Record Details

NHER Number:7206
Type of record:Monument
Name:Site of Roman settlement and cemetery, Early Saxon buildings and Middle Saxon metalworking

Summary

This is the site of an extensive Roman settlement spanning either side of the Fen Causeway (NHER 2796), close to a fording point on the River Wensum. Initially identified as cropmarks in aerial photographs, extensive fieldwalking and metal detecting between 1950 and 2006 has yielded over 1000 Roman coins as well as a wide variety of other finds dating from the prehistoric to the post medieval period. Excavation of the southernmost portion of the site by the Norfolk Archaeological Unit in 1991-1992 and 1997 in advance of gravel extraction recorded the remains of Roman buildings, trackways, enclosures and a large inhumation cemetery as well as Early Saxon buildings and a Middle Saxon iron working site.
Although the bulk of the artefactual material recovered from this site relates to the Roman settlement, evidence has also been recovered for limited activity in earlier periods. These finds include a small number of Mesolithic worked flints, around 200 later prehistoric flints and Iron Age coins. Several Iron Age pits were also identified during the main excavations.

Images - none

Location

Grid Reference:Not displayed
Map Sheet:TG02SW
Parish:BILLINGFORD, BRECKLAND, NORFOLK

Full description

A Roman settlement spanning either side of the road [NHER 2796], close to a fording point on the River Wensum.

1934. Casual Find.
Roman coins were found at the west end of the village, north of the modern road.
Information from file, R.R. Clarke.
H. Hamilton (NLA), 28 January 2008.

1935. Casual Find.
A bronze coin of Faustina was found.
Information from (S8).
H. Hamilton (NLA), 28 January 2008.

1939 to 1945. Casual Find.
A quarry worker remembers finding large quantities of pottery when gravel was dug for the airfield.
Information from file, sheet 1.
H. Hamilton (NLA), 28 January 2008.

1939 to 1945. Casual Find.
A bronze or gold torc, made of twisted wire with looped terminals, was found by workmen during quarrying in wartime. The present location of this find is unknown.
T. Gregory (NAU), 17 May 1985.

1948. Casual find.
A sherd of Samian ware was found (formerly recorded under NHER 2987).
See (S9) and description in file (sheet 21).
E. Rose, 9 May 1989.

1951. Casual Find.
Pottery and iron slag were found on the north side of the Wensum, close to the site of the bridge.
Information from file.
H. Hamilton (NLA), 28 January 2008.

1968 to 1969. Casual Find.
Roman, medieval and post medieval pottery sherds were found.
See list in file (sheet 21).
E. Rose, 9 May 1989.

Pre 1970?. Casual Find.
A scatter of Romano-British pottery and some slag were found on the north side of the field, beside the B1145 road. A bank, possibly the line of the Roman road, was observed running west southwest through the pottery scatter. No debris from substantial buildings was noted. Enclosures observed on aerial photographs extend into the area immediately south of these finds.
Information from file, undated card from C.J.S. Green.
H. Hamilton (NLA), 28 January 2008.

1969 to 1970. Fieldwalking.
Roman sherds were recovered from either side of the Roman road during fieldwalking along with a brooch and a fragment of sheet bronze.
Information from file, location marked on NCM map.
H. Hamilton (NLA), 28 January 2008.

1970. Casual Find.
A sherd from a shallow bowl was found at the side of a pond. It has been identified as a sherd of smooth grey ware decorated with criss-cross lines, probably burnished.
See sketch in file.
H. Hamilton (NLA), 28 January 2008.

Pre 1978. Fieldwalking.
One tile fragment and 31 Roman pottery sherds, including Samian, colourcoated and amphora, were found fieldwalking sometime before 1978.
Information from file.
H. Hamilton (NLA), 28 January 2008.

1980. Aerial Photography.
Aerial photography recorded cropmarks of a ring ditch, several enclosures, and a trackway. The trackway runs northwest from the farm buildings and may be a relatively recent track.
S.L. Norton and E. Rose (NAU), 20 July 1982.

August 1984. Metal detecting and fieldwalking [6].
A concentration of over 100 Romano-British pottery sherds were recovered from context 3, including two sherds of Central Gaulish f33 Samian and one East Anglian mortarium sherd. Finds from other contexts within the field include further concentrations of Romano-british pottery and roof tiles, approximately 46 Roman coins (c. 5-32), a Roman or Iron Age harness slide, the foot of a 1st Century AD bow brooch, a 16th-17th Century French jetton, and a conical lead weight or spindle whorl. The finds were plotted on a 1:1000 map.
T. Gregory, 8 October 1984.

January and February 1985. Metal detecting [6].
Sherds of a 1st century AD jar were found along with a variety of metal items including 117 Roman coins (c. 52-168), a fragment of a Colchester derivative brooch, a possible fragment of a statue, a fragment of a metal bowl, and a late medieval or early post medieval gilded harness stud.
See (S14)
T. Gregory, 26 March 1985.

January-March 1985. Metal detecting.
Five additional Roman coins (c. 169-70) were recovered.
T. Gregory, 26 March 1985.

March 1985. Metal detecting [7].
Approximately 64 additional Roman coins (c. 171, 173, 178-96) were found, along with a foot of a Langton Down brooch, a bronze handle in the form of an extended horse's head and neck, a fragment of a possible nail cleaner, and a Henry III Long Cross penny.
T. Gregory, 18 April 1985.

March 1985. Metal detecting [6].
Also in March, in 'Area B', 18 Roman coins (c. 191-208) were recovered along with Roman pottery sherds, a prehistoric flint flake, and a variety of metal objects including a brooch, a lead steelyard weight and a lead pot-mend with a Roman sherd in situ.
Metal detecting in 'Area D' recovered 16 Roman coins (c. 218-237), a Roman stud, an undated baluster stud, and an Iron Age terret fragment.
'Area E' finds included 17 Roman coins (c. 238-54), Roman pottery, a foot of a Colchester derivative brooch, and a dumbell-shaped toggle which is also likely Roman (S15).
'Area's F and G' yielded approximately 40 Roman coins (c. 258-98), Roman pottery, fragments of a Colchester derivative brooch, and 2 flint blades.
T. Gregory, 29 April 1985.

