Record Details

NHER Number:5756
Type of record:Monument
Name:Prehistoric pits, Iron Age settlement, Saxon town area, and medieval industrial activity

Summary

This large area overlooking the Little Ouse River Valley has been favoured for human settlement from the Prehistoric period to the present day. A wide variety of surface finds have been collected in the area since at least the 1930s, several extensive excavations have taken place here since the mid-1950s, and quantities of Saxon and medieval pottery and undated burials were recorded at various locations during the redevelopment of the area in the 1950s and 1960s. The Grammar School Playing Fields included in the site were scheduled in 1967 as part of the Late Saxon town, providing statutory protection for this important area.
The earliest evidence for human activity at this site was recorded in the southeast of the area in 1989 and 1994, prior to the development of Jubilee Close. A concentrated group of twenty-six Middle Iron Age (5th to 7th century BC) pits was recorded. However, these pits also contained a possible Palaeolithic blade, residual Mesolithic, Neolithic, and Late Bronze Age worked flint, and Early Neolithic, Late Neolithic, and Beaker pottery sherds, indicating activity in the area throughout prehistory.
By the first century AD, a settlement had formed in the northwest of the site. Ten round buildings and several pits were recorded during excavation of a large area adjacent to Brandon Road between 1964 and 1966. No identifiable Iron Age pottery sherds were found within these features, but they were associated with a small quantity of Roman pottery sherds, indicating a Romano-British settlement. This settlement may have extended north of the excavated area towards Redcastle Furze (see NHER 24822) where a contemporary site has been excavated.
Occupation continued along Brandon Road in the Early Saxon period. Four possible sunken featured buildings and several pits containing Early Saxon pottery were recorded in the west of the area excavated between 1964 and 1966. Similar to the Romano-British settlement, these features may be outlying elements of the Early Saxon settlement excavated at Redcastle Furze (see NHER 24822).
The Early Saxon settlement appears to have been abandoned prior to the late 7th century and the area was not occupied again until the late 10th century. At this time, a pottery kiln was constructed, but this appears to have been short-lived and by the end of the 10th century a large enclosure containing fenced yards and slight buildings had been constructed while the disused kiln had been incorporated into a boundary. Sometime during the 11th century the area was reorganized. A metalled east-west road was constructed parallel to the modern Brandon Road, with a slightly smaller north-south branch, and a dense, loosely planned settlement developed along the roads. The Late Saxon buildings appear to have remained in use into the 12th century, when the road was repaved, and the population may have increased at this time. During this period there is also some slight evidence for industrial activity adjacent to the road, including iron and copper working, bone working, and possibly leather working. Excavation in 1966 within the playing fields approximately 100m to the south of the Brandon Road excavations recorded six Thetford Ware pottery kilns with an associated kilnyard. The kilns are contemporary with the Late Saxon settlement at Brandon Road and remained in use to the end of the Late Saxon period.
Between the Brandon Road excavations and the kilnyard is a roughly square area marked as St John’s Churchyard on 19th century maps (see NHER 5755). The existence of a church at this location and the dedication of such a church remains uncertain. However, St John’s church has pre-Conquest origins and if located here would have been contemporary with the settlement fronting Brandon Road.
Activity along Brandon Road appears to have declined in the mid-12th century, but small scale activity continued throughout the medieval period. This activity seems to have been primarily industrial. Cloth dying was carried out in the west of the excavated area in the late 12th and 13th centuries, after which the land appears to have reverted to pastoral or agricultural use. Elsewhere, several late 12th to 16th century drying ovens were recorded which were likely used for commercial malting and possibly brewing. The area appears to have been abandoned in the 16th century, but the road remained in use, was repaved several times, and is likely the road which appears as Lakenheath Way on a 19th century surveyor’s map.

Images - none

Location

Grid Reference:TL 86 82
Map Sheet:TL88SE
Parish:THETFORD, BRECKLAND, NORFOLK

Full description

Saxon Town Area, Playing Fields, Thetford

Undated. Casual Find.
Four sherds of Thetford ware were recovered from this area [1].
The sherds are in the Thetford Museum (A2256-9)
Information from (S1).
H. Hamilton (NLA), 01 August 2008.

