Record Details

NHER Number:9786
Type of record:Monument
Name:Venta Icenorum (Caistor St Edmund) Roman town


The Roman town of Venta Icenorum ('market place of the Iceni') was created as the capital of the Iceni tribe probably around AD 60 and was occupied throughout the Roman period. It acted as the administrative capital of northern East Anglia. The ramparts, ditch and flint defensive walls are still standing and aerial photographs in the late 1920s have revealed cropmarks of much of the planned town including areas to the north and south outside the walls. Excavations throughout the early 1930s uncovered the forum, the baths, two temples and several domestic buildings. A kiln predating the defensive walls has also been investigated. Fieldwalking and metal detecting here have recovered Roman finds dating from the 1st to the 4th century AD, and there are also significant prehistoric, Middle Saxon and medieval finds from here. There are also cropmarks of the roads leading into the town and a possible amphitheatre to the south. The town is a Scheduled Monument and is owned and managed by the Norfolk Archaeological Trust. It is open to the public. Roman, Middle Saxon, medieval, medieval/post-medieval and post-medieval pottery was recovered from the surface in the 1970s and up to the present day.

Images - none


Grid Reference:TG 2306 0348
Map Sheet:TG20SW

Full description

Roman cantonal capital city. Early Saxon finds also.

18th century.
The site was known as Caistor Castle. (S1) describes it and notes no urns found here but lists Roman coins from his collection.

Roman coins of Faustina and Antonius found.
See (S2).

North bastion described as standing.
See (S3).

19th century.
Various Neolithic flints found in 'Caistor camp'.
Seen by E. Rose (NAU), 1979.

Pre 1838.
Jar of carbonised grain reported.

(S4) records a Roman sepulchral urn found near Caistor church where 'last year, whilst at work, struck his plough into an arch of an ancient vault'.
E. Rose, (NLA), 6 November 1991.

Around 1840.
Legends of brass gates and an underground passage from the watergate at the northwest corner of the 'camp'.

Early 20th century. Stray Find.
Probably found on surface inside town walls (but information unreliable):
2 Palaeolithic flint handaxes. One lanceolate, c. 10cm long, the other a very fine cleaver, 20-25cm long, with cortex on butt. These handaxes are noted in (S55), (S56) and (S57), although no additional information is given.
Identified and compiled by T. Gregory (NAU), 1979.
Amended by P. Watkins (HES), 1 April 2014.

1923. Excavation. By tower north of west gate. Excavation on town defences.
Gate tower constructed of flint and concrete with binding courses of tiles, bonded into adjoining guardroom.
See (S5).

1927. Small stone collyrium (oculist's) stamp found, inscribed Publius Anicius Sedatus (S29). Presented to the British Museum and on display in Gallery 49, case 4 (2008) .

1929. Excavation.
Flavian material under building I, Insula IX. Annealing oven for glass excavated. Houses excavated. Temple B excavated. Temple A excavated (S52, S53)

1930. Excavation.
Apsed house excavated (building 4) dated to AD 230 to 400.Insula VII or VIII. Beneath this house three pottery kilns dated to AD 110 to 140. Rampart behind north wall and face of wall excavated.
See (S6).

1930 to 1931. Excavation.
Forum, Insula X excavated. Inscription found.

1934. Excavation.
South gate, guardroom and ditch.

1935. Excavation.
Insula XIV excavation of part of the public baths.

1948. Casual find in rabbit scrapes. In southwest corner of town.
Barbed and tanged flint arrowhead found.

1956. Casual find. In side walled area at western end.
Roman gem found. Carnelian intaglio incised with Roman warship and pharos. Probably 2nd century AD. Cut in Mediterranean?
See (S7).

September 1956. Excavation.
Site XXV. Excavation of Roman rubbish pit and pottery dump dated to around AD 100.
For pottery see (S8).

1957. Casual find, outside south gate.
Iron Age sherd with fingernail impression found.

List of intra mural Rusticated ware finds published in (S9).

March to September 1958 to 1963. Excavation.
?Site XXVI. Fired clay structure. Pottery kiln pre town wall. Late 1st or early 2nd century AD.
Bone handled iron knife.
Identified by E. B. Green (NCM).
See (S10).
R.R. Clarke (NCM)

1959. Casual find. Found in southwest corner of walled area.
Base of samian ware stamped CVNISSA.F.

1960s. Fieldwalking. Within walled area and from dredgings of the River Tas.
Pottery, glass, tile and tesserae.
Information from (S11).

1960. Casual find.
Roman intaglio found, also building material.
See (S8), number 149 (S12) and (S13).

1961. Casual find. East end of Roman town.
Fragments of small jar, grey paste, dark brown slip. Date and function uncertain.
See (S12).

1961. Found in plough soil.
Roman coins.

At west end of Roman town.
Worn late 3rd century Roman coin.
Identified by J. Kent (British Museum).

In area of public baths.
Building materials, pot sherds and coins.

1962. Surface finds.
Roman coin, pottery and hone stone with incised decoration.

On baths site.
Silver denarius of Faustina Junior AD 146 to 161.

1963. Casual find. Inside walled area.
Part of base of Samian stamped MALLIA(CVS). Pottery sherds and metal work. Coins.
See list in file.

1964. Casual find on plough soil.
Roman sherds found.

Outside town wall near kiln.
Flint flake. See (S12).
Pottery, tesserae, glass rim and slag.

1965. Surface finds. Graveyard of church.
Roman pottery fragments.

Topsoil outside southeast corner of walls.
2nd century greyware, some with diamond decoration.

Surface finds after ploughing.
Samian ware stamp …ORINVS.

