Record Details

NHER Number:29994
Type of record:Monument
Name:Roman settlement around walled town

Summary

A fieldwalking and metal detecting survey around the walled area of Venta Icenorum Roman town (NHER 9786) found evidence for extensive Roman settlement and occupation in this area. The recovery of Iron Age artefacts from around the walls is evidence for pre Roman occupation of the site. The Roman town was originally much larger than that enclosed within the walls. Evidence from the survey suggests it may have extended to the south, north and west. To the northeast large numbers of finds support the interpretation of this as the centre of the pre walled town on a raised area in the field. Pottery concentrations can also be seen at the possible temple site (NHER 9836) to the south of the walled town and the high levels of finds from the west indicate this may have been used as a rubbish dumping area. Occupation south of the wall seems to cease after the construction of the walls. Conversely coin deposition seems to increase west of the walls at this point, perhaps related to trade along the River Tas.

Images - none

Location

Grid Reference:TG 22 03
Map Sheet:TG20SW
Parish:CAISTOR ST EDMUND, SOUTH NORFOLK, NORFOLK

Full description

Large scatter includes NHER 9793, NHER 9813, NHER 9819, NHER 9835, NHER 9836, NHER 9845, NHER 12574, NHER 12629, NHER 13222, NHER 17650, NHER 18167, NHER 20454, NHER 20455, NHER 20456, NHER 20463, NHER 20464, NHER 21436, NHER 24796 and NHER 29003.

1993. Detailed NARG fieldwalking over entire area.
First three boxes of finds wrongly marked NHER 9813 though only some of material from that site. Finds come from north and west of town but also from field to south NHER 9836. See (S1).
Roman, Iron Age (S7), Early Saxon, Middle Saxon, Late Saxon, medieval and post medieval sherds.
Roman building material including wall plaster.
Worked flints.
Slag.
See full details in file. Finds NCM 1997.72
E. Rose (NLA) 10 September 1993.

1993. Metal detecting.
Took place at the same time on the same area.
Much Roman metalwork and coins, Middle Saxon pin, Iron Age brooches, medieval and post medieval metalwork and coins.
See (S2) in file.
E. Rose (NLA), 6 January 1995.

In fact (S2) on the detecting shows that it covered a much larger area, including fields southwest of the town and south of Southgate Field.
E. Rose (NLA), 20 April 1995.

NCM 1997.752.

May 1997. Stray find whilst gardening.
Note the grid reference is to west of cottage gardens.
Roman copper alloy patera handle with groove and billet decoration. White metal coating survives inside stub of patera body. Breaks are quite fresh. 1st century AD.
See (S3) and (S4).
H. Geake (NLA), 18 September 1997.

1999. Field observation.
Found in river edge.
Retouched flake (fragment).
Distal tip of flake of grey buff flint with trace of corenion the right lateral edge. Steeply retouched on both edges to form a blunt point (retouch on dosal face only). Point is heavily worn, probably from use as a piercer/borer. Undatable Prehistoric (probably Neolithic).
Identified by P. A. Robins (NAU).
A. Rogerson (NLA), 18 February 2000.

September 2000. Metal detecting.
Medieval coin.
See list in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 14 February 2002.

Before 12 September 2001. Metal detecting.
Early Saxon square headed brooch.
Late Saxon disc brooch.
Late Saxon strap-end.
See (S5) and list in file.
S. Ashley (NLA), 9 September 2001.

2001. Geophysical Survey.
A number of electrical resistivity imaging profiles were recorded across the base of the Tas valley North-West of the Roman town to obtain information of the geometry of the sediment infill, and thus provide clues as to the possible existence of a waterway extending to the town.
See (S6).
D. Holburn (HES), 21 October 2011.

December 2001/January 2002. Metal detecting.
Roman coin.
Post medieval jetton.
See lists in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 4 February 2002.

February 2005. Metal detecting.
Two Roman greyware body sherds (weighing 6g).
See lists in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 10 May 2005.

October 2005. Interpretation of the fiedlwaklking and metal detecting survey results.
The survey found evidence for extensive Roman settlement and occupation in this area. The recovery of Iron Age artefacts from around the walls is evidence for pre Roman occupation of the site. The Roman town was originally much larger than that enclosed within the walls. Evidence from the survey suggests it may have extended to the south, north and west. To the northeast large numbers of finds support the interpretation of this as the centre of the pre walled town on a raised area in the field. Pottery concentrations can also be seen at the possible temple site (NHER 9836) to the south of the walled town and the high levels of finds from the west indicate this may have been used as a rubbish dumping area. Occupation south of the wall seems to cease after the construction of the walls. Conversely coin deposition seems to increase west of the walls at this point, perhaps related to trade along the River Tas.
M. Dennis (NLA), 25th October 2005.