1930. Casual Find.
A Roman coin and several pottery sherds were found on the playing field [2].
The coin has been identified as a '2nd brass' of Carausius.
Rev: Pax standing L. with olive ranch and vertical septre.
Information from (S1).
H. Hamilton (NLA), 01 August 2008.

Between 1948 and 1959. Unstratified Finds.
Two copper alloy disc brooches, a copper alloy finger ring with ring and dot decoration, a 13th to 14th century copper alloy moulded buckle frame, and a disc-shaped copper alloy weight stamped with a crowned 'h' were recovered from the area around [3]. A bone pin with incised decoration was also recovered from the surface of the field to the north [4]. The incised decoration indicates a possible Roman date for the pin, but its stubby form suggests a post Roman date.
See (S1) and (S2) for further details.

Summer 1955. Excavation.
Excavation of five trenches in the corners of the Playing Field by the Thetford Girls' Grammar School recorded Early Saxon pottery, a possible Late Saxon floor, and a possible road of Late Saxon to medieval date.
Trench 1 (southeast): A possible hut floor associated with two post holes was recorded. The floor was associated with Thetford ware, and St Neot's ware was recovered from the layer above it. Finds from this area include several nails and a small iron tanged blade.
Trench 2 (northeast): A layer of packed flint apparently ran across the trench. G. Knocker has interpreted this as a flint road or hard standing and dated it to the end of the Late Saxon period, but it could also be a medieval feature. Below this, several post holes associated with a sand and ash layer were recorded. The post holes apparently cut a layer that included a course red ware similar to St Neot's and black burnished Early Saxon pottery.
Trench 3 (northeast): A sherd of Late Saxon pottery was recovered.
No finds of archaeological interested were reported from Trench 4 (northwest) and Trench 5 (southwest).
See (S3), (S4), (S5), and (S6, p 221) for further details. The results of this work are also summarised in (S36)

Summer 1957 and 1958. Excavation.
Further excavation by the Thetford Girls' Grammar School investigated the area labelled on Ordnance Survey maps as the site of St. John's Churchyard.
See NHER 5755 for details.
H. Hamilton (NLA), 01 August 2008.

June 1959. Casual Find.
Late Saxon Thetford ware, animal bone, and human bones were found while digging a trench in the playing fields for a water main [5]. The finds were recovered at a depth of 3 ft 6 in adnd were collected and drawn by G. Knocker.
Pottery and animal bone has deposited with NCM (225.960).
See (S1), (S7) and (S32) for further details.
H. Hamilton (NLA), 01 August 2008.

1964. Casual find.
A stone axe of uncertain date was recovered from [6].
Information from (S1).
H. Hamilton (NLA), 04 August 2008.