April 1985. Metal-detecting.
Detecting by [7]. Additional Roman coins (c. 178 and 190) were found along with Roman pottery, a fragment of a bronze statue, a fragment of a Roman tinned bowl, a Roman brooch and terret, a medieval ring brooch, and waste bronze.
T. Gregory, 18 April 1985.

April 1985. Metal-detecting.
Several areas examined by [6]. All finds copper alloy unless otherwise specificied. Finds from finder's Area I comprised:
5 Roman coins (c. 303-307).
1 ?Roman rod-rivet (c. 308).
Finds from finder's Area H comprised:
2 ?Mesolithic flint blades.
4 Neolithic flints, including 1 plunging flake, 1 retouched flake and 2 unmodified flakes.
26 Roman coins (c. 309-334).
Scatter of Roman pottery including samian (burnt), Oxfordshire and greyware (including mortarium and one waster/second (c 335).
2 undated metal objects, including riveted sheet (?cauldron repair) and iron stud.
Finds from finder's Areas J and K comprised:
1 ?Mesolithic flint blade.
5 Neolithic worked flints including four flakes and a crested flake retouched as boring tool.
43 Roman coins (c. 336-348).
1 ?Roman spoon bowl (c. 349).
3 Roman pottery sherds, all mortarium (Colchester, East Anglian and Oxfordshire). General finds from Area J (c. 350).
Finds from finder's Area L. All general finds from c. 393 (same as c. 257) unless specified:
3 prehistoric worked flints, including 1 scraper and 2 flakes.
7 Mesolithic micro blades.
22 Roman coins (c. 394-420)
1 Roman lead biconical steelyard weight (c. 396).
9 metal objects of unspecified date, including 1 iron nail, 1 melted fragment, 2 rolled sheet fragments, 1 cauldron repair, 1 odd lead object shaped like brooch foot (c. 400), 1 pin (c. 412), 1 pierced lead disc (c. 413) and 1 riveted patch from ?cauldron (c. 417).
Finds from finder's Area M. From general collection area between old southern field boundary and edge of backfill/pit (c. 418), unless otherwise specified:
8 Roman coins (c. 420-427)
3 Roman pottery sherds, all coarse wares.
1 Roman tegula fragment.
1 medieval buckle plate
Also finds from other parts of field:
23 Roman coins from small area adjacent to modern road (c. 376). Also 3 Roman silver denarii from small area (c. 373-376) - at least the two earliest coins may represent a hoard (AD 54-68 and AD 69-79).
3 Roman metal objects (c. 351-353), including 1 key handle, 1 hinged dolphin brooch (late 1st century) and 1 circular plate brooch (S17).
2 medieval coins.
See lists in file.
T. Gregory, 30 April 1985. Amended by P. Watkins (HES), 14 August 2013.

May 1985. Metal-detecting.
Detecting by [7].
18 Roman coins (c. 377 and 380-92), a Roman buckle, a small disc brooch, and a Medieval coin were recovered.
T. Gregory, 17 May 1985.

May 1985. Metal-detecting.
Further detecting by [6]. Finds from finder's Area N comprised:
9 Roman coins (c. 429-437)
Concentration of Roman pottery sherds, including 2 Central Gaulish samian sherds and coarse wares (2nd-4th century) (c. 428). East Anglian mortarium found elsewhere (c. 438).
2 Middle Saxon Ipswich ware pottery sherds, both gritty (c. 428).
Finds from finder's Area O. All except for coins from general area (c. 439):
2 ?Mesolithic flints flakes
2 prehistoric worked flints, including 1 burnt scraper and 1 retouched flake.
14 Roman coins (c. 440-453).
Roman pottery sherds, including samian, Colchester mortarium and greyware (1st to 4th century).
4 Middle Saxon Ipswich ware pottery sherds, including 1 sandy rim, 2 bases and 1 hand made jar rim.
1 Middle Saxon/early medieval pottery sherd
Lots of lead fragments.
See list in file.
T. Gregory, 1 August 1985. Amended by P. Watkins (HES), 14 August 2013.

Early 1985. Metal Detecting [9].
Approximately 56 Roman coins (c. 454-62, 467-73 and 486-506) were recovered along with a variety of other metal items including several Roman brooches, an undated copper alloy key ring, a fragment of an Iron Age beaked terret, a finger ring made from a copper alloy snake bracelet, and a silver finger ring with a bezel (S3).
See list in file.
T. Gregory, 18 September 1985.

August 1985. Metal detecting [6].
11 Roman coins (c. 513-23), bronze casting waste, an undated brooch, and a half groat of Henry VII were found in the field north of the modern road.
See list in file.
T. Gregory, 19 September 1985

September 1985. Metal detecting [7].
17 Roman coins (c. 526), an Iron Age copper alloy tankard handle (S17), bronze casting waste, a Roman lead steelyard weight, and a late medieval strap end were found immediately east of a small pit in the northwest corner of the field.
31 Roman coins (c. 529) and Roman brooches were found south of the pit.
16 Roman coins (c. 530), brooches, a late medieval belt hook, and an undated bronze item were recovered from the southwest corner of the field.
See list in file.
T. Gregory, 30 September 1985.

