Record Details

NHER Number:8675
Type of record:Monument
Name:Caister on Sea Late Roman 'Saxon Shore' fort and Middle to Late Saxon cemetery

Summary

This Roman 'Saxon Shore' fort was probably constructed in the early 200s AD, and was one of a chain of eleven forts between Brancaster on The Wash and Portchester in Hampshire which were under the command of the 'Count of the Saxon Shore', a military commander whose forts and units are listed in the 'Notitia Dignitatum', a document compiled around AD 395. These forts were built at different times, and the earliest forts (Brancaster, Caister-on-Sea and Reculver in Kent) may have been more to do with trade than defence. In the late 200s, further forts were built (e.g. Burgh Castle), and these probably had a more defensive role, protecting the coastline against barbarian raiders.
The surrounding ditch, wall and rampart enclose about 3.5 hectares, and excavations have demonstrated that there are buildings, a possible corn drying kiln and a water tank. Finds include pottery, metalwork, coin hoards and some artefacts suggest occupation by cavalry, and also the presence of women and children. The fort appears to have been disused in the late 4th century AD.
Middle Saxon finds suggest that there was high status occupation in this area, and the fort may have been or been near to the site of Fursa's monastery as mentioned by Bede, although the fort at Burgh Castle is another possible location for this. At least two Middle to Late Saxon burials have been found inside the fort, while there was an extensive cemetery of this date to the south and north. Prehistoric finds from the site include a flint arrowhead, a hoard of Late Bronze Age gold and prehistoric pottery. Three ring ditches, possible Bronze Age barrows, have been also been identified.
The site is open to the public, and the Roman building is the only accessible Roman building in East Anglia.

Images

  • The remains of buildings within the Roman fort at Caister on Sea  © Norfolk Museums & Archaeology Service
  • Part of a Roman slate cosmetic palette found in Caister-on-Sea  © Norfolk Museums & Archaeology Service. NWHCM 1972.607.1:A
  • A Roman silver denarius coin of Julia Maesa from Caister-On-Sea.  © Norfolk Museums & Archaeology Service. NWHCM 1947.171.575:A
  • A Roman mortarium from Caistor St Edmund.  © Norfolk Museums & Archaeology Service. NWHCM 1961.193.A1:A

Location

Grid Reference:TG 51821 12226
Map Sheet:TG51SW
Parish:CAISTER ON SEA, GREAT YARMOUTH, NORFOLK

Full description

Roman 'Saxon Shore' Fort and Early Saxon/Middle Saxon occupation. Earlier material includes three ring ditches, Bronze Age gold hoard, Iron Age harness. Also medieval finds.

NOTE: because of the complexity of this record the finds listed below are structured in this way:
Roman casual finds; Early Saxon/Middle Saxon excavations; Early Saxon/Middle Saxon casual finds; pre Roman finds; medieval/post medieval finds; Roman excavations.
NOTE: Records from 1997 and later do not follow this structure, but are listed chronologically.