1964-66. Excavation (Brandon Road).
Excavation over three seasons of a large area adjacent to Brandon Road recorded evidence for occupation from the first century AD to the 16th century. The earliest excavated features consisted of ten round buildings and two pits clustered in the northwest of the site. Very little dating evidence was recovered for these features, but a mid first century AD date has been assigned based on the presence of a small quantity of Roman sherds and the form of the buildings suggests Romano-British occupation. This early settlement may have extended north of the excavated area towards Redcastle Furze (NHER 24822) where a contemporary site has been excavated.
Four possible sunken featured buildings and at least six pits were assigned an Early Saxon date. These features were also clustered in the northwest of the site, and they appear to be outlying elements of the Early Saxon settlement excavated to the northwest at Redcastle Furze (NHER 24822). However, very few obvious early sherds or stamped sherds similar to those at Redcastle Furze were recovered and it has therefore been suggested that the buildings may have been constructed late in the period (6th to 7th century), possibly during a phase of expansion of the Redcastle Furze settlement. These buildings appear to have been abandoned before the introduction of Middle Saxon Ipswich-type pottery in the late 7th century. Finds from the Early Saxon features were limited to handmade pottery, small quantities of animal bone, a coarse sandstone quern, and a bone comb as well as a few residual Roman sherds and intrusive Late Saxon sherds.
Occupation does not appear to have resumed at the site until the late 10th century when a kiln was constructed, possibly with an associated yard. By the late 10th century the area appears to have been divided by gullies forming a large enclosure containing fenced yards and slight buildings, and the disused kiln was incorporated into a boundary. Settlement at this time has been interpreted as sparse and likely rural in character. A ditched droveway joined the site from the southwest, indicating that the enclosure may have been used for stock, and the presence of fenced yards and gullies in the north may indicate division into pens and yards. One cellared building located in the east of the site may also have been in use during this period, but the date of this building remains uncertain.
At the end of the Late Saxon period the site appears to have been reorganized. A metalled east-west road parallel to the modern Brandon Road and a slightly smaller north-south road were constructed, and a dense, loosely planned settlement developed along the roads. The majority of the features recorded on the site have been assigned a Late Saxon to early medieval date (early 11th to 12th century) and are aligned with the new roads. Settlement plots of this period may have been more well-defined along the street frontage than within areas further away from the roads and the street frontages were heavily re-used, making precise dating uncertain. Some changes of layout appear to have taken place in the 11th century, when a system of boundary gullies on the northern edge of the excavation area were constructed. These gullies may have defined the rear of properties fronting on Brandon Road. The Late Saxon buildings seem to have remained in use through the 12th century, when the road appears to have been repaved, and rubbish pits and cess pits attest to an increase in population. Some slight evidence for industrial activity was recorded next to road, particularly in the smaller early medieval properties on the north-south road, including iron and copper alloy working, bone working, and possibly leather working. Misfired Thetford ware was present in several pits, but no other kilns were recorded. Unusual quantities of St Neots ware were recovered, mostly along the roads, indicating that it was being imported.
Very few mid-12th century features were identified, and there may have been a decline in activity at this time (possibly during the Anarchy), but the roads and some of the boundaries remained in use throughout the medieval period. Medieval occupation appears to have been essentially industrial. Cloth dying was carried out in the west of site in the late 12th and 13th centuries, after which this area seems to have reverted to open ground, divided by ditches, possibly paddocks or agricultural areas. Elsewhere, several late 12th to 16th century drying ovens were recorded along with several wells and late medieval mortared tanks. These structures indicate commercial use, likely for malting and possibly brewing. The road appears to have been repaved again and made narrower some time after the 14th century and likely not until around 1500 or slightly later. The area appears to have been abandoned in 16th century, with the exception of one industrial oven which may have remained in use to 17th century. However, the road seems to have continued to be used, likely repaved with large cobbles around 1750 and present until at least the early 19th century when the east-west road appears on a surveyors map as Lakenheath Way.
See (S6), (S8), (S23-S25), (S33) and (S34) for further details.
H. Hamilton (NLA), 18 September 2008.

1965. Casual Find.
Several Late Saxon sherds were recovered from spoil from a trench on a construction site near the 1964 excavation [7]. A further scatter of pottery within patches of black soil was located at [8] and additional sherds were found in spoil from foundation trenches at [9] along with four inhumations inspected by the Ministry of Works. In addition, a kiln containing whole pots was encountered at Context 2 [10] while pipelaying for the new housing development and slighlty further northeast a roadway with cart ruts was observed. The burials observed may be those described by a member of the public in 2001 as having been uncoveredin the 1960's opposite the roadway leading to the footbridge called Blaydon Bridge (S20).
Information from (S1) and (S9).
H. Hamilton (NLA), 04 August 2008.