September 1985. Metal-detecting.
Further detecting by [6]. From area immediately to south of pit in south field:
5 Roman coins (c. 531-535).
Finds from southern part of main field comprised:
1 Mesolithic flint blade.
1 ?Neolithic retouched flint flake.
59 Roman coins (c. 538, c. 540, c. 545, c. 552-555) and 1 Roman lozenge plate brooch (c. 536 2nd century).
1 ?Modern thick ring (c. 537)
3 undated metal objects, including 1 sheet fragment (c. 539), 1 knob on iron shank (c. 544) and 1 curved, partially melted object (c. 551).
Finds found scattered over main field comprised:
23 Roman coins (c. 556-560, c. 562-567, c. 569-575, c. 577-581).
3 undated metal objects, including 1 ?triangular perforated plate (c. 561), 1 rolled sheet lead (c. 568) and 1 tack head (c. 576).
Finds scattered over northern and central part of main field comprised:
2 Mesolithic or Neolithic worked flints; a flake and a retouched cortical blade.
1 Iron Age coin, Iceni, Anted (c. 615).
15 Roman coins (c. 583-584, c. 587-589, c. 591-592, c. 595-600, c. 603, c. 605)
1 Roman rosette-style brooch (c. 606) and 1 ?Roman buckle plate (c. 601).
1 medieval buckle plate with incised decoration (c. 586).
5 undated metal objects, including 1 lead pot mend (c. 582), 1 scratched disc (c. 585, coin hammered flat?), 1 unidentified object (c. 590), 1 rod (c. 593), 1 lead disc fragment (c. 594)
Finds scattered over middle and north of main field comprised:
11 Roman coins (c. 617-620, c. 622-627).
2 undated lead objects, including 1 thick strip (c. 616) and 1 weight (c. 621).
Finds from eastern end of main field comprised:
1 Roman coin (c. 630).
3 Roman metal objects including 1 trumpet brooch (c. 628), 1 casting fragment, possibly a steelyard (c. 632) and 1 openwork buckle (c. 632).
1 ?medieval gilt flattened head, probably from figure from cross (c. 631).
1 undated silvered bronze stud (c. 629).
Finds from northern part of main field comprised:
1 Neolithic or later flint end scraper.
29 Roman coins (c. 633-638, c. 640-643, c. 646-662).
1 ?Roman stud with ?enamel boss on head (c. 638).
2 medieval coins (c. 644-645).
See lists in file.
T. Gregory, 2 December 1985. Amended by P. Watkins (HES), 14 August 2013.

October-November 1985. Metal detecting [8].
53 Roman coins (c. 664-716), an Iron Age coin, and other Roman and medieval metal items including fragments of a Roman bronze bowl, a 3rd century Roman finger ring, and a medieval harness pendant were found in the northern and central part of the main field.
T. Gregory, 27 December 1985.

November 1985. Metal detecting [21].
25 Roman coins (c. 727-49), a 3rd century finger ring, two Roman brooches, and an Edward III half penny were recovered from the main field and the field south of the pit.
28 Roman coins (c. 750) were found in the central part of the field.
T. Gregory, 27 December 1985.

December 1985. Metal detecting [7].
22 Roman coins, and Roman brooches were recovered from the main field.
T. Gregory, 25 December 1985.

Winter 1985-6. Metal detecting [22].
19 Roman coins, a hinged Colchester derivative brooch, and the upper part of a medieval gilt-bronze figurine were found in the main field.
T. Gregory, 14 April 1987.

March 1986. Metal detecting.
An Iron Age coin was recovered.
H. Hamilton (NLA), 29 January 2008.

Spring 1986. Metal detecting [8].
68 Roman coins (c. 753-823), a silver relief gem from a Roman ring, the bowl of a Roman spoon, Roman brooches, a fragment of an Early Saxon brooch, a medieval penny, and a medieval brass coin weight were recovered along with other Roman, medieval and post medieval items.
T. Gregory, 8 September 1986.

August 1986. Metal detecting [6].
A Middle Saxon pendant (S18) was recovered from the southeast corner of the main field.
H. Hamilton (NLA), 29 January 2008.

September-October 1986. Metal detecting.
Illicit, night-time metal detecting was carried out at this site.
T. Gregory, 13 October 1986.

September-October 1986. Metal detecting [6].
11 Roman coins (c. 938-48), Roman pottery, a Roman brooch, half of a Roman ring with a dark blue glass setting, and a post medieval pewter spoon bowl were found along with an undated sandstone hone and other undated metal items.
See list in file.
H. Hamilton (NLA), 29 January 2008.

September-November 1986. Metal detecting [8].
74 Roman coins, 6 medieval coins and other metal items including Roman brooches, half of a copper alloy cosmetic palette, and a medieval gilt finger ring were recovered.
See list in file.
H. Hamilton (NLA), 29 January 2008.

October 1986. Metal detecting [6].
Finds include approximately 78 Roman coins (c. 959-1066), Roman pottery and buckle plate, a Prehistoric burnt flint thumb scraper, a retouched flint flake, and the proximal end of a small stone-struck blade. Post medieval finds include pottery, a copper alloy ring, buckles, pan tile, 2 possible tarpaulin rings, a washer, a clock hand, and an unidentified iron object with a copper alloy ferrule. The assemblage also included undated items such as a washer, casting jet, a buckle plate, copper alloy fragments (boss, rivet, knob, strip, waste), a brooch, a button, 4 lead weights (one possibly a plumb bob, one acorn shaped), a pierced lead disc, a lead pot mend, and a lead bar.
See list in file.
T. Gregory, 10 August 1988.

October-November 1986 [6].
A flint micro blade, 4 Roman coins (c. 1068-1072), 9 spherical lead weights, 2 cylindrical weights (possibly post medieval fishing weights), and unidentified lead scraps and copper alloy items were recovered.
See list in file.
T. Gregory, 10 August 1988.

November 1986. Metal detecting [6].
12 Roman coins (c. 1082-1093), Roman pottery, tegula fragments, Middle Saxon pottery, a fossil sponge, a post medieval spoon fragment, an undated lead weight, a lava quern fragment and other unidentified lead and copper alloy items were recovered from the area immediately south of the pit.
See list in file.
T. Gregory, 15 August 1988.

August 1987. Metal detecting[6].
One sherd of Saxon pottery, 23 Roman coins (1-23), and Roman pottery were recovered from material dredged from the river, immediately south of the 'bridge abutment'.
A flint flake, 4 Roman coins (c. 1099-1102), Roman pottery, a post medieval pan tile fragment, and a copper alloy plated iron bar were found in the field immediately south of the road.
See list in file.
T. Gregory, 15 August 1988.

December 1987. Metal detecting [6].
Roman pottery, a post medieval copper alloy knob, and a half groat of Henry IV were recovered from the southwest part of the field, south of the pit.
13 Roman coins (c. 1111-23), Roman pottery, one sherd of Saxon pottery, a Late Saxon belt hook with silver wire inlay, a post medieval lead weight, lead pot mends, and unidentified lead scraps were recovered from the area immediately south of the pit.
See list in file.
T. Gregory, 15 August 1988.

Winter 1987-88. Metal detecting [6].
17 Roman coins (c. 1135-51), Roman pottery, a possible Roman iron and copper alloy furniture mount, post medieval items including a Jew's harp, pan tiles, copper alloy fragments possibly from a bell, and a copper alloy buckle, and unidentified lead scraps were recovered from the southeast corner of the field north of the road.
See list in file.
T. Gregory, 15 August 1988.