Roman casual finds:
19th century undated. Various Roman finds, all NCM.
1837. Pit lined with Roman tile. Skeletons, coins, sherds, summary of original report in file.
1843. Roman pot found.
1851. Roman pot found; drawing (S1) in file.
1851 to 1854. Casual find of Roman kiln. Sketch in file. Context 3, but probable confusion with site NHER 8678.
1853 or 1855. Found in building reservoir. Roman figurines, walls, coin. Finds NCM. Letters in file.
1932. Find of Roman coin.
1932 to 1935. Found in construction of Brooke Avenue. Roman building material, coins and pottery (see also Early Saxon section).
1934. Find of Roman tile.
1935. Roman walls cut by drain trenches. Photograph in file (S2).
1936. Context 6. Casual find Roman coin hoard. Finds NCM and personal possession.
1940. Find Roman sherds.
1946. Find Roman coin hoard in jar. Context 2. List of coins in file.
1949. Find of Roman coin.
1951. Find of Roman coin and sherds. Finds NCM.
1951. Find of Roman brooch.
1954. Context 5. Found in digging grave in cemetery. Roman inhumation.
1957. Context 8. Reported find of mosaic.
1959. Roman coin find. Finds NCM.
1965. Found when digging fishpond in Clifford Avenue. Roman sherds and finds. Finds NCM.
1969. Find of metalwork. Sketch (S1) in file.
1969. Finds of coins. Finds NCM.
1970. Find of coin. Find NCM.
1971 to 1979. Roman casual finds
1972. Finds made in digging trench. Roman pottery and building material. Finds NCM.
1972. Find of scatter of Roman sherds. Finds NCM.
1975. Find of coin.
1976. Find of steelyard weight, (S41).
About 1975. Found in digging foundations. Roman figurine.
1977. Find of coins.
1977. Find of coin.
1978. Find of coin.
1979. In laying gas pipes at 29 Norwich Road (see also Early Saxon/Middle Saxon section). Inhumations with coins and metalwork.
1978 to 1979. Metal detecting. Coins. Lists in file.
1980. Found in building works in Western Avenue. Possible military burial.
1982. Scatter of Roman tile and sherds.
Pre 1981. Casual find of coin.
1983. Field observation of garage construction at Sunnyside. Negative result.
1983. Find of coin. Found when digging in garden of 21 Belstead Avenue.
1986. Found in building extension in Gaywood Close. Flint wall Context 9. Location plan (S3) in file.
1986. Find of coin. Location plan (S3) in file.
1987. Find of coin and pottery.
1987. Context 10. In foundations of 22 Brooke Avenue. Pottery and coins.
1988. Find of coin.
1989. Find of coin and handle.
1992. Roman sherds and tile found.
1993. Roman brooch and needle.
1994. Roman coins.
1995. Roman coins.
1997. Roman pottery and coins in cable trench.

Early Saxon/Middle Saxon excavations:
1947. Excavation of inhumation. Finds NCM. See (S4).
1951 to 1953. Excavation by C. Green for Ministry of Works (see also Roman) of Middle Saxon huts with sherds and coins. Finds NCM.
1954. Excavation of Anglian cemetery with boat burials. Finds NCM. See (S5). Photographs of coin (S6).

Early Saxon/Middle Saxon casual finds:
1836. Found in digging brickearth. Early Saxon? Cremations.
1932. Found in digging trench. Skeletons and sceatta. Compare with (S7).
1932 to 1935. Found in construction of Brooke Avenue. Early Saxon cemetery.
1935. Finds of Early Saxon pottery. Finds NCM. See (S7) and (S8).
1949. Find of Early Saxon sherd. Find NCM.
1979. Find of sceatta. Find NCM 293.983. Photograph (S9).
1979. Gas pipe trench at 29 Norwich Road. Inhumation. Possibly Early Saxon with pseudo boat burial (see also Roman).
1978 to 1979. Metal detecting. Coins.
1996. Early Saxon sherds in Roman excavation.

Pre-Roman finds and features:
Pre 1889. Iron Age strap union. No details. Find in NCM.
1946. RAF air photography. Three ring ditches. Context 7. Photograph number not known.
1955. Context 1. Casual find of Bronze Age gold hoard. Possibly post Roman concealment. Finds NCM.
Full details, press cuttings (S10 to S16) and photographs in file (S17).
1996. Iron Age sherds, worked flints in Roman excavation.

Medieval and post medieval:
1978. Papal bull.
1978 to 1979. Metal detecting. Medieval and post medieval coins.
1991. Medieval metalwork.
1993. Excavation at context 11 produced medieval sherds in pits. See (S18).
1995. Medieval seal.
1998. Undated shell, brick, human bone.

Roman excavations:
1879. Excavation of flint pavement and ashpit. See (S19).
1951 to 1953. Excavation by C. Green for Ministry of Works of Roman seaport town and seamen's hostel (see also Early Saxon/Middle Saxon). Summary reports (S20 and S21) in file.
1954. Context 4. Excavation of Roman town defences and road (see also Early Saxon/Middle Saxon).
1961 to 1962. Excavation of town defences by J. Ellison. Summary in file. See (S22 to S24).
1966 to 1968. Excavation at 6 Byron Way - Roman pits and structures. Compare with (S25).
1972. Excavation on defences.
1976. Excavation by A. Gregory (NAU) revealed Roman building material.
1986. Excavation by D. Gurney (NAU) revealed Roman road and structures. See (S26).
1996. Excavation on school site: Roman ditches and cultivation remains. See (S27).
Full publication in (S28).