1966. Surface find. West end of walled area.
Roman brooch found. Dolphin brooch 1st to 2nd century.
See (S12).

1969.Surface finds.
Mortaria kiln site? Mortaria, buff wares, grey wares and Samian in dark soil area. Masses of brick and daub found.
See (S13).

After ploughing. Inside walls.
Butt end of Neolithic chipped axe found.
See (S12).

1970.Fieldwalking. Within walled area.
Roman tile, Samian, mortaria and other pottery.
W. Milligan (NCM), 8 October 1983.

Roman or medieval quartzite sandstone mortar fragment.

Near centre of walled area.
Fragment of Hunt Cup. Copper alloy chain, red deer antler tine,

Near church.
Samian including mortarium, 'cut glass', amphora handle, tile and glass vessel fragment.

Surface find.
From area of Insula 11/6.
Glass mask from flask.

Roman pottery, glass and metal work.

North of church. Insula V.
Copper alloy plaque decorated with figurine representing Mercury found with penannular silver ring with snake's heads terminals.
For a comparison see (S14).

1972. Surface finds.
Roman sherds, building materials, glass, copper alloy fragments

Outside southern gate.
Pottery, samian, burnt samian, burnt coin. Red flagon handle 1st half 2nd century.

In forum area.
Copper alloy spoon.
S. Margeson (NCM), 17 February 1982.

1973. Behind south end of west rampart.
Painted plaster.
Information from (S15).

Between south wall and road cropmark, east of south gate.
Pottery sherd spread. At least three mortaria, and Samian, greyware.

West of gate.
Two stamped Samian bases and other sherds. CINTVSMS and ECVESTER.
E. B. Green (NCM).

Also pottery, coin, boner haft, glass waster, spouted mortarium.

Roman sherds, burnt daub and millstone found.
T. Gregory (NAU).

March 1976. Metal detecting. Just outside lip of south ditch.
Copper alloy brooch.
Sestertius of Antonius Pius.
T. Gregory (NAU), 17 March 1976.

Mortaria kiln site.
Kiln material, mortaria, Samian.

Just outside northwest corner of Roman town in bank of River Tas.
Copper alloy brooch.
Small copper alloy pendant?
See (S12).
As of Vespasian.
T. Gregory (NAU).

Ploughed surface south of south wall and east of south gate.
Dupondius of Faustina I.
Sestertius of Trajan.
Stamped Samian, Mettisu and FORTIO
Enamelled polychrome disc brooch.
Copper alloy object, possible escutcheon. See (S12).
T. Gregory (NAU).

South lip of south ditch on site of mortarium kiln debris.
Mortarium stamped GENIALIS. Overfired with slight cracks.
See (S12).
Information from P. Carrington (Grovesnor Museum, Chester).

1977. Ploughed surface. Outside south and west walls of town.
Roman sherds found. Indicate a kiln?

1978. Ploughed surface.
Roman sherds found.
T. Gregory (NAU).

December 1978. In rabbit hole. Southeast side of baths site.
Roman pottery and one 3 AE radiate coin (illegible).

On surface. Just south of south wall.
Decorated Samian sherd.

1979. In rabbit burrow.
In centre of walled area.
Pottery and bone fragment.
S. Ashley (NAU).

1980 to 1983. From southwest sector of town.
Pottery and tile.

1981. Fieldwalking. Just outside southwest corner of town walls but inside scheduled area.
Lava quern fragment, tegula fragment, iron horseshoe, Spanish globular amphora sherd, 4th century bead and flange bowl, 2nd to 4th century coarse ware, hammer headed mortarium rim.
Identified by T. Gregory (NAU).

'All over Roman town and to river on west'.
Scatter of glass, lead and pottery.
S. Margeson (NCM), April 1983.

August 1981. Along south side of south wall of town.
Slag and pottery.
W. Milligan (NCM), 24 September 1981.

1981. Fieldwalking. Outside walls to south.
Samian base stamped VITA.
W. Milligan (NCM), 3 December 1981.

1982. After ploughing. Within walled area.
3rd or 4th century amphora fragment. See (S12).
Identified by M. Darling.

Area 16.
Mortaria, shellyware, greyware and Samian fragments.

March 1982. Fieldwalking. Along south side of south rampart.
Pottery, slag and glass. Mortarium rim and amphora sherd. Samian ironwork and whetstone.

Sector 6 of Roman town.
Hone fragment.
W. Milligan (NCM), 15 March 1982.

April 1982. Along exterior of south rampart.
Solid copper alloy ring. See (S12).

In dredgings from ditch forming boundary of scheduled area outside northwest corner of wall.
Pottery, Samian, mortaria and slag.

September 1982. Fieldwalking. South side of south defences.
Flint flake, pottery, glass.
Identified by T. Gregory (NAU).
W. Milligan (NCM).

From graveyard of St Edmunds church.
Pottery and human skeletal remains.
Identified by T. Gregory (NAU).

In southwest corner of town.
Two stone tesserae, one with mortar on it.

Outside north defences.
Flaked flint.
Identified by A. Lawson (NAU).
Identified by T. Gregory (NAU).

1983. Fieldwalking. Inside walled area.
Mortaria and pottery.

Just outside south gate.
Identified by T. Gregory (NAU).
W. F. Milligan (NCM), 18 May 1983.

In and around churchyard.
Pottery including Samian.
Identified by T. Gregory (NAU).
W. Milligan (NCM), 21 February 1984.

January 1984. Outside south defences.
Denarius of Trajan AD 104.
W. F. Milligan (NCM), 2 January 1985.

February 1984.
Exterior foot of north wall.
Large copper alloy stud from box or furniture.
Identified by T. Gregory (NAU).
W. Milligan (NCM), 19 March 1984.