Mid-Late 1980's. Metal detecting [8].
Two Roman coins, a Roman brooch, the base of a Roman seal box, a medieval barrel padlock, a post medieval token and a post medieval thimble were recovered.
See list in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 29 January 2007.

Late 1980s. Metal detecting on NAU excavated site [10].
3 Late Prehistoric flint flakes.
1 Late Neolithic/Early Bronze Age fabricator.
1 Iron Age coin,
13 Roman coins, 3 pottery sherds (2 Samian-1 with makers mark, 1 mortarium with makers mark), 1 flue tile,
lithic objects identified by P. Robinson (NLA), Ceramic Objects Identified by A. Rogerson (NLA), Objects Identified by S. Ashley (NLA), Coins identified by A. Marsden (NLA), finds description.
A. Rogerson (NLA), June 2007.
Updated by J. Page (HES), 20 February 2014.

March 1988. Metal detecting [6].
Roman pottery, 30 Roman coins (c. 1214-1243), one post medieval pottery sherd, a post medieval spoon handle, undated items including an enamelled stud, a brooch and a fragment from the rim of a copper alloy vessel, and unidentified iron, lead, copper alloy, and slag fragments were recovered.
See list in file.
D. Gurney, 9 September 1988.

March - April 1988. Metal detecting [6].
15 Roman coins (c. 1170-84), Roman pottery, a post medieval finger ring with a shallow oval bezel, 2 post medieval tokens, undated items including a copper alloy brooch, a finger ring, and an armlet, and other unidentified lead and copper alloy items were recovered.
On a second occasion 9 Roman coins (c. 1190-98), post medieval items including a short cross penny, a copper alloy ring and a lead boss, an undated lead weight, and undated lead scrap were found.
See list in file.
D. Gurney, 9 September 1988.

September 1988. Metal detecting [6].
Finds included 18 Roman coins (c. 1282-99), Roman pottery, a Roman bronze ring, a possible Roman mirror fragment, a Roman sheath, a 6th century brooch (S19), two medieval pottery sherds, and other lead scraps, slag, and folded sheet (primarily Roman).
See list in file.
D. Gurney, 16 January 1989.

Before November 1988. Metal detecting [8].
A gilded Roman finger ring with an oval bezel, a handle from a Roman knife or razor, Roman brooches, 12 Roman coins (c. 1254-62, 1264-66), and an Iron Age coin (c. 1263) were recovered.
See list in file.
D. Gurney, 1 November 1988.

1989. NAU Aerial Photography.
Linear features are visible in the field north of the modern road.
See note in file (sheet 23).

September 1989. Metal detecting [6].
Two Iron Age coins, 8 Roman coins (c. 1305-1312), a Roman brooch, a medieval jetton, and two unidentified lead objects were recovered from the field north of the road.
3 flint flakes, 25 Roman coins (c. 1325), Roman pottery, a possible Roman patera handle, medieval pottery, a post medieval rowel spur fragment, an undated bronze key handle, 2 lead pot mends and a possible cloth seal, 49 lead fragments and 4 bronze scraps, and an unidentified silver object were found within the general collection area.
See list in file.
D. Gurney, 6 November 1989.

September 1989. Metal detecting [8].
2 Iron Age coins, 109 Roman coins, Roman brooches, a Roman bronze boss/stud, four medieval silver coins, a medieval jetton, a medieval buckle plate, a post medieval silver shilling, a post medieval bronze end cap from a knife handle (in the form of a horse's hoof), and a post medieval bronze coin weight were found.
See list in file.
D. Gurney, 14 August 1990.

August 1990. Metal detecting [12].
13 Roman coins and a Roman brooch were recovered from the northwest corner of the field.
D. Gurney, 10 September 1990.

September 1990. Metal detecting [12].
Detecting in the field south of the road yielded 19 Roman coins, two dolphin brooches, a medieval bronze thimble, and two unidentified bronze fragments.
An additional 57 Roman coins were recovered from the northwest corner of this field.
D. Gurney, 20 September 1990.

November 1990. Metal detecting and fieldwalking.
Fieldwalking and detecting by pupils of Sprowston First School near the pit in the northwest corner of the field south of the modern road yielded four quernstone fragments, a Roman coin, four fragments of Roman roof tile, Roman pottery, and one sherd of medieval unglazed pottery.
D. Gurney, 11 December 1990.

October 1991. Metal detecting [12].
25 Roman coins were recovered.
D. Gurney, 25 November 1991.

1991 - 1992. Excavation.
Work undertaken by NAU in advance of gravel extraction. Contexts 1317-
Metal detecting of the topsoil during its removal resulted in the recovery of 500 metal objects, of which 350 are coins ranging date from the 1st century BC to the medieval period. 300 of those coins are Roman, primarily 2nd to 4th century AD.

Excavation revealed three Romano-British post-built structures, rubbish pits, post holes, and a series of linear features defining enclosure boundaries and access routes as well as a small graveyard. Three features clustered in the extreme north of the site contained ash and iron slag, indicating smithing activity. An oven was located to the northeast of the main enclosure, gravel extraction pits were identified near the east side of the road, and a plank-lined pit was located in the southwest corner of the main square enclosure. Twenty-one graves were recorded in the northeast of the site, but only three of these were excavated. However, these were excavated in 1997 due to expansion of the quarrying area (see discussion below). Two late 2nd to late 3rd century cremations, both contained within pottery vessels, were recorded in the marshy area in the northwest of the site.

Pre-Roman finds include a small assemblage of 178 prehistoric worked flints. Recognisable tools were limited to 1 Mesolithic tranchet axe and 1 microlith and 2 Neolithic axes (one polished) and 1 polished knife. The bulk of the assemblage was not closely datable, the majority of the pieces being undiagnostic waste flakes (the notable exceptions being several cores and a 10 scrapers). A small quantity of Beaker pottery and two Iron Age coins were also recovered from unstratified contexts. Pre-Roman features were restricted to a small number of dispersed Iron Age pits containing small amounts of Iron Age pottery.