Around 1980. Casual finds during building of conservatory.
Four Roman coins.
See list in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 26 February 2007.

See full details, schedule form (S29), general notes and plans by R.R. Clarke (S3), and press cuttings (S10 to S16) and notes on stone types in file.
E. Rose (NLA), 3 June 1999.

1997. Watching Brief.
The land use represented by deposit context 116 was agricultural. The dating for this deposit (context 116) is tenuous, being based upon three pottery sherds. However the lack of material post dating the period of Roman occupation would tend to suggest that the period of deposition lies between the 1st and 5th centuries.
See (S30).

3 to 9 September 1997. NAU watching brief. Contexts 1 to 37 used.
On cable trenching along Brooke Avenue and clifford Lane, Caister on Sea, within the area of the Roman fort.
The trenches were seldom deeper than 0.4m and were largely cut through topsoil.
No archaeological features observed.
Two coins of the House of Constantine (one from AD 318 to 319, one from AD 320 to 323) were found.
Roman pottery.
Roman tile.
Undated hand made (pre industrial) iron finds (nail, wedge, fitting and two spikes) were also retrieved.
See (S31).
S. Tremlett (NAU), 27 February 2001.

18 September 1997. NAU excavation. At 44 Grange Road.
Recorded an ancient cultivated soil, probably Roman, and Roman pottery.
See report (S32) in file.
D. Gurney (NLA), 8 March 2001.

1999.
Roman pottery finds and wall reported.
D. Gurney (NLA), 15 October 1999.

June 2000. Stray find. In garden of 7 Uplands Avenue.
Roman coin. See file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 5 November 2000.

January 2001. Visit and field observation.
Hypocaust damage. See letter in file.
D. Gurney (NLA), 26 January 2001.

13 March 2001. NAU Watching Brief.
On foundation trenches at 14 Brook Avenue was largely negative.
See report (S33) in file.
See also (S39).
D. Gurney (NLA), 19 April 2001.

15 March 2001. NAU Watching Brief.
On trenches at the first school.
No significant findings.
See report (S34) in file.
See also (S38
D. Gurney (NLA), 19 April 2001.

May 2002. Metal detecting. Brooke Avenue, west side. In a garden butting west on scheduled monument.
Roman copper alloy coin struck in Moesia Inferior.
Identified by A. Popescu (NLA).
See list in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 30 June 2002.

May 2004. Found in spoil from grave at TG 5206 1228.
Roman pottery.
See list in file.
S. Ashley (NLA), 21 December 2004.

July 2005. NAU watching brief on installation of bicycle stand. No contexts used.
No archaeological remains or deposits were observed.
See (S35).
J. Allen (NLA), 18 August 2005.

2008. The monument is being considered as a pilot Heritage Partnership Agreement.
The scheduled monument is slightly larger than the Historic Property in the Guardianship of English Heritage. The SAM extends a little further to the south of the Guardianship area, and includes the ground under the lay-by and under the bus shelter, though the surface of the lay-by and the bus shelter itself are excluded from the scheduling. The Historic Property in the Guardianship of English Heritage is, unusually, owned by the Department for Culture Media and Sport, as the successor to the Ministry of Works, to which the land was conveyed in 1954 and 1955.
There is a Maintained Property Agreement (formerly known as a Local Management Agreement) between English Heritage and Great Yarmouth Borough Council. This began on 2 April 2005 and runs for 5 years, subject to earlier termination subject to the provisions of the Agreement. Under the MPA the Borough Council undertakes to provide day to day care and management of the site, in return for an agreed payment from English Heritage. A Schedule to the Agreement sets out management principles and specific tasks.
D. Gurney (NLA), 3 July 2008.

May 2008. Watching brief during installation of an interpretation panel within the Scheduled area.
No archaeological finds or features were encountered.
See (S36) for further information.
A. Cattermole (NLA), 14 October 2008.