April 1985. Metal detecting. From southern most part of the ploughed strip south of the south wall.
Copper alloy earring.
Copper alloy hook.
Ten Roman coins.
Roman disc brooch.
Head of Langton Down brooch.
Head of head stud brooch.
Roman pin.
Late Saxon silver pin.
See (S8) and (S13).
T. Gregory (NAU), September 17 1985.

July 1985. Fieldwalking.
Found during fieldwalking just outside southeast angle of town defences at Context 13 ([4]):
1 Upper Palaeolithic flint crested flint flake from preparation of large blade core. Listed in (S54).
Also in general scatter south of southern defences at [5]:
1 Neolithic flint flake.
Flints identified by J. J. Wymer (NAU). Compiled by W. Milligan (NCM), 26 September 1985.
Amended by P. Watkins (HES), 1 April 2014.

1985. Fieldwalking. Along south side of south wall where grass worn away at west end.
Five flint flakes and large flake. Probably from stonemason.
Identified by J. J. Wymer (NAU).
W. Milligan (NCM), 22 January 1986.

1986. Fieldwalking. Edge of scheduled area outside south defences.
Decorated Samian sherd. BUTRI on outside in decoration.

C.1986. Casual find.
Late Roman finger ring.
See description in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 19 February 2006.

Autumn 1986. Fieldwalking. Southeast part of scheduled area outside south defences.
Flint gritted Bronze Age or Iron Age pottery, 7th century BC.
Identified by T. Gregory (NAU).
W. Milligan (NCM), 27 April 1987.

1987. Metal detecting. Outside defences strip south of south wall.
Medieval purse bar. See (S12).
Copper alloy and silver Roman coins, Republic to Valens. See list in file.
See (S13).
T. Gregory (NAU), 9 July 1987.

1987. Excavation.
On top of north rampart to assess preservation of flint walling within. Top of wall and line of parapet found. Roman pottery, tile, shell and animal bone.
See (S17) and (S18).
E. Rose (NAU), 9th December 1987.

Evidence for 'massacre' victims in building IV ('apsed house') reconsidered in (S16). These were redeposited finds from a cemetery. Coin finds also considered.

August 1988.
Consolidation of north wall and leaning rampart walk underway. Short stretch of wall foundation uncovered with some facing stones remaining. Ramparts (battlements) remain for short distance.
See (S17) and (S18).
E. Rose (NAU), 31 October 1988.

1989. Casual find. Outside south gate of town on edge of grass strip.
Roman copper alloy hairpin. 3rd century AD.
Identified by E. B. Green (NCM).
W. Milligan (NCM), 19 October 1989.

January 1990. Ditch cleared. On west edge of site and scheduled area, west of west gate.
Revealed gravel of possible road in sections. Appears to turn sharply north just outside west gate. Could be related to roads NHER 9762 and NHER 9820.
See (S10).

1992 and before. Fieldwalking.
Roman pottery. See (S12).
Denarius of Julius Domna. See list.
W. Milligan (NCM), 15 January 1993.

April 1992. Digging for new grave.
Northeast corner of churchyard.
Area totally disturbed by other graves. No other archaeology visible. No finds.
See (S10).
E. Rose (NLA), 19 May 1992.

22 to 26 June 1992. Metal detecting before and after stripping for car park. Just outside southeast corner of defences.
Six Roman coins.
Roman pottery and tile.
Stripping of driveway revealed features cut into natural gravel including north to south linear feature or ditch and a rectangular feature producing Roman and Iron Age pottery.
P. Emery (NAU), 3 September 1992.

5 November 1992. Clearing path round walls.
North flint wall exposed, tower by west gate and large mass flint at southeast corner. Brick base of west gate had had soil removed. Glass, tile, pottery and mosaic were recovered along with Late Saxon or medieval pottery and an undated iron object. Interior of town being used by cattle and horses.
Identified by D. Gurney (NLA), 6th November 1992.
E. Rose (NLA)< 6th November 1992.

S. White (NLA) pointed out that the cement on the exposed section of the north town wall contains the imprint of a Roman boot sole.
E. Rose (NLA), 18 January 1993.

1992 to 1993. Geophysical survey.
Soil resistivity survey of Insula X.
See (S20) in file.

Two geophysical survey, testing the suitability of the proton magnetometer and resistivity for detecting and delineating buried features.
See (S21) and (S22).
D. Gurney (NLA), 5 January 2005.

April 1994. Visit.
To check new circular paths around site set up by Norfolk Archaeological Trust. Some facing flint work on north wall is now visible. As well as north wall a portion of the south wall at the southeast corner, where there is a gap, is now exposed. Along strip of scheduled area to south of south defences, now under grass, a scatter of Roman brick and tile fragments from earlier ploughing including one fragment Roman floor tile.
Identified by D. Gurney (NLA).
E. Rose (NLA), April 1994.

1994 to 1995. Geophysical survey.
Survey of Insula XVII located three streets,? Roadside ditches and a ?wall, the baths (rather unclearly) and two other buildings.
D. Gurney (NLA), 25 February 1995.

29 August 1995. Fieldwalking.
Near south gate.
Roman pottery and glass.
See (S13).
A. Rogerson (NLA), 7 September 1995.

8 to 10 September 1995. Fieldwalking.
In churchyard.
Roman and medieval pottery.
See list and (S13) in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 20 September 1995.

March 1996. In rabbit scrape.
Just outside walled area near the south gate.
Roman grey sherd with inscription or decorative pattern.
Identified by D. Gurney (NLA) and R. Tomlin (Wolfson College, Oxford).
D. Gurney (NLA), 15 July 1996.