Later features include an Early Saxon sunken-featured building and three other Early Saxon post hole buildings, an area of Middle Saxon ironworking, and late medieval field boundaries.
See (S1), (S4), (S5), (S6), (S7), (S10), (S12) and (S13) for further information.
The finds from this excavation were donated to the Norwich Castle Museum (NWHCM : 1996.179).
H. Hamilton (NLA), 28 January 2008.

October 1992. Metal detecting [6].
Metal detecting in the southern edge of Lodge field (north of the road) yielded 12 Roman coins.
J. Davies, 29 November 1993.

November 1992. Metal detecting [11].
Six Roman coins and two Roman brooches were recovered.
D. Gurney, 30 November 1992.

24 July 1992. NLA air photography.
A partial cropmark of a ring ditch is visible.
A series of rectilinear enclosures is also present. These are likely to be fields associated with the Roman settlement.
S. Massey (NLA), 22 February 2001.

September 1993. Metal detecting [11].
14 Roman coins and an early 17th century sword-belt mount were recovered.
D. Gurney, 23 September 1993.

December 1993. Metal detecting [11] and [13].
Four Roman coins, a medieval coin, a medieval casket mount fragment, and a post medieval token were found by [11].
Ten additional Roman coins were found by [13].
D. Gurney, 22 December 1993.

1993. Metal detecting [10].
23 Roman coins and a variety of other Roman material including two brooches, a mirror fragment and a ceramic bead were found in Lodge Field (north of the road) along with medieval belt mounts and post medieval metal items.
W. Milligan, 16 November 1993.

1993 - 1994. Metal detecting. In area of pit formerly excavated by NAU.
Much Roman pottery seen but not retained for identification.
8 Roman coins.
2 post medieval coins.
See lists in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 2 September 2001.

Early 1994. Metal detecting [10].
24 Roman coins and a post medieval coin were recovered.
H. Hamilton (NLA), 28 January 2008.

1994. Metal detecting [10].
A variety of Roman material, including two brooches, a mirror fragment, a ceramic bead, lead waste, and pottery, were recovered along with three sherds of post medieval pottery.
W. Milligan, 23 June 1995.

December 1994. Metal detecting [12].
16 Roman coins, a Roman brooch, a fragment of a Roman bronze vessel, a medieval star from a casket or harness were found.
D. Gurney, 23 December 1994.

Around 1994. Metal-detecting [10].
3 Roman pottery sherds (1 Mortaria flange with stamp, 2 Samian; 1 with moulded decoration, a stamped) (S20), 1 brooch (umbonate, 2nd century AD).
See list in file and rubbings of pottery stamps (mortaria and samian), (S21, S22 and S23).
S. Ashley (NLA), 13 September 2001.

1995-2002. Watching Brief by NAU.
Features encountered during a watching brief east of the area excavated in 1991-92 consisted of 47 linear features, 15 pits, and 16 post holes. The majority of these were located within the areas monitored in 1995 and 1996, located immediately adjacent to the 1991-92 excavations. Features and finds spanned the Prehistoric to the post medieval period. These include 2 Neolithic pits, a ditch containing 38 sherds of transitional Iron Age/Romano-British pottery, a Roman votive pit, a dispersed Roman coin hoard, three Early and Middle Saxon finds, and post medieval ditches (one containing a group of 9 buckles). One undated inhumation was also recorded in 1996. See individual discussion of finds from 1995, 1996, and 2000 below.
Information from (S1).
H. Hamilton (NLA), 29 January 2008.

June 1995. Watching Brief by NAU.
A circular pit was uncovered during monitoring of groundworks prior to gravel extraction. This feature was excavated and contained glass beads, a copper alloy key, a complete stone ring, a copper alloy torque, a copper alloy finger ring, and a smaller copper alloy ring. It has been interpreted as a votive deposit, possibly related to the god Mercury or to Jupiter (S2).
This votive pit was located immediately adjacent to the course of a small tributary to the River Wensum. A scatter of potboilers was also identified to the north of the votive pit, adjacent to the river channel (S1).
Information from (S1) and (S2), in file.
H. Hamilton (NLA), 28 January 2008.

1995. Field Observation.
A clay cap inset with stones, 60cm x 55cm, was found approximately 43cm below the soil, in area of mineral working.
The stone was surrounded by sand and was 'all burnt'.
Sketch plan and section in file.
K. Hinds (NLA), 2 May 2001.

Before 1996. Metal detecting.
A bridle cheekpiece, apparently submitted for identification some years ago and described as post medieval,
was re-submitted in April 1996. It now been identified as a very well preserved Late Saxon bridle cheek-piece.
See description in file.
H. Geake (A&E) 7 November 1996.

Before 9 January 1996. Metal detecting [10].
30 Roman coins and a post medieval farthing token were recovered from the field south of the main road.
See lists in file.
K. Hinds (NLA), 30 April 2001.

1996. Watching Brief by NAU.
The river channel identified in 1995 was found to extend northwards across the area monitored in 1996. This channel may have existed in Roman times and possibly marked the eastern limit of Roman occupation as no datable Romano-British features were identified to the east of its bank. Other discoveries included two further prehistoric pits that contained pot boilers, a dispersed Roman coin hoard, and an undated crouched inhumation. The positioning of the burial suggests a prehistoric or Saxon date, most likely the latter. The coin hoard consisted of 46 heavily oxidised silver alloy coins, struck over a period of 70 years.
Information from (S1).
H. Hamilton (NLA), 29 January 2008.

1997. Excavation by NAU.
The area of inhumations identified in 1991-92 was re-machined and extended due to plans to expand quarrying. 65 additional graves were identified, bringing the total to 86. Three of these had been excavated in 1991-2, and an additional 68 were excavated in 1997, although ten of the graves identified in 1991-2 had not survived to 1997. The cemetery extends to the north and east, beyond the area of excavation, but was previously truncated to the north and west by a gravel pit dug in the late 1940s. This represents the largest known Roman cemetery in Norfolk.
Information from (S1).
H. Hamilton (NLA), 29 January 2008.

1997. Metal detecting [14].
4 Roman coins were recovered.
See list in file.
K. Sussams (NLA) 30 December 1997.

January - February 1998. Metal detecting [15].
137 Roman coins, one post medieval coin and a post medieval jetton were found.
Precise area(s) not noted.
See descriptions in file.
H. Hamilton (NLA), 28 January 2008.