December 2008. Watching brief to rear of 17 Roman Way.
See NHER 52560 for details.
A. Cattermole (NLA), 2 December 2008.

March 2010. Excavation at 29 Belstead Avenue.
A ditch that may have formed part of a plot boundary and post-hole contained Roman greyware pottery were recorded within the fills. Roman pottery and a fragment of daub were recovered from the topsoil and are possibly indicative of an area of civilian settlement. The presence of charred plant remains suggests that agricultural processing was being undertaken close to the site. The abraded nature of the pottery could suggest that this material was redeposited into the ditch feature via natural silting rather than a dumping event. A fragment of tegula suggests that there is a Roman building close to the evaluation area and that the main focus of Roman settlement is further north.
See (S37).
S. Howard (NLA), 12 April 2010.

April 2010. Watching brief at 29 Belstead Avenue.
A possible Iron Age ditch was observed during the excavation and the lack of Roman finds within the fill could suggest that the feature had silted up by the time there was the Roman civilian settlement within the area. The ditch is likely to be a boundary associated with agricultural practices or husbandry. The lack of pottery within the fill could indicate that it was located away from the area of settlement.
See (S38).
S. Howard (HES), 28 February 2011.

September 2010 - June 2011. Evaluation at Uplands Avenue.
The excavation revealed Romano-British deposits covering three distinct phases. The earliest phase comprising a buried soil horizon, postholes, ditches, pits and a gully dating to between the 1st and 2nd century AD. The second phase is associated with the establishment of the fort and comprises evidence for the construction of the rampart and structures including part of a building. A number of refuse pits and a possible hearth were also associated with this period of development. During the 4th century there is evidence for the reorganisation of the interior of the fort with metalled surfaces and heightening of the ramparts. Finds recovered include pottery mainly dating to the 3rd and 4th century, a coin, nails, quern, slag, human and animal bones. With the presence of brick and tile indicating the presence of permanent structures within the vicinity. A bone sword chape also indicates a military presence.
Post-Roman deposits comprise an extensive dark earth deposit which has been found to seal Middle Saxon features in other areas, but no features of this date were observed.
See (S40).
S. Howard (HES), 28 February 2012.

February 2012. Archaeological Monitoring at 21 Grange Road.
Archaeological monitoring of groundworks for an extension to the rear of no. 21 Grange Road, by Norvic Archaeology encountered a Romano-British ditch containing pottery, ceramic building material and animal bone, broadly dated to the 2nd to 4th century. This ditch appeared to be a re-cut of a pre-existing ditch on the same alignment from which sherds of late 3rd to 4th century pottery were recovered. The southern area of the vicus associated with the Roman fort may well have extended as far as this low-lying area by the 3rd to 4th century.
See (S40) for details.
E. Bales (HES), 05 July 2012.

July 2013. Field Visit.
Site in excellent condition under a good grass sward and clearly recently cut. Structural remains free of weeds or any other vegetation and clearly visible.
K. Powell (HES), 7 January 2014

Monument Types

  • INHUMATION (Unknown date)
  • RING DITCH (Unknown date)
  • SITE (Unknown date)
  • WALL (Unknown date)
  • RING DITCH (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • SITE (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • DITCH (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • BRIDGE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BUILDING (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • CORN DRYING KILN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • DITCH (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • DRAIN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FEATURE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FLOOR (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FORT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • GULLY (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • HEARTH (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • HEARTH (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • HYPOCAUST (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • INHUMATION (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • INN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • KILN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • LIME WORKS (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • MAUSOLEUM (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • OVEN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • PIT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • POST HOLE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • PRIVY HOUSE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • QUARRY (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • ROAD (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • TESSELLATED FLOOR (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • TIMBER FRAMED BUILDING (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • TOWN DEFENCES (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • WALL (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • CEMETERY (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • CREMATION (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • INHUMATION (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • CEMETERY (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • HEARTH (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • MONASTERY (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • PIT (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • ROUND HOUSE (DOMESTIC) (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • SHIP BURIAL (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • CEMETERY (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • INHUMATION (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • PIT (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • SHIP BURIAL (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • DITCH (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • HEARTH (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • PIT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)