1966. Excavation (The Kilnyard).
Excavation by the Ministry Of Works continued under the direction of B.K. Davison, opening an area approximately 100m south of the previous Brandon Road excavation where a surface scatter of iron slag and pottery had been noted. Investigation of an area measuring 29m by 26m revealed six Late Saxon Thetford ware kilns and part of an associated kilnyard. All six kilns were single-flue updraught type (Musty Type Ib) set in steep-sided pits dug into the natural sand and gravel. All had similar plans, ranging in size from 1.8m by 1.15m to 2.75m by 1.6m. The pit floor had survived in two kilns, the kiln mouth was preserved in three examples, and evidence of repairs was recorded. All six kilns had collapsed klin structure in their fills, and at least three may have collapsed gradually rather than being deliberately demolished. Few whole pots were recovered, indicating that the final kiln loads were not abandoned. Analysis of charcoal samples from the kilns indicates that they were primarily fuelled with heather and broom, possibly some gorse, and small quantities of hazel and oak, all of which was likely gathered from the heath south of the river and from local woodland.
The kilns produced a range of Thetford ware products, and there is some evidence for a single potter and some possible apprentice work at the site. Large quantities of sherds were discarded in pits on the site. These were sherds from unused pots, many of which were misfired, indicating that the kilns were generally cleaned out between uses. The sherds from the pits were generally quite large, but the estimated number of vessels was high and one pit was full of sherds almost all from different vessels. No obvious potters' tools were recovered, and it is thought that everyday objects were likely used for processes such as trimming, smoothing, and finishing. Iron knives were likely used for trimming bases, two worn cattle ribs may have been used for smoothing, and fourteen pottery sherds which exhibited a smooth edge may have been used to smooth vessels.
The kilnyard appears to have been bounded by gullies on the northeast and northwest, and the northeastern boundary likely shifted over time. There was no indication of whether the gullies may have supported a fence or a hedge or were left open. Two groups of kilns were identified, a group of two to the north and four clustered to the south. The sequence and relationship between the two groups is unclear, but it is likely that only one or two were used at any one time. Zones of trampling were noted around the kilns, indicating that most of the activity took place to the west of the structures. Towards the western edge of the site, a post set within a flint-lined pit was recorded which may represent a pivot for a potter's wheel. Three small stone cyllinders, one recovered from a pit and two from the bottom of a kiln (possibly the latest kiln), may also have been pivot-stones. A large storage jar set into the ground near the possible in situ pivot may have held a water supply while several pits in the west and south of the site may have been of a suitable depth for clay storage. A group of post holes east of the kilns may represent light sheds aligned with the site boundary, but no obvious plans could be discerned. The majority of the eighteen recorded pits contained discarded kiln products but no domestic refuse. Very little animal bone was recovered and only two vessels with possible domestic sooting were identified, indicating that living quarters were situated outside the excavated area.
See (S6) for further details.
H. Hamilton (NLA), 17 September 2008.

January 1966. Casual Find.
Flint and chalk foundations approximately 3 ft deep and 1.5 ft thick were encountered at [11] while laying sewers. A few Thetford Ware sherds were also recovered.
See (S1) for further details.
H. Hamilton (NLA), 04 August 2008.

1967. Scheduled.
The Grammar School Playing Fields have been scheduled as SAM No. 291.
See (S10) for further details.
H. Hamilton (NLA), 04 August 2008.

1969. Casual Find.
Human remains and Late Saxon sherds were recoverd at [12] while excavating for a new subway across Brandon Road. The human remains were seen in the west side of the cutting, at a depth of about 4 ft. The pottery assemblage included one sherd of St Neot's ware, one sherd of unglazed Stamford ware, and one sherd of Thetford ware. The burials observed may be those described by a member of the public in 2001 as having been uncoveredin the 1960's opposite the roadway leading to the footbridge called Blaydon Bridge (S20).
See (S1) for further details.
H. Hamilton (NLA), 04 August 2008.

1975. Casual Finds.
An assemblage of Late Saxon Thetford ware sherds including fragments with pie crust decoration and rouletting was collected from the northern and eastern boundary of the playing field.
Pottery identified by A. Maddock (NCM), 1975.
See (S1) for further details.
H. Hamilton (NLA), 04 August 2008.

April and July 1981. Unsystematic Fieldwalking.
204 pottery sherds were collected from an area underneath a narrow belt of pines behind the houses on Brandon Road and northeast of the playing field. The pottery is predominantly Thetford ware, but also includes some St Neot's, much unglazed and glazed medieval pottery, and post medieval glazed and stoneware. An additional 50 sherds were recovered from the northwest border of the playing field. This is also predominantly Thetford ware but includes some medieval unglazed and one post medieval glazed sherd.
Identified by A. Rogerson (NAU) October 1981 and given to NCM.
See (S1) for further details.
H. Hamilton (NLA), 04 August 2008.