Roman stud with round knob like head, slightly flattened on the underside and short, short shaft tapering from a round section top to a flattened point.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 16 July 1999.

2000. Watching Brief by NAU.
Two Neolithic pits were identified, one containing five sherds of Neolithic pottery and the other containing 7 pieces of struck flint.
Information from (S1).
See also (S11).
H. Hamilton (NLA), 29 January 2008.

Before February 2001. Metal detecting [10].
5 Roman coins were found.
No further details or location of findspots.
See list in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 19 March 2001.

Around August 2001. Metal detecting [10].
8 Roman coins, a post medieval coin and a post medieval token were recovered.
H. Hamilton (NLA), 28 January 2008.

Before September 2001. Metal detecting [10].
3 Roman coins and one medieval coin were found.
Lists in file.
S. Ashley (NLA), 30 October 2001.

February - March 2002. Metal detecting [10].
1 Roman coin.
1 Late Saxon strap-end.
Coin identified by A. Popescu (NLA), Object Identified by S. Ashley (NLA), See lists in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 15 April 2002.
Updated by J. Page (HES), 20 February 2014.

April - May 2003. Metal detecting [10] [16].
33 Roman coins, 1 nail cleaner.
1 post-medieval token were found.
Objects Identified by S. Ashley (NLA), Coins identified by A. Marsden (NLA), See lists in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 13 June 2003.
Updated by J. Page (HES), 3 March 2014.

August - September 2003. Metal detecting [10].
15 Roman coins were found.
See list in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 21 October 2003.

September - October 2003. Metal detecting [2], [16].
1 Iron Age and 15 Roman coins were recovered.
See lists in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 20 November 2003.

October - November 2003. Metal detecting [17].
8 Roman coins and a post medieval jetton were found.
See lists in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 15 December 2003.

November - December 2003. Metal detecting [10].
6 Roman coins.
See list in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 21 January 2004.

April - May 2004. Metal detecting [10].
A Roman iron cleaver was recovered.
See description in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 21 June 2004.

July - August 2004. Metal detecting [3], [16].
26 Roman coins, 2 finger rings (incomplete, 1 with Intaglio [10]), 1 harness mount, 1 nail, 1 stud, 2 brooches (dolphin), 1 ring.
2 medieval coins, 1 jetton .
Objects Identified by S. Ashley (NLA), Coins identified by A. Marsden (NLA), See lists in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 20 September 2004.

August 2004. Metal detecting [4], [18].
4 Roman and 2 medieval coins, a medieval and a post medieval jetton, and a Roman finger ring were found.
See lists and map in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 1 October 2004.

August - September 2004. Metal detecting rally [19].
A Roman brooch [5] was recovered.
The finder also reported approximately 19 Roman coins were also found, but these were not seen.
See list in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 7 October 2004.

April - May 2005. Metal-detecting [16].
25 Roman coins, 2 pottery sherds (Samian), 1 brooch (rosette) and 1 finger ring.
1 Middle Saxon coin (Beonna) and 2 pins (S24).
1 medieval Buckle (gilt).
1 ?medieval buckle pin.
3 post-medieval coins, 3 tokens, 2 jettons, 2 unidentifed objects.
1 undated incomplete casting jet.
Objects identified by A. Rogerson (NLA), Coins by A. Marsden (NLA). See lists in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 17 June 2005.
Updated by J. Page (HES), 3 March 2014.

July - August 2005. Metal-detecting [10].
2 Roman coins and 1 furniture fitting.
Objects identified by S. Ashley (NLA), coins by A. Marsden (NLA). See lists in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 18 September 2005.
Updated by J. Page (HES), 20 February 2014.

September - October 2005. Metal-detecting [10].
13 Roman coins, 2 hair pins and 1 furniture mount,
2 undated lead weights.
Objects Identified by S. Ashley (NLA), coins by A. Marsden (NLA). See lists in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 14 November 2005.
Updated by J. Page (HES), 10 March 2014.

Before 2 November 2006. Metal detecting.
Roman, Middle Saxon and medieval pottery and two pieces of clinker were found in scrapings from a rabbit burrow.
See description in file.
E. Darch (NLA), 23 April 2007.

See full lists of finds and coins, site plans, metal analysis of statue, and press cuttings in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 26 May 1999.

Metal detecting, 11 May 1998.
3 Roman coins.
See lists in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 1 October 2008.

May- June 2009. Metal detecting
2 Roman coins,
see list in file
A. Rogerson, (NLA), 17 July 2009.

December 2009 to April 2010.
New entrance formed at the junction of the farm track to the east with the B1145, and the north-south track itself widened and surfaced. The area of the former buildings beside (west of) the track stripped and surfaced. A new surfaced track built east-west across the middle of the field to the south of the B1145.
D. Gurney (NLA), 28 April 2010.

8 July 2010. Site scheduled.
The southernmost part of the settlement has been scheduled.
A. Cattermole (NLA), 16 July 2010.

January 2011.
The possible road/bridge earthwork noted at TG 0070 2005 (see NHER 2796), adjacent to and immediately west of NHER 7206, has been destroyed by the levelling and construction of a track.
D. Gurney (HES), 26 January 2011.

June 2011.
A strip of land within the Scheduled Monument along the northern edge of the site and beside the B1145 has been disturbed and graded, most probably to improve visibility at the entrance. English Heritage informed and in communication with the owner with regard to Scheduled Monument Consent. See digital photos.
D. Gurney (HES), 1 July 2011.