Associated Finds

  • BRICK (Undated)
  • COFFIN (Undated)
  • HUMAN REMAINS (Undated)
  • HUMAN REMAINS (Undated)
  • INSCRIBED OBJECT (Undated)
  • MOLLUSCA REMAINS (Undated)
  • QUERN (Undated)
  • TILE (Undated)
  • UNIDENTIFIED OBJECT (Undated)
  • LITHIC IMPLEMENT (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • FLAKE (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC?)
  • LEAF ARROWHEAD (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • BRACELET (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • HOARD (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • POT (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • HARNESS (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • POT (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • ANIMAL REMAINS (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • ANIMAL REMAINS (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • ARCHITECTURAL FRAGMENT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • ARCHITECTURAL FRAGMENT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • ARROWHEAD (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • AWL (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BALL (RITUAL) (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BALLISTA BOLT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BEAD (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BEAD (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BELL (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BOX (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BRACELET (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BRACELET (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BRICK (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BRIQUETAGE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BROOCH (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BROOCH (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BUCKET (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BUCKLE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • CANDLE HOLDER (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • CHISEL (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • COIN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • COIN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • COIN HOARD (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • COMB (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • CRUCIBLE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • DIE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • DISC (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • DOOR FITTING (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • DRESS COMPONENT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FERRULE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FIGURINE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FIGURINE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FINGER RING (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FINGER RING (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FINGER RING (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FINGER RING (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FISH HOOK (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FLOOR TILE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FLUE TILE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FURNITURE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • GAMING PIECE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • GAMING PIECE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • GAMING PIECE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • GAMING PIECE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • GEMSTONE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • HARNESS (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • HELMET (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • HORSESHOE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • HUMAN REMAINS (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • KEY (LOCKING) (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • KEY (LOCKING) (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • KILN FURNITURE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • KNIFE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • LAMP (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • LATCHLIFTER (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • LOCKING MECHANISM (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • METAL WORKING DEBRIS (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • MINIATURE OBJECT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • MOLLUSCA REMAINS (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • NAIL (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • NEEDLE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • NEEDLE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • NEEDLE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • PADLOCK (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • PALETTE (COSMETIC) (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • PALETTE (COSMETIC) (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • PENDANT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • PENDANT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • PERSONAL ORNAMENT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • PIN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • PIN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • PIN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • PLANT REMAINS (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • POT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • POT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • PUNCH (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • QUERN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • ROOF TILE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • SCABBARD (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • SCABBARD (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • SCABBARD (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • SHEARS (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • SHOE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • SPADE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • SPEAR (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • SPINDLE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • SPINDLE WHORL (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • SPINDLE WHORL (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • SPINDLE WHORL (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • SPINDLE WHORL (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • SPOON (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • SPOON (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • SPUR (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • SPUR (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • STEELYARD (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • STEELYARD (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • STEELYARD WEIGHT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • STRAP FITTING (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • STRAP FITTING (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • STYLUS (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • STYLUS (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • SURGICAL INSTRUMENT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • SWORD (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • SWORD (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • TILE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • TILE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • TOILET ARTICLE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • TWEEZERS (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • UNIDENTIFIED OBJECT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • UNIDENTIFIED OBJECT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • UNIDENTIFIED OBJECT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • UNIDENTIFIED OBJECT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • VESSEL (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • VESSEL (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • VESSEL (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • VESSEL (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • VESSEL (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • VESSEL (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • WEIGHT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • WHETSTONE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • WINDOW GLASS (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • WORKED OBJECT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • WRITING AND DRAWING EQUIPMENT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • HANGING BOWL (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • POT (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • RING (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • SHIELD (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • ANIMAL REMAINS (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • ARCHITECTURAL FRAGMENT (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • COFFIN (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • COIN (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • FINGER RING (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • GRAVESTONE (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • HARNESS (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • KNIFE (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • LOOMWEIGHT (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • NAIL (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • POT (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • SPEAR (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • TEXTILE EQUIPMENT (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • CRUCIBLE (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • POT (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • ARROWHEAD (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • BALANCE (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • BUCKLE (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • BULL (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • CENSER (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • COIN (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • HARNESS (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • POT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • SEAL (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • SPUR (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • THIMBLE (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • UNIDENTIFIED OBJECT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • CLAY PIPE (SMOKING) (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • COIN (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • COIN WEIGHT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • POT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • POT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • TOKEN (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)