July 12 1996. From freshly dug grave.
In churchyard. See (S13).
Roman pottery, tile and unidentified iron object. Two layers visible in sides of grave. One perhaps originating from down slope movement of Venta town bank and a second less disturbed possibly associated with Roman period occupation of Venta.
A. Crowson (NAU), 12 July 1996.

1996. Geophysical survey.
Further geophysical results.
See (S23).

1997. Surface finds.
Roman sherd of samian and glass found.
Identified by W. Milligan (NCM).
K. Sussams (NLA), 6 January 1998.

1999. Electricity cable trench.
Along edge of footpath from north porch of church to gate.
Noticeable change from grey topsoil in older part of graveyard to brown soil in north. Few finds visible but many post medieval roof tile and Roman pottery and tile found. Scarp of earlier west or north edge of churchyard visible.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 22 February 1999.

1999. Geophysical survey.
Impinged very slightly on this site. See under NHER 9836.

22 February 1999. Metal detecting.
Found in spoil heap of cable trench across churchyard (on north side of church, previously reported).
Two Roman coins, see list in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 7 November 2000.

March 1999. Casual find on footpath.
Thetford type ware rim sherd. Unusual fabric. Late Saxon pottery is rarely found within the Roman town.
See (S24) in file.
D. Gurney (NLA), 18 October 2000.

A magnetic gradiometer survey over a 240m x 140m area in the field south of the walled town of Venta Icenorum showed a clear image of the early defensive ditches and a faint image over the supposed amphitheatre. A 100m x 100m trial within the walled town provided an excellent image with a lot of detail over the forum and adjacent buildings.
See (S48).
D. Holburn (HES), 14 November 2011.

2001. Geophysical Survey.
A resistivity survey of the interior of the town East and North of the area excavated by Atkinson in the 1930s commenced. Its objective was to establish whether resistivity results can give more detailed information about the level of Romanisation exhibited by the built environment, to compare with current interpretations of the townscape which are based largely of air photograph interpretation.
See (S46).
D. Holburn (HES), 21 October 2011.

Square enclosures (NHER 9794 and 9589) suggested as Roman, and associated with the postulated cadastre and other sites. See (S25) in file for NHER 9794.
D. Gurney (NLA), 2 April 2002.

Before 9 February 2003. Casual find in molehill in northwest part of walled area.
Roman coin, House of Theodosius AE4, obverse illegible, reverse VICTORIA AVGGG. Mint: Lyon, 338 to 402.
Identified by A. Marsden (NLA).
A. Rogerson (NLA), 21 May 2003.

March 2003. Found in molehills in northwest corner of defended area.
Eighteen greyware including two bowl/dish and one bowl rim, and one part reoxidised rouletted micaceous bowl, one shelly ?jar rim, one buff oxidised flagon-type fabric, one Nene valley colour coated and two East Anglian colour coated, most sherds small and rather weathered, a few tile scraps some of which are Roman.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 1 July 2003.

April 2006. Casual find in molehill.
Post medieval jetton.
See list with grid reference in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 12 June 2006.

July 2006. Trial geophysical (caesium vapour magnetometry) survey within the walled town.
Examined two insulae, including the forum and basilica (X) and an area where no structures were apparent on aerial photographs (XIV). In insula X, the survey located the forum and basilica, probable backfilled trenches by Atkinson, and a possible previously-unknown bath-house with an apse. In insula XIV, extensive structural remains were revealed, including a large structure laid out around a courtyard. The survey also suggested that the roads are not as straight as they appear from the air or on published plans, and strong ferrous anomalies probably represent iron collars for wooden pipes for the supply of water.
See report in file (S27) and (S38).
See also (S45).
D. Gurney (NLA), 15 February 2007

September 2006. Trial coring west of the walled area.
Suggests that while the course of the River Tas may have changed through time, its size has not.
See report in file (S28) and (S38).
D. Gurney (NLA), 15 February 2007.

Autumn 2007 - Spring 2008. Fieldwalking survey. Caistor Roman Town.
A fieldwalking survey recovered a variety of finds dating from the Iron Age to post-medieval period including pottery, ceramic building material and burnt flint of unknown date.
See (S30).
S. Howard (NLA), 10 March 2010.

An interpretive plan has been completed for the site as part of an MSc qualification in Interpretation: Management and Practice. The document aims to expand and refresh current interpretation at the site, identifying a target market and key areas for expansion, with the hope to increase interest and desire to protect the site as well as increase interest in archaeology.
See (S31) for further details.
H. Hamilton (NLA), 11 June 2008.

2007. Geophysical Survey.
The survey resulted in a complete plan of the walled area of the town, and also identified a number of circular and sub-circular anomalies, including gullies and ring ditches, apparently truncated by Roman streets and buildings. This strongly suggests that there was a significant pre-Roman presence on the site. Major Roman public buildings can be seen, with the forum, temple and baths revealed with particular clarity. The street grid produced a number of anomalies suggesting that the streets were rebuilt and altered over time. The survey refutes the existence of a southernmost street which is visible on aerial photography but has no accompanying anomaly to suggest a sub-surface feature. It therefore appears that the feature visible on aerial photographs is a ploughed out hedge line. The survey suggests that the original plan of the town was different from the existing, and that it was reorganised in the 2nd century.
Two concentric semi-circles directly to the east of the two temples indicated a possible theatre. The possible theatre and two temples form a ceremonial area at one end of the diagonal road that runs at a 45 degree angle to the street grid. The survey also identified possible post- Roman occupation in the form of a large sub-rectangular enclosure which clearly cuts the metalling of the Roman street in the NW corner. Its size and shape recalls Middle- Late Saxon enclosures.
See (S32), (S33), (S39) and (S41) for further information.
H. White (NLA), 16 December 2008.