Monument Types

  • ENCLOSURE (Unknown date)
  • FIELD BOUNDARY (Unknown date)
  • FINDSPOT (Unknown date)
  • INHUMATION (Unknown date)
  • RING DITCH (Unknown date)
  • RUBBISH PIT (Unknown date)
  • TRACKWAY (Unknown date)
  • COOKING PIT (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • INHUMATION? (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • PIT (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Mesolithic - 10000 BC to 4001 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • PIT (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • RING DITCH (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • DITCH (Early Iron Age to Roman - 800 BC to 409 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • PIT (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • BUILDING (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • CEMETERY (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • DITCH (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • DRAINAGE DITCH (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • ENCLOSURE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • ENCLOSURE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FIELD BOUNDARY (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • INHUMATION (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • IRON WORKING SITE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • OVEN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • PIT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • POST HOLE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • RECTILINEAR ENCLOSURE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • ROAD (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • ROAD (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • SETTLEMENT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • TRACKWAY (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • CREMATION (Roman - 150 AD to 400 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Saxon - 410 AD to 1065 AD)
  • INHUMATION? (Saxon - 410 AD to 1065 AD)
  • GRUBENHAUS (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • POST HOLE (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • SETTLEMENT (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • IRON WORKING SITE (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • PIT (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • POST HOLE (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • DITCH (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • FEATURE (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • FIELD BOUNDARY (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • POST HOLE (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • DITCH (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • TRACKWAY (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)

Associated Finds

  • ARMLET (Unknown date)
  • BROOCH (Unknown date)
  • BUCKLE (Unknown date)
  • CASTING WASTE (Unknown date)
  • CAULDRON (Undated)
  • CLINKER (Undated)
  • METAL WORKING DEBRIS (Undated)
  • NAIL (Unknown date)
  • PIN (Unknown date)
  • PLUMB BOB (Undated)
  • POT (Unknown date)
  • QUERN (Unknown date)
  • SLAG (Unknown date)
  • SPINDLE WHORL (Undated)
  • SPOON (Undated)
  • STUD (Undated)
  • TILE (Unknown date)
  • TORC (Undated)
  • UNIDENTIFIED OBJECT (Undated)
  • VESSEL (Unknown date)
  • WASHER (Unknown date)
  • WEIGHT (Undated)
  • WHETSTONE (Undated)
  • BLADE (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • CORE (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • FLAKE (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • POT BOILER (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • RETOUCHED FLAKE (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • RETOUCHED FLAKE (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • SCRAPER (TOOL) (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • SCRAPER (TOOL) (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • SCRAPER (TOOL) (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • BLADE (Mesolithic - 10000 BC to 4001 BC)
  • BLADE (Mesolithic - 10000 BC to 4001 BC)
  • BLADE (Mesolithic - 10000 BC? to 4001 BC?)
  • BLADE (Mesolithic - 10000 BC? to 4001 BC?)
  • BLADE (Mesolithic - 10000 BC? to 4001 BC?)
  • FLAKE (Early Mesolithic to Late Neolithic - 10000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • FLAKE (Mesolithic - 10000 BC? to 4001 BC?)
  • MICROLITH (Mesolithic - 10000 BC to 4001 BC)
  • RETOUCHED BLADE (Early Mesolithic to Late Neolithic - 10000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • TRANCHET AXEHEAD (Mesolithic - 10000 BC to 4001 BC)
  • BLADE (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • BORER (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • BORER (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • END SCRAPER (Early Neolithic to Late Bronze Age - 4000 BC to 701 BC)
  • FLAKE (Late Prehistoric - 4000 BC to 42 AD)
  • FLAKE (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • FLAKE (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • FLAKE (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • FLAKED AXEHEAD (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • POLISHED AXEHEAD (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • POLISHED KNIFE (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • POT (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • RETOUCHED FLAKE (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • RETOUCHED FLAKE (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • RETOUCHED FLAKE (Neolithic - 4000 BC? to 2351 BC?)
  • FABRICATOR (Late Neolithic to Early Bronze Age - 3000 BC to 1501 BC)
  • POT (Beaker - 2300 BC to 1700 BC)
  • COIN (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • COIN (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • HARNESS (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • HARNESS FITTING (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • POT (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • VESSEL (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • POT (Late Iron Age to Roman - 100 BC to 409 AD)
  • TORC (Late Iron Age to Roman - 1 AD to 409 AD)
  • ANIMAL REMAINS (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • ARMLET? (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BALANCE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BEAD (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BEAD (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BOOK FITTING (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BOX (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BOX (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BRACELET (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BRICK (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BROOCH (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BUCKET (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BUCKLE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • CLEAVER (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • COFFIN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • COIN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • COIN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • DRESS COMPONENT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • DRINKING VESSEL (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FERRULE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FIGURINE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FINGER RING (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FINGER RING (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FINGER RING (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FLUE TILE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FURNITURE FITTING (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • GAMING PIECE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • GEMSTONE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • HAIR PIN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • HARNESS (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • HARNESS MOUNT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • KEY (LOCKING) (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • KILN FURNITURE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • KNIFE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • METAL WORKING DEBRIS (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • METAL WORKING DEBRIS (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • MIRROR (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • NAIL (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • NAIL (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • NAIL CLEANER (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • PALETTE (COSMETIC) (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • PIN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • POT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • POT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • QUERN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • QUERN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • RELIGION OR RITUAL (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • RING (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • RING (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • ROOF TILE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • ROOF TILE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • SEAL (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • SEAL BOX (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • SHEATH (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • SLAG (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • SPEAR (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • SPOON (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • STEELYARD (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • STEELYARD WEIGHT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • STEELYARD WEIGHT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • STUD (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • TEGULA (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • TILE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • TOILET ARTICLE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • TWEEZERS (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • UNIDENTIFIED OBJECT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • UNIDENTIFIED OBJECT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • UNIDENTIFIED OBJECT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • UNIDENTIFIED OBJECT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • VESSEL (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • VESSEL (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • WASTER? (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • WEIGHT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • WEIGHT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • WORKED OBJECT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • COIN (Roman - 98 AD to 117 AD)
  • COIN (Roman - 330 AD to 335 AD)
  • COIN (Roman - 335 AD to 348 AD)
  • COIN (Roman - 351 AD to 353 AD)
  • BROOCH (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • COIN (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • LOOMWEIGHT (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • POT (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • RAZOR (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • SPINDLE WHORL (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • COIN (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • HOOKED TAG (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • METAL WORKING DEBRIS (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • PENDANT (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • PIN (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • POT (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • SLAG (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • STRAP FITTING (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • BRIDLE BIT (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • STRAP FITTING (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • BARREL PADLOCK (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • BOX (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • BRACELET (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • BROOCH (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • BUCKLE (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • BUTTON (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • CASKET (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • COIN (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • COIN (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • CRUCIFIX (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • FIGURINE (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • HARNESS FITTING (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • HARNESS PENDANT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • JETTON (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • KEY (LOCKING) (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • MOUNT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • POT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • QUERN? (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • SPOON (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • STRAP FITTING (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • THIMBLE (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • TILE (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • UNIDENTIFIED OBJECT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • UNIDENTIFIED OBJECT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • VESSEL (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • WEIGHT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • COIN (Medieval - 1299 AD to 1301 AD)
  • COIN (Medieval - 1307 AD to 1309 AD)
  • JETTON (Medieval - 1415 AD to 1497 AD)
  • BELL? (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • BRICK (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • BUCKLE (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • BUTTON (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • CANDLE HOLDER (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • CLOCK (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • COIN (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • COIN (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • FINGER RING (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • HARNESS FITTING (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • JETTON (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • JEWS HARP (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • KNIFE (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • NAIL (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • PANTILE (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • POT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • RING (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • SEAL (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • SPOON (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • SPUR (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • STRAP FITTING (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • THIMBLE (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • TOKEN (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • UNIDENTIFIED OBJECT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • WASHER (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • JETTON (Post Medieval - 1608 AD to 1612 AD)

