The long cross penny replaced the short cross penny in 1247. The new design featured a longer cross whose arms reached to the edges of the coin, making it more obvious when the coin had been clipped. Apart from the change in the size of the cross, the rest of the design did not substantially change, and the long cross made it easy to cut the coin into halves or quarters for change.
A medieval long cross penny, possibly of Edward I, found during excavations on the site of Castle Mall, Norwich. NWHCM L2001.1.6929:A (© NCC)