19 August 2008.
Scheduled monument consent granted concerning the consolidation of standing remains.
See (S33) for more details.
H. White (NLA) 8 January 2009.

10 February 2009.
Verbal communication (S34), relating to information originally from one of Atkinson's workmen. Apparently Atkinson used to pay his workmen for the recovery of samian sherds. As a result they used to scavenge the pottery discard heap outside the finds processing hut for samian sherds found previously and discarded, and present these as 'new' finds.
D. Gurney (NLA), 11 February 2009.

March-April 2009. Casual find
Roman sherd & bone counter with graffito
see list in file
A. Rogerson (NLA) 10 May 2009

July 2009.
The walls are being repointed with lime mortar and a new flint and mortar cap is being established. Rare plants have been found to thrive on the lime mortar and therefore extra care has to be taken whilst conserving the remains.
See (S35) for further details
H. White (NLA), 8 July 2009.

August - September 2009. Excavation.
See (S36) for details.
H. White, (NLA), 1 September 2009.

September 2009. Trial excavation.
Below the subsoil a number of prehistoric flints were recovered including a well preserved Mesolithic tranchet axe and ?Early Neolithic cores. These prehistoric deposits had been truncated by later Roman and possibly Iron Age features but were well preserved and as a result were recorded in 3D with soil analysis to further investigate whether this is an in-situ lithic working site. A number of burnt flint tools and flakes were found within a possible Late Mesolithic hollow, which could be a dispersed hearth contemporary with the flint working activity.
A number of late prehistoric features were identified including a ditch or gully containing burnt and worked flint and small fragments of mid to late Iron Age pottery. A large pear-shaped (3.6 x 1.2m) feature was identified in the north-west corner of the trench containing an intrusive sherd of samian ware, burnt flint and worked flint including a fine bladelet.
A Romano-British cinerary cremation deposit dating to the mid 1st to early 2nd century AD was discovered in the north-east corner of trench 1. The jar was found on top of a cohesive dark stain of silty-sand which may have been the remains of a decayed organic object or part of a wooden box through to contain the cremation deposit.
Four graves of Late Roman (mid 3rd to 5th century) date all orientated east-west were located in trench 2. Two of the burials exhibited unusual characteristics, which could suggest these are ‘deviant’ burials, with one male buried on his side in a shallow grave and the other interred at the bottom of a very deep pit. However, until more in known about the usual burial practices at Caistor the nature of these burials remains unknown.
See (S40-41) for further details.
S. Howard (NLA), 12 March 2010.

September 2009. Eastern Daily Press.
A fourth-century skeleton in an "unusual position" has been recovered in a three ft deep pit during excavations.
More information to follow.
See (S37) for details.
H. White (NLA), 18 September.

2010. Excavation.
This was the first full-scale excavation inside the walled area of the Roman town since Donald Atkinson ceased work in 1935. The trenches were aimed at investigation of possible pre-Roman circular features and also establishing a date when the Roman town was laid out. Two further trenches were excavated outside the south wall of St Edmund's Church in advance of the construction of a new kitchen and toilet.
See (S47).
S. Howard (HES), 2 November 2011.

November 2010. Scheduled ancient monument area amendment.
The scheduled area covered by the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act (1979) was extended to include fields to the west and south as evidence from recent archaeological evaluation and aerial photograph interpretation suggested that the Roman settlement extended into these areas with features and deposits relating to Roman, prehistoric and medieval activity.
See (S44).
S. Howard (HES), 6 May 2011.

January 2011.
Initial work on the analysis and interpretation of the results of the excavations in 2010 (S42) suggests that the street grid was probably laid out around AD 120, and that the formal establishment of the town took place in the Hadrianic period. The town was probably not as built-up or its layout as regimented as the literature suggests, and there is evidence that parts of the town were used in the late Roman period for industrial activity (iron smithing), grazing and for rubbish dumps. Activity appears to peak in the fourth century AD. The possible redating of the street grid is particularly significant, as it distances the establishment of the town from events in the wake of the Boudiccan rebellion and a foundation date around AD70.
D. Gurney (HES), 26 January 2011.

July 2011. Eastern Daily Press.
The National Heritage Memorial Fund (NHMF) announced it will be giving £374, 000 to the Norfolk Archaeological Trust (NAT) to purchase a further 55 acres of land to the West of Caister St Edmund. The NAT already owns 120 acres to the East of the River, and the newly purchased land to the West will be reconnected to the town to operate as an archaeological site, accessible to the public. As well as the NHMF Grant, English Heritage has contributed £40, 000, South Norfolk Council has provided £20, 000, and the rest of the money needed came from NAT's own resources. The Roman town is one of three Roman regional centres in Britain that has not been built over. Therefore, the town and the land surrounding it is under conservation management to protect against the results of farming and unauthorised metal detecting.
See (S45) for further details.
D. Lefeuvre (HES), 1 August 2011.

Stray surface finds within walled enclosure during 1970s.
Romano-British, Middle Saxon, medieval, medieval/post-medieval and post-medieval pottery sherds, Romano-British flue tile fragments.
See list in file.
A. Rogerson (HES), 28 June 2011.

August 2011. Stray find.
Six Roman pottery sherds.
See description in file.
A. Rogerson (HES), 22 March 2012.

July 2010.
Aerial photography by Mike Page, see (S49-S50).
E. Bales (HES), 03 September 2012.

July-September 2011. Archaeological excavation. Caistor Roman Town Project. [2].
Roman silver finger ring.
Information from PAS import.
A. Beckham (HES), 5 September 2013.