January 1982.
A scheme to construct further houses on the playing fields was rejected.
Information from (S11).
H. Hamilton (NLA), 05 August 2008.

November 1988. Scheduling Revised.
The scheduled site, SAM 288 (site of St. John's Churchyard) has been subsumed within this scheduled site (SAM 291), though the the separate NHER number for the churchyard (NHER 5755) has been retained.
Information from (S10) and (S12).
H. Hamilton (NLA), 05 August 2008.

1989. Excavation.
Excavation opposite Redcastle Furze Middle School recorded a concentrated group of 25 prehistoric pits as well as an outlying pit and a post hole. The main concentration of pits has been dated to the Iron Age (roughly 5th to 7th century BC). The outlying pit, which was clay-lined and packed with burnt flint and charcoal, contained a single Iron Age sherd in its lower fill and has been dated to this period. This sherd is comparable to Iron Age pottery from Fison Way (NHER 5853) and Iron Age features of similar form were encountered both at this site and one immediately to the south (NHER 38138).

The fills of these pits and the overlying soil deposits also produced worked flints and pottery associated with activity during earlier prehistoric periods. Potentially the earliest object recovered was a water-rolled patinated blade of possible Palaeolithic date. A small narrow-blade core of Mesolithic type and a broken microlith were also found. The majority of the pre-Iron Age finds were however of later prehistoric date. These included a small pottery assemblage comprising sherds of Neolithic grooved ware, indeterminate Late Neolithic to Early Bronze Age sherds (possibly beaker) and a single sherd of Mid to Late Bronze Age pottery. The majority of the worked flints recovered were also likely to be of later prehistoric date, being characterised by a generally poor standard of workmanship. These flints included roughly-worked cores, thick and crudely struck flakes, scrapers, fabricators, borers and other retouched flakes. This assemblage is likely to be no earlier than Late Bronze Age in date and at its possible that at least some was Iron Age. A smooth partially perforated stone 'bead' was also recovered.

The dating of the pits as Iron Age is supported by the fact that the earlier pottery exhibits much more wear than the largely unweathered Iron Age sherds, indicating that it was most likely residual. Sherds from single Iron Age vessels were also recovered from several different pits, indicating that they were backfilled at the same time.

Other finds recovered during fieldwalking and metal detecting of the area include one possible Roman sherd and a probably Roman copper alloy bracelet. Topsoil finds include seven sherds of medieval pottery and post medieval horseshoe fragments, clay pipe, and glazed pottery sherds as well as a small quantity of animal bone, oyster shell and cockle shell. A post-medieval gunflint was also found.
See (S13-S18) for further details. The results of this work are also summarised in (S35).
H. Hamilton (NLA), 05 August 2008. Amended by P. Watkins (HES), 29 July 2013.

1994. Watching Brief.
Monitoring of ground works for the installation of a fence opposite Redcastle Furze Middle School (see above) recorded only a single flint tool. This has been identified as an oval flake which was likely worked into a scraper.
See report (S19) for further details.
H. Hamilton (NLA), 05 August 2008.

August 2001. Watching Brief. Contexts 200-218.
A further nine cut features were recorded during monitoring of groundworks for the installation of houses opposite Redcastle Furze Middle School. Although these were only partially investigated, several of the pits appeared to be similar in character to those recorded in 1989 and are likely outliers of this Middle Iron Age pit group. The pits yielded a flint assemblage consisting largely of flakes and retouched flakes of Late Prehistoric character but also a small quantity of residual Neolithic worked flint. In addition, a single Middle Iron Age Pottery sherd was recorded in one of the pit fills.
At least two of the cut features recorded may be related to the 1989 excavation trenches, while one shallow feature contained an 18th to 19th century halfpenny, post medieval pottery and a copper alloy post medieval tack.
Metal detecting throughout the area yielded about 140 18th to 20th century metal items.
See report in file.
See report (S21) for further details. The results of this work are also summarised in (S31).
D. Gurney (NLA) 5 October 2001. Updated H. Hamilton (NLA), 5 August 2008.