Protected Status

  • Scheduled Monument

Sources and further reading

---Article in Serial: Fox, G. E. 1889. Roman Norfolk. Archaeological Journal. Vol XLVI pp 331-367.
---Aerial Photograph: TG5112 L,AB-AC,ABJ-ABN.
---Article in Serial: Green, C., Rigold, S. E. and Clarke, R. R. 1954. Other Archaeological Excavations 1953. Norfolk Research Committee Bulletin. Series 1 No 6 (for 1953) pp 2-4. p 2.
---Graphic Material: Various. Various. Architectural plans..
---Photograph: NLA. Finds Photograph.
---Monograph: Pearson, A.. 2003. The Construction of the Saxon Shore Forts.. British Archaeological Reports British Series. Vol 349.
---Publication: English Heritage. 2000. Caister Roman Site, Norfolk.
---Publication: English Heritage Education Service. Caister Roman Site, Norfolk.
---Unpublished Document: Ellison, J.A.. 1961. Summary of Excavations at Caister-on-Sea 1961.
---Unpublished Document: Ellison, J.A.. 1962. Summary of Excavations at Caister-on-Sea 1962.
---Unpublished Document: Musty, A.E.S.. 1972. Caister.
---Unpublished Document: Watson, J.. 1989. Ancient Monuments Laboratory Report 22/89. Construction of a Sword Hilt from Caister-on-Sea, Norfolk.
---Photograph: 2001. 8675 3/2001.
---Photograph: 1958. A.S. Pottery Conference 1958, Caister-on-Sea Roman town (M617 to M620).
---Newspaper Article: 1946. Eastern Daily Press. 30 November.
---Newspaper Article: 1946. Eastern Daily Press. 26 November.
---Newspaper Article: 1935?. Eastern Daily Press. 9 May.
---Article in Serial: 1947. Journal of Roman Studies. Vol XXVII, p 131.
---Newspaper Article: The Times. 1935. 17 May.
---Newspaper Article: 1946. Eastern Daily Press. 21 December.
---Newspaper Article: 1951. Eastern Daily Press. 4 August.
---Newspaper Article: Eastern Evening News. 1947. 16 October.
---Newspaper Article: 1935. Eastern Daily Press. 16 April.
---Article in Serial: 1952. Journal of Roman Studies. Vol XLII, pp 96-97.
---Newspaper Article: 1951. Eastern Daily Press. 15 August.
---Newspaper Article: The Times. 1952. 2 February.
---Publication: Green, C.. 1952. 20 March.
---Newspaper Article: 1951. Eastern Daily Press. 8 September.
---Newspaper Article: 1952. Eastern Daily Press. 31 March.
---Newspaper Article: 1952. Eastern Daily Press. 24 March.
---Newspaper Article: 1952. Eastern Daily Press. 24 November.
---Newspaper Article: 1951. Eastern Daily Press. 31 October.
---Newspaper Article: 1954. Eastern Daily Press. 21 August.
---Newspaper Article: 1979. Eastern Daily Press. 17 August.
---Newspaper Article: 1979. Eastern Daily Press. 23 August.
---Newspaper Article: 1979. Eastern Daily Press. 16 August.
---Newspaper Article: 1983. Eastern Daily Press. 15 October.
---Newspaper Article: 1996. Eastern Daily Press. 11 January.
---Newspaper Article: 1999. Eastern Daily Press. 17 April.
---Scheduling Record: Ministry of Works. Schedule Report.
---Unpublished Document: Green, E.B.. 1973. East-Bloudy-Burgh Furlong.
---Monograph: Gurney, D.. 2002. Outposts of the Roman Empire. A Guide to Norfolk's Roman Forts at Burgh Castle, Caister-on-Sea and Brancaster..
---Article in Serial: Gurney, D. and Penn, K. (eds). 1997. Excavations and Surveys in Norfolk 1996. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XLII Pt IV pp 547-564. p 549.
---Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 2007. Excavator blunder damages Roman site. 13 April 2007.
---Unpublished Document: English Heritage. 2008. Heritage Partnership Agreement, Caister Roman Fort..
---Article in Serial: Gunn, J.. 1846. Icenia: Notices of Roman remains and evidences of occupation, discovered in Norfolk.. The Archaeological Journal. Vol III, pp 246-51..