Monument Types

  • FINDSPOT (Lower Palaeolithic to Middle Palaeolithic - 500000 BC to 40001 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Upper Palaeolithic - 40000 BC to 10001 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Beaker - 2300 BC to 1700 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • GULLY? (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • RING DITCH? (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • BATH HOUSE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • CIVITAS CAPITAL (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • GLASS WORKS (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • HOUSE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • PIT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • POTTERY KILN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • ROAD (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • ROAD (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • TEMPLE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • THEATRE? (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • TOWN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • TOWN DEFENCES (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • ENCLOSURE? (Middle Saxon to Late Saxon - 651 AD to 1065 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Medieval to Post Medieval - 1066 AD to 1900 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)

Associated Finds

  • CLEAVER (Lower Palaeolithic to Middle Palaeolithic - 500000 BC to 40001 BC)
  • HANDAXE (Lower Palaeolithic to Middle Palaeolithic - 500000 BC to 40001 BC)
  • LITHIC IMPLEMENT (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • CRESTED BLADE (Upper Palaeolithic - 40000 BC to 10001 BC)
  • LITHIC IMPLEMENT (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • POT (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • BARBED AND TANGED ARROWHEAD (Beaker - 2300 BC to 1700 BC)
  • COIN (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • COIN (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • POT (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • ANIMAL REMAINS (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • ARCHITECTURAL FRAGMENT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • ARCHITECTURAL FRAGMENT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BEAD (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BOX (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BRACELET (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BROOCH (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BROOCH (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BROOCH (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BUCKET (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • CARVING (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • CHAIN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • COIN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • COIN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • COIN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • COIN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • COLANDER (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • COUNTER (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • DRESS COMPONENT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • EAR RING (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FINGER RING (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FINGER RING (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FINGER RING (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FLOOR TILE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FLUE TILE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FURNITURE FITTING (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • GAMING PIECE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • GEMSTONE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • HORSESHOE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • HUMAN REMAINS (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • INSCRIBED OBJECT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • INSCRIBED OBJECT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • KEY (LOCKING) (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • KNIFE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • KNIFE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • LAMP (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • LAMP (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • METAL WORKING DEBRIS (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • MILLSTONE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • MIRROR (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • MORTAR (VESSEL) (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • NEEDLE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • OCULISTS STAMP (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • PENDANT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • PIN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • PIN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • PLANT REMAINS (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • PLAQUE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • POT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • POT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • PURSE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • QUERN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • RING (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • ROOF TILE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • SHOE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • SKILLET (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • SPINDLE WHORL (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • SPOON (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • TESSERA (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • TILE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • UNIDENTIFIED OBJECT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • UNIDENTIFIED OBJECT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • UNIDENTIFIED OBJECT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • VESSEL (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • VESSEL (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • WHETSTONE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • WHETSTONE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FINGER RING (Roman - 100 AD to 200 AD)
  • POT (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • POT (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • PIN (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • POT (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • POT (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • FLAKED AXEHEAD (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • POT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • POT (Medieval to Post Medieval - 1066 AD to 1900 AD)
  • JETTON (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • LITHIC IMPLEMENT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • POT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)

