Vol I Pt IV (for 1913-14) p 475. Pl CXXII.
<S2>Record Card: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Mesolithic.
<S3>Record Card: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Neolithic. Heacham.
<S4>Record Card: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Roman. Heacham.
<S5>Publication: Lowerison, B. 1921. Wee Guide to Heacham.
<S6>Publication: Clarke, W. G. 1922. Our Homeland Prehistoric Antiquities: and how to study them. p 55.
<S7>Publication: Moir, J. Reid. 1927. The Antiquity of Man in East Anglia. p 106.
<S8>Archive: R. Jacobi. -. Jacobi Archive. 212; 233.
<S9>Article in Serial: Robins, P. and Wymer, J. 2006. Late Upper Palaeolithic (Long Blade) Industries in Norfolk. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XLV Pt I pp 86-95. p 94.
<S10>Monograph: Wymer, J. J. and Bonsall, C. J. (eds). 1977. Gazetteer of Mesolithic Sites in England and Wales with a Gazetteer of Upper Palaeolithic Sites in England and Wales. Council for British Archaeology Research Report. No. 20. p 206.
<S11>Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 1923. Roman remains at Heacham. 26 October.
<S12>Illustration: [Unknown]. ?1923. Drawing of a Roman burnished black pottery vessel from Heacham Park. Paper. 1:1.
<S13>Illustration: [Unknown]. ?1923. Drawing of a Roman coarseware rusticated pottery vessel from Heacham Park. Paper. 1:1.
<S14>Article in Serial: Thomson, F. H. 1958. A Romano-British Pottery Kiln at North Hykeham, Lincolnshire: with an Appendix on the typology, dating and distribution of 'Rustic' Ware in Great Britain. Antiquaries Journal. Vol XXXVIII Nos 1 and 2 pp 15-51. p 51; Pl IX a.
<S15>Article in Serial: Clarke R. R. 1952. Roman Norfolk since Haverfield. A Survey of Discovery from 1901. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XXX pp 140-155. pp 150-151.
<S16>Record Card: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Medieval. Heacham.

Related records - none

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