---Photograph: P. Crawley.. 2010. PMF.
---Slide: P. Crawley.. 2010. Slides 1-15, 29 Belstead Avenue, Caister on Sea..
---Unpublished Document: Crawley, P.. 2010. NAU Archaeology Report No. 2415. An archaeological watching brief at 29 Belstead Avenue, Caister-on-Sea, norfolk.. October.
---Article in Serial: Gurney, D. and Penn, K. (eds). 2002. Excavations and Surveys in Norfolk, 2001. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XLIV Pt I pp 162-177. p 164.
---Unpublished Document: Cope-Faulkner, P.. 2011. Archaeological Project Services Report No. 106/11. Archaeological investigations at Uplands Avenue, Caister-on-Sea, Norfolk.. November.
---Article in Serial: Gurney, D. and Penn, K. (eds). 1998. Excavations and Surveys in Norfolk 1997. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XLIII Pt I pp 193-210. pp 194-195.
---Article in Serial: Rumbelow, P. E. 1937. Finds on a Roman Site at Caister-on-Sea, Norfolk. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XXVI Pt II pp 178-182.
---Archive: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Bronze Age. Caister -on-sea.
---Archive: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Roman. Caister-by-Yarmouth [3].
---Archive: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Late Saxon. Caister on Sea.
---Article in Serial: Clarke, R. R. 1955. Other Archaeological Excavations, 1954. Norfolk Research Committee Bulletin. Series 1 No 7 (for 1954) p 2.
---Article in Serial: 1963. Archaeological Discoveries in Norfolk, 1961. Norfolk Research Committee Bulletin. Series 1 No 14 (for 1961 and 1962) pp 1-3. p 2.
---Secondary File: Secondary file.
---Slide: Various. Slide. 1-15.
---Fiche: Exists.
---Article in Serial: Taylor, R. J. and Brailsford, J. W. 1985. British Iron Age Strap-Unions. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society. Vol 51 pp 247-272. p 265.
---Archive: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Post-Medieval. Caister-on-sea.
---Archive: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Middle Saxon. Caister on Sea [2].
<S1>Archive: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Early Saxon. Caister on Sea [6].
<S2>Photograph: Unknown. 1935. October 2005..
<S3>Map: Finder's Map..
<S4>Article in Serial: Clarke, R. R. 1952. Notes on Recent Archaeological Discoveries in Norfolk (1943-8). Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XXX pp 156-159. p 158.
<S5>Article in Serial: Wells, C. and Green, C. 1973. Sunrise Dating of Death and Burial. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XXXV Pt IV pp 435-442. p 435.
<S6>Photograph: EAJ 23-35.
<S7>Article in Serial: Clarke, R. R. 1940. Norfolk in the Dark Ages, 400-800 A.D., Part II. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XXVII Pt II pp 215-249. p 236.
<S8>Article in Serial: Sainty, J. E. and Clarke, R. R. 1946. A Century of Norfolk Prehistory. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XXIX pp 8-40. p 39.
<S9>Photograph: CNB 1-6.
<S10>Newspaper Article: Yarmouth Mercury. 1955. July 22.
<S11>Newspaper Article: Yarmouth Mercury. 1955. 29 July, pp 6-7.
<S12>Publication: 1955. ILN. 30 July.
<S13>Newspaper Article: 1955. Eastern Daily Press. July 20.
<S14>Newspaper Article: 1955. Eastern Daily Press. 28 July.
<S15>Newspaper Article: 1955. Eastern Daily Press. 16 December.
<S16>Newspaper Article: The Times. 1955. 25 July.
<S17>Photograph: Ashley, H.. 1955. Late Bronze Age gold objects found at Caister on Sea (CM580 and CM582).