Protected Status

  • Scheduled Monument

Sources and further reading

---Photograph: See file.
---Article in serial: 1959. Other Archaeological Excavations 1958. Norfolk Research Committee Bulletin. Series 1 No 11 (for 1958) pp 1-2. p 1.
---Aerial Photograph: TG 2303/ APB-APE.
---Aerial Photograph: TG 2303/ APS-APT, APY.
---Aerial Photograph: Edwards, D.A. (NLA). 1994. TG2303/AQB - AQC.
---Aerial Photograph: Edwards, D.A. (NLA). 1993. TG 2203APF - APR; TG 2303AND - ANH; TG 2203AEN - AES.
---Aerial Photograph: Edwards, D.A. (NLA). 1993. TG 2303ANR - APA.
---Aerial Photograph: Edwards, D.A. (NLA). 1994. TG 2303AQG - AQN.
---Aerial Photograph: Edwards, D.A. (NLA). 1996. TG 2303ASA - ASD.
---Aerial Photograph: Edwards, D.A. (NLA). 1996. TG 2303ARN - ARZ.
---Aerial Photograph: Edwards, D.A. (NLA). 1996. TG 2303AQP - AQV, AQY - ARL.
---Aerial Photograph: Edwards, D.A. (NLA). 1996. TG 2303AQD - AQF.
---Scheduling record: English Heritage. Scheduling Report.
---Photograph: I & RS. Digital finds image.
---Article in serial: Gurney, D. (ed.). 1993. Excavations and Surveys in Norfolk 1992. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XLI Pt IV pp 522-532. p 525.
---Newspaper Article: East, T.. 2003. Eastern Daily Press. 4 November 2003.
---Newspaper Article: Mackie, J.. 2003. Eastern Daily Press. 8 November 2003.
---Newspaper Article: 2004. Eastern Daily Press. 23 March.
---Archive: NAU Staff. 1974-1988. Norfolk Archaeological Index Primary Record Card.
---Article in monograph: Pestell, T.. 2003. The Afterlife of 'Productive' Sites in East Anglia.. Markets in Early Medieval Europe: Trading and 'Productive' Sites, 650-850.. Pestell, T. & Ulmschneider, K.. pp 122-137.
---Article in serial: 1957. Journal of Roman Studies. Vol XXII.
---Unpublished document: Beverley, M. and Lond, B.. 2003. Findings of the Public Consultation Exercise Undertaken into the Future of Caistor St Edmund Roman Town, Venta Icenorum. 28 May.
---Article in serial: Wheeler, R.E.M.. 1929. Caistor, and a comment.. Antiquity. Vol III.
---Article in serial: Wallace, C.. 1994. Donald Atkinson, a Neglected Roman Archaeologist.. Trans Bristol & Gloucestershire Arch Soc. Vol CXII. pp 167-176.
---Article in monograph: Wilson, D.R.. 2003. Air Photography and Venta Icenorum.. The Archaeology of Roman Towns. Wilson, P. (ed.). pp 251-257.
---Unpublished document: Cott, P.. 1997. Geophysical Surveys 1996.
---Article in serial: Gurney, D. (ed.). 1992. Excavations and Surveys in Norfolk in 1991. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XLI Pt III pp 371-379. p 372.
---Newspaper Article: 2006. Eastern Daily Press. 25 July.
---Newspaper Article: 2006. Eastern Daily Press. 25 July.
---Newspaper Article: 2006. Eastern Daily Press. 26 June.
---Unpublished document: Bentley, M. and Lond, B.. 2003. Findings of the Public Consultation Exercise Undertaken Into the Future of Caistor St Edmund Roman Town, Venta Icenorum. May.
---Unpublished document: Strategic Leisure Limited. 2002. South Norfolk Council Study Into The Future Development of Venta Icenorum Caistor St Edmund Roman Town Business Plan.
---Article in serial: Gurney, D. and Penn, K. (eds). 1997. Excavations and Surveys in Norfolk 1996. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XLII Pt IV pp 547-564. p 549.
---Unpublished document: Bescoby, D & Bowden, W. 2007. University of Nottingham Report on the 2007 Geophysical Survey at Venta Icenorum.
---Unpublished document: Bowden, W.. 2007. Caistor Roman Town Project Newsletter.
---Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 2009. We shouldn't fear tourists. 15 September.
---Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 2010. Moving story of village's 2000 year old resident. 28 May.
---Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 2010. Roman town is giving up the secrets of its past.. 28 August.
---Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 2010. Dig that! Thousands take a look.. 14 September.
---Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 2010. Time Team bids to find secrets of Roman fort.. 19 August.
---Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 2010. Research shows Romans were first eco-warriors.. 27 October.
---Unpublished document: Percival J.. 2009. An archaeological evaluation at Caistor St Edmund Churchyard, Norfolk..
---Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 2011. Families take part in archaeological dig.. 30 August.
---Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 2011. Roman excavations are to be open to the public.. 9 August.
---Article in serial: Gurney, D & Hoggett, R.. 2010. Excavations and Surveys in Norfolk in 2009. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XLVI, pt I, pp 135-147. p 137.
---Leaflet: Landscape Archeology Section. Caistor Roman Town.
---Article in serial: Gurney, D (ed.). 1990. Excavations and Surveys in Norfolk 1989. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XLI Pt I pp 107-112. p 109.
---Article in serial: 1986. Archaeological Discoveries for 1985. CBA Group VI Bulletin. No 31 pp 53-89. p 69.
---Archive: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Neolithic. Caistor-by-Norwich [3].
---Archive: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Iron Age. Caistor-by-Norwich [3].
---Archive: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Roman. Caister-By-Norwich [61].
---Archive: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Medieval. Caistor St Edmund.
---Monograph: Swan, V. G.. 1984. The Pottery Kilns of Roman Britain. Royal Commission on Historical Monuments Supplementary Series. 5.
---Article in serial: Painter, K. S. 1971. A Roman bronze saucepan-handle and silver ring from Caistor-by-Norwich, Norfolk. Antiquaries Journal. Vol LI Pt II pp 321-3.
---Secondary File: Secondary file.
---Slide: Various. Slide.
---Fiche: Exists.
---Newspaper Article: The Guardian. 2011. Norfolk Roman town site goes into public ownership. 9/07/2011.
---Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 2013. Bridge openes up more of Norfolk's Roman capital. 11/06/2013.
---Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 2013. Chance to enjoy even more of Roman town. 31/07/2013.
<S1>Serial: Parkin, C.. 1808. Blomefield's History of Norfolk.. Vol 8, pp 393-4. p422.
<S2>Publication: Martin, T.. 1733. Church Notes. 2.