Protected Status

  • SHINE
  • Scheduled Monument

Sources and further reading

---Aerial Photograph: See List in File.
---Aerial Photograph: Edwards, D.A. (NLA). 1992. TG 0020ABU - ABX.
---Photograph: NLA. Finds Photograph.
---Map: Finder's Map..
---Photograph: FSH-FSZ (excluding FSU).
---Photograph: FPQ-FPZ.
---Photograph: FQA-FQE.
---Photograph: KJY.
---Archive: Ordnance Survey Staff. 1933-1979?. Ordnance Survey Record Cards. TG 01 NW 1, TG 02 SW 4, TG 02 SW 5 [3].
---Archive: NAU Staff. 1974-1988. Norfolk Archaeological Index Primary Record Card.
---Photograph: 2000. JRR 18-26.
---Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 2010. Landowner is told to stop work on nature reserve. 29 July.
---Article in Serial: Marsden, A.. 2009. Roman intaglios and sealings from Norfolk, 2002-2008.. Norfolk Archaeology. XLV, pp 529-38.
---Photograph: EAK.
---Photograph: EAV.
---Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 2012. Businessman pulls sanctuary, park bid. 30 June.
---Article in Serial: Gurney, D. and Penn, K. (eds). 1998. Excavations and Surveys in Norfolk 1997. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XLIII Pt I pp 193-210. p 194.
---Photograph: 1990. LCB 32-35, Two Iron Age coins..
---Photograph: 1990. LCB 36-37, Romano British coin..
---Archive: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Roman. Billingford [2].
---Secondary File: Secondary file.
---Slide: Various. Slide.
---Fiche: Exists.
<S1>Unpublished Document: Wallis, H.. 2005. Romano-British and Saxon Occupation at Billingford, central Norfolk. Excavation (1991-2 and 1997) and Watching Brief (1995-2002)..
<S2>Unpublished Document: Gurney, D.. The Romano-British torque and votive despoit in pit 3586.
<S3>Article in Serial: 1986. Britannia. Vol XVII, p 447. p 447.
<S4>Article in Serial: Gurney, D. (ed.). 1993. Excavations and Surveys in Norfolk 1992. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XLI Pt IV pp 522-532. p 524.
<S5>Newspaper Article: 1989. Eastern Daily Press. 12 July.
<S6>Newspaper Article: 1992. Eastern Daily Press. 27 March.
<S7>Article in Serial: Gurney, D. (ed.). 1992. Excavations and Surveys in Norfolk in 1991. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XLI Pt III pp 371-379. p 371.
<S8>Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 1935. Eastern Daily Press. 17 June. 17 June.
<S9>Article in Serial: Toynbee, J. M. C. and Clarke, R. R. 1948. A Roman Decorated Helmet and other Objects from Norfolk. Journal of Roman Studies. Vol XXXVIII pp 20-27. p 26, footnote.
<S10>Article in Serial: Horlock, S., Albone, J. and Tremlett, S. 2008. The Archaeology of Norfolk's Aggregate Landscape: Results of the National Mapping Programme. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XLV Pt III pp 337-348.
<S11>Article in Serial: Gurney, D. and Penn, K. (eds). 2001. Excavations and Surveys in Norfolk 2000. Norfolk Archaeology. XLIII Pt IV pp 707-728. p 708.
<S12>Article in Serial: Nenk, B. S., Margeson, S. and Hurley, M. 1992. Medieval Britain and Ireland in 1991. Medieval Archaeology. Vol XXXVI pp 184-308. p252.
<S13>Article in Serial: Nenk, B. S., Margeson, S. and Hurley, M. 1993. Medieval Britain and Ireland in 1992. Medieval Archaeology. Vol XXXVII pp 240-313. p273.
<S14>Illustration: Gregory, T.. 1985. Drawing of a Iron Age/Roman copper alloy harness hook.. Paper. 2:1.
<S15>Illustration: Gregory, T.. 1985. Drawing of a Undatable lead bobbin-shaped object.. Film. 2:1.
<S16>Illustration: White, S.. 1986. Drawing of a Roman circular bossed plate.. Card. 2:1.
<S17>Illustration: White, S.. 1986. Drawing of an Iron Age copper alloy tankard handle.. Film. 2:1.
<S18>Illustration: White, S.. 1986. Drawing of a Middle Saxon three-finned pendant.. Film. 2:1.
<S19>Illustration: Fox, D.E.. 1988. Drawing of an Early Saxon cruciform brooch.. Film. 2:1.
<S20>Illustration: Ashley, S.. 1994. Sketch of a Roman pottery sherd.. Film. 2:1.
<S21>Illustration: Ashley, S.. 1994. Rubbing of a Roman pottery sherd.. Film. 2:1.
<S22>Illustration: Ashley, S.. 1994. Rubbing of a Roman pottery sherd.. Film. 2:1.
<S23>Illustration: Ashley, S.. 1994. Rubbing of a Roman pottery sherd.. Film. 2:1.
<S24>Illustration: Gibbons, J.. 2005. Drawing of a Middle Saxon copper alloy pin.. Film. 2:1.

Related records

50910Parent of: Cropmark field boundaries of medieval to post medieval date (Monument)
50976Parent of: Cropmarks of Billingford Roman town (Monument)
19652Related to: Cropmarks of rectilinear enclosure, a trackway and boundaries of probable Roman date (Monument)

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