<S18>Unpublished Document: Penn, K.. 1993. NAU Report No. 19. Report on an Archaeological Evaluation at 3, West Road, Caister-on-Sea..
<S19>Article in Serial: 1884. Appendix. Extracts from the Proceedings at General and Committee Meetings. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol IX pp 359-369. 361.
<S20>Article in Serial: 1952. Caister-on-Sea, Norfolk. Norfolk Research Committee Bulletin. Series 1 No 4 (for 1951) pp 2-3.
<S21>Unpublished Document: 1953. Roman Town at Caister-on-Sea.
<S22>Article in Serial: Ellison, J. A. 1965. Excavations at Caister-on-Sea 1961-62. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XXXIII, pp 94-107.
<S23>Article in Serial: Ellison, J. A. 1966. Excavations at Caister-on-Sea, 1962-63. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XXXIV Pt I pp 45-73.
<S24>Article in Serial: Ellison, J. A. 1965. Excavations at Caister-on-Sea 1961-62. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XXXIII, pp 94-107.
<S25>Article in Serial: Higgins, D. C. 1972. Three Groups of Romano-British Coarse Pottery from Caister-on-Sea, Norfolk. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XXXV Pt III pp 279-301.
<S26>Unpublished Document: Gurney, D.. 1986. Excavation at Caister on Sea 1986: Summary Report.
<S27>Unpublished Document: Emery, P.. 1996. NAU Report No. 181. Archaeological Evaluation at Caister-on-Sea County First School..
<S28>Monograph: Darling, M.J. and Gurney, D.. 1993. Caister-on-Sea Excavations by Charles Green 1951-55.. East Anglian Archaeology. Vol 60.
<S29>Unpublished Document: English Heritage. 1997. Schedule Report.
<S30>Unpublished Document: Moss, N.. 1997. NAU Report No. 282. Results of a Watching Brief at 44 Grange Road, Caister-on-Sea..
<S31>Unpublished Document: Wallace, P.A.M.. 1999. NAU Report No. 407. Report on an Archaeological Watching Brief at Brooke Avenue, Caister-on-Sea..
<S32>Unpublished Document: Moss, N.. 2001. NAU Report No. 581. Report on Archaeological Excavation at 44 Grange Road, Caister-on-Sea..
<S33>Unpublished Document: Hobbs, B.. 2001. NAU Report No. 588. Report on Archaeological Watching Brief at No. 14 Brooke Avenue, Casiter on Sea..
<S34>Unpublished Document: Underdown, S.. 2001. NAU Report No. 589. Report on Archaeological Watching Brief at Caister-on-Sea First School..
<S35>Unpublished Document: Boyle, M.. 2006. NAU Archaeology Report No. 1098. An Archaeological Watching Brief at Caister-on-Sea, Norfolk..
<S36>Unpublished Document: Hobson, M.. 2008. NAU Archaeology Report No. 1831. An Archaeological Watching Brief at Caister-on-Sea Roman Fort, Norfolk..
<S37>Unpublished Document: Crawley, P.. 2010. Nau Archaeology Report No. 2384. An archaeological evaluation at 29 Belstead Avenue, Caister on Sea, Norfolk..
<S38>Article in Serial: Gurney, D. and Penn, K. (eds). 2002. Excavations and Surveys in Norfolk, 2001. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XLIV Pt I pp 162-177. p 164.
<S39>Article in Serial: Gurney, D. and Penn, K. (eds). 2002. Excavations and Surveys in Norfolk, 2001. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XLIV Pt I pp 162-177. p 164.
<S40>Unpublished Document: Emery, G.. 2012. Norvic Archaeology Rep No. 21, Archaeological Monitoring at Grange Road, Caister-on-Sea, Norfolk.
<S41>Illustration: Gregory, T.. 1976. Drawing of a Roman steelyard weight.. Paper. 1:1.

Related records

45329Parent of: Late Roman and Middle Saxon activity, Uplands (Monument)
52560Parent of: Roman ditch, medieval pits and a possible hollow way, at land to the rear of 17 Roman Way (Monument)

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