<S3>Article in serial: 1749. Philosophical Transactions. No 493.
<S4>Newspaper Article: Norwich Mercury. 1838. 14 April.
<S5>Article in serial: 1923. Journal of Roman Studies. Vol XII. p259.
<S6>Article in serial: 1959. Archaeological Journal. Vol CXIV, p 17.
<S7>Monograph: Henig, M.. British Archaeological Report.. British Archaeological Report. No 8.
<S8>Photograph: NLA. Finds Photograph.
<S9>Article in serial: 1958. Antiquaries Journal. Vol 38. pp44-5.
<S10>Illustration: Unknown. Sketch plan of finds site.. Film.
<S11>Unpublished document: NCM. NCM Accession Record.
<S12>Illustration: Finds Illustrations.
<S13>Newspaper Article: 1960. Eastern Daily Press. 24 February.
<S14>Map: Finder's Map..
<S15>Publication: Davies, D. G.. 1972. Hertfordshire Archaeological Review No. 5. pp86-88.
<S16>Map: NCM. NCM Record Map.
<S17>Unpublished document: Davies, J. A. (NCM). Excavations at the north wall, Caistor St Edmund 1987-89..
<S18>Unpublished document: Pritchard, D. (NAU). 1988. Excavations at Caistor-St-Edmund TG 231038 October 1988.
<S19>Article in serial: Davies, J. A. 1992. Excavations at the North Wall, Caistor St. Edmund, 1987-89. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XLI Pt III pp 325-337. p 325.
<S20>Article in serial: Darling, M.. 1987. Britannia. XVIII. p263.
<S21>Unpublished document: Lobendahn, K.L.. 1995. A test of resistivity imaging and profiling - Caistor Roman fort.
<S22>Unpublished document: Lewis, E.J.. 1995. The suitability of using magnetic surveying in delineating the archaeological site at Caistor St Edmunds, Norwich.
<S23>Unpublished document: Cott, P. J.. 1993. Caistor Roman Town. A Resistivity Survey.
<S24>Unpublished document: Cott, P. J.. 1995. Caistor Roman Town. Resistivity Survey of Insula XVII. January.
<S25>Unpublished document: Norfolk Archaeological Trust and South Norfolk Council. 2000. Caistor St Edmund Roman Town Ten-Year Management Plan 2000-2010. June.
<S26>Unpublished document: Peterson, J.. 2002. Iron Age and Roman square enclosures near Venta Icenorum: Roman changes in a prehistoric ritual landscape.
<S27>Unpublished document: Bowden, W. and Bescoby, D.. 2006. Report on trial geophysical survey at Caistor St Edmund (Venta Icenorum).
<S28>Unpublished document: Bowden, W.. 2006. Sedimentary section through the floodplain of the River Tas, adjacent to the enclosed area of the Roman town, Caistor St Edmonds.
<S29>Article in serial: Jackson, R.. 1990. A new collyrium stamp from Cambridge and a corrected reading of the stamp from Caistor-by-Norwich.. Britannia. Vol XXI, pp 275-283.
<S30>Unpublished document: Caistor Roman Town Project. 2008. Caistor Roman Town Project: Volunteer Update. Issue 1.
<S31>Unpublished document: Flegg, C.. 2008. Peeling back the Past. A strategic interpretive plan for Venta Icenorum Roman Town and Environs, Caistor St Edmunds, Norfolk.
<S32>Article in serial: Bowden, W & Bescoby, D. 2008. The plan of Venta Icenorum (Caistor-by-Norwich): Interpreting a new geophysical survey.. Journal of Roman Archaeology. Vol 21.
<S33>Scheduling record: DCMS. 2008. Scheduled Monument Consent.
<S34>Verbal communication: Green, B.. 2009. Information about samian ware from Atkinson's excavations.
<S35>Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 2009. Experts discover Roman stones gather moss.. 8 July.
<S36>Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 2009. Archaeologists dig deep for 'chance of a lifetime'. 26 August.
<S37>Unpublished document: Eastern Daily Press. 2009. Experts are left baffled by mystery Caistor man. 15 September.
<S38>Article in serial: Gurney, D. and Hoggett, R. (eds). 2008. Excavations and Surveys in Norfolk in 2007. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XLV Pt III pp 441-452. p 442.
<S39>Article in serial: Bescoby, D., Bowden, W. and Chroston, P.N.. 2009. Short Report. Magnetic Survey at Venta Icenorum, Caistor St Edmund: Survey Strategies and Initial Results.. Archaeological Prospection. Vol 16, pp 287-291.
<S40>Unpublished document: Bowden, W., Bates, S. and Emery, G.. 2009. Caistor Roman Town Project Interim Statement of the 2009 excavation..
<S41>Article in serial: Bescoby, D., Bowden, W. and Chroston, P.N.. 2009. Magnetic Survey at Venta Icenorum, Caistor St Edmund: Survey Strategies and Initial Results.. Archaeological Prospection.
<S42>Verbal communication: Bowden, W.. 2011. Progress report on the Caistor Project.
<S43>Scheduling record: English Heritage. 2010. Site of the Roman town on Venta Icenorum and associated prehistoric and medieval remains.. AA044882/1.
<S44>Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 2011. Huge funding boost secures future of Roman town. 9 July.
<S45>Article in serial: Gurney, D. (ed.). 2007. Excavations and Surveys in Norfolk in 2006. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XLV Pt II pp 261-273. p 262.
<S46>Article in serial: Gurney, D. and Penn, K. (eds). 2002. Excavations and Surveys in Norfolk, 2001. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XLIV Pt I pp 162-177. p 165.
<S47>Leaflet: Bowden, W.. 2010. The Caistor Excavation 2010..
<S48>Article in serial: Gurney, D. and Penn, K. (eds). 2000. Excavations and Surveys in Norfolk 1999. Norfolk Archaeology. XLIII Pt III pp 521-543. p 524.
<S49>Oblique Aerial Photograph: Page, M.. 2010. TG 2303ASF (PAGE) 06-JUL-2010.
<S50>Oblique Aerial Photograph: Pafe, M.. 2010. TG 2303ASG-ASK (PAGE) 14-JUL-2010.
<S51>Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 2012. Roman dig team find skeleton. 20 August.
<S52>Article in serial: Atkinson, D. 1931. Caistor Excavations, 1929. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XXIV Pt II pp 93-139.
<S53>Article in serial: Atkinson, D. 1937. Roman Pottery from Caistor-next-Norwich. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XXVI Pt II pp 197-230.
<S54>Article in serial: Robins, P. and Wymer, J. 2006. Late Upper Palaeolithic (Long Blade) Industries in Norfolk. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XLV Pt I pp 86-95. p 93.
<S55>Publication: Wymer, J. J. 1985. Palaeolithic Sites of East Anglia. p 69.
<S56>Unpublished document: Wessex Archaeology. 1997. The English Rivers Palaeolithic Project. Region 8 (East Anglian Rivers) and 11 (Trent Drainage). W&Y-4, No.13.
<S57>Website: TERPS online database. Site 22634.

Related records - none

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