A copper alloy gilt square-headed brooch found before 12 September 2001 is now known not to be from this site - see NHER 9787 for details.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 2 February 2007.

September - October 2009. Casual finds in archaeological trench backfill.
Roman pottery sherds.
See list in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 6 November 2009

Monument Types

  • FINDSPOT (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • BUILDING (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • SETTLEMENT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)

Associated Finds

  • BRIQUETAGE (Undated)
  • METAL WORKING DEBRIS (Undated)
  • UNIDENTIFIED OBJECT (Undated)
  • WEIGHT (Undated)
  • WORKED OBJECT (Undated)
  • FLAKE (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • LITHIC IMPLEMENT (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • POT BOILER (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • FLAKE (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • POT (Late Prehistoric - 4000 BC to 42 AD)
  • POT (Beaker - 2300 BC to 1700 BC)
  • BROOCH (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • POT (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • ARCHITECTURAL FRAGMENT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • ARMOUR (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BEAD (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BOX (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BRICK (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BROOCH (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • COIN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • COIN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • DISC (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FINGER RING (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FLUE TILE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FURNITURE FITTING (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • HARNESS (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • LAMP (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • MIRROR (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • NAIL (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • PIN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • POT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • QUERN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • QUERN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • ROOF TILE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • SEAL BOX (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • SPOON (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • STRAP FITTING (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • STUD (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • SURGICAL INSTRUMENT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • TESSERA (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • TILE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • TOILET ARTICLE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • VESSEL (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • VESSEL (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • VESSEL (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • WHETSTONE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • WINDOW GLASS (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • POT (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • PIN (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • POT (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • POT (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • AMPULLA (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • BUCKLE (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • DRESS COMPONENT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • HORSESHOE (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • POT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • ROOF TILE (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • STRAP FITTING (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • BUCKLE (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • COIN (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • DISC (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • JETTON (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • POT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • TOKEN (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)

Protected Status - none

Sources and further reading

---Article in serial: Gurney, D. (ed.). 1994. Excavations and Surveys in Norfolk 1993. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XLII Pt I pp 115-123. p 117.
---Photograph: 2001. KSZ 20, Middle Saxon strap end..
---Photograph: 2001. KSZ 21, Early Saxon foot of a brooch..
---Photograph: 2001. KSZ 22, Middle Saxon brooch..
---Secondary File: Secondary file.
<S1>Illustration: Unknown. Sketch plan of finds site.. Film.
<S2>Unpublished document: Percival, S. (NAU). 1994. NAU Report No. 116. A Metal Detector Survey at Caistor St Edmund Roman Town, 1993.. August.
<S3>Photograph: I&RS. Finds Polaroid. Polaroid.
<S4>Illustration: Holness, A.. 1997. Drawing of a Roman copper alloy patera handle.. Paper. 1:1.
<S5>Photograph: NLA. 2001. Finds Photograph. Polaroid.
<S6>Article in serial: Gurney, D. and Penn, K. (eds). 2002. Excavations and Surveys in Norfolk, 2001. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XLIV Pt I pp 162-177. p 165.
<S7>Illustration: White, S.. 1995. Drawing of an Iron Age terret ring.. Film. 2:1.

Related records

12574Parent of: Early Saxon spearhead (Find Spot)
20456Parent of: Iron Age coin (Find Spot)
9793Parent of: Iron Age coin (Find Spot)
29003Parent of: Multi-period finds (Find Spot)
9819Parent of: Multi-period finds (Monument)
13222Parent of: Multi-period finds scatter (Find Spot)
9836Parent of: Multi-period finds to the south of Venta Icenorum (Monument)
24796Parent of: Neolithic axehead (Find Spot)
9813Parent of: Part of Roman settlement at Venta Icenorum (Monument)
21436Parent of: Possible Roman building (Monument)
9845Parent of: Possible Roman building (Monument)
17650Parent of: Possible Roman settlement (Monument)
12629Parent of: Prehistoric worked flint flakes (Find Spot)
20454Parent of: Roman brooch (Find Spot)
20463Parent of: Roman disc brooch (Find Spot)
20464Parent of: Roman disc brooch (Find Spot)
9835Parent of: Roman finds (Find Spot)
20455Parent of: Roman latch lifter (Find Spot)
18167Parent of: Roman pottery (Find Spot)

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