Before 9 October 2002. Metal detecting.
A Roman coin was recovered from a building site [13].
See list in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA) 30 January 2003.

December 2006. Desk Based Assessment.
Desk-based research prior to further development at Jubilee Close has noted that a post medieval banked field boundary and remains of the Late Saxon town ditch (NHER 5886) may have extended into the extreme north of the development area. It is also directly north of the Iron Age pit cluster identified in 1989 and 1994 and therefore there is high potential for the recovery of further Prehistoric remains.
See report (S22).
J. Allen (NLA) 26 March 2007. Updated H. Hamilton (NLA), 02 October 2008.

April 2007.
Scheduled monument consent granted concerning 6 window samples measuring 150mm in diameter.
See (S26).
H. White (NLA), 6 April 2009

November - December 2007. Excavation, from context 300.
A trench was excavated across the suspected Saxon town ditch to establish the profile and sequence of deposits of the feature. A 1.20m wide sondage was excavated and revealed the maximum width of 8.0m and maximum depth of3.0m. It was U-shaped in profile. Artefactual dating evidence was scant, with only a single animal bone and a sherd of pottery being recovered.
Immediately adjacent to the north-eastern edge of the ditch a series of deposits were interpreted as part of the base of a defensive bank contemporary with the ditch. The bank survived to a maximum of 1.30m, and contained four sherds of Thetford-type pottery. A programme of scientific dating suggested a late 10th-century date for the construction of the defences.
A NW-SE feature was observed adjacent and parallel to the Anglo-Saxon bank. The ditch was interpreted as a late post-medieval boundary.
Fragments of struck flint dating to the Neolithic period were recovered from the site.
See report (S27) and assessment report (S28) for further information. The results of this work are also summarised in (S30).
H. White (NLA), 20 November 2008.

December 2008. Watching Brief.
No archaeological features were located during the watching brief. A number of flint tools including a core, thumbnail scraper and a blade were recovered and a single sherds of Saxon pottery.
See report (S29) for further details.
S. Howard (NLA), 3 December 2009.

Monument Types

  • FINDSPOT (Upper Palaeolithic - 40000 BC? to 10001 BC?)
  • PIT (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • PIT (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • PIT (Beaker - 2300 BC to 1700 BC)
  • HEARTH (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • HUT (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • PIT (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • POST HOLE (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • SETTLEMENT (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • HEARTH (Late Iron Age to Roman - 1 AD to 99 AD)
  • PIT (Late Iron Age to Roman - 1 AD to 99 AD)
  • POST BUILT STRUCTURE (Late Iron Age to Roman - 1 AD to 99 AD)
  • POST HOLE (Late Iron Age to Roman - 1 AD to 99 AD)
  • ROUND HOUSE (DOMESTIC)? (Late Iron Age to Roman - 1 AD to 99 AD)
  • DITCH (Saxon - 410 AD to 1065 AD)
  • GRUBENHAUS (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • GULLY (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • HEARTH (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • PIT (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • SETTLEMENT (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • AISLED BUILDING (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • BOUNDARY (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • BUILDING (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • CROSS (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • DITCH (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • GULLY (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • HEARTH (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • INHUMATION (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • OCCUPATION SITE (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • PIT (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • POST HOLE (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • POTTERY KILN (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • POTTERY WORKS (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • QUARRY (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • ROAD (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • ROUND HOUSE (DOMESTIC) (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • SHED? (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • STOCK ENCLOSURE (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • BELL PIT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • BUILDING (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • CELLAR (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • CORN DRYING KILN (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • DITCH (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • DYE WORKS (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • FARMSTEAD (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • HEARTH (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • INHUMATION (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • LIME WORKS (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • MALTINGS (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • POST HOLE (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • ROAD (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • WALL (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • WELL (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • ROAD (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)

Associated Finds

  • ANIMAL REMAINS (Undated)
  • CHAIN (Undated)
  • MOLLUSCA REMAINS (Undated)
  • NAIL (Undated)
  • BEAD (Prehistoric - 500000 BC? to 42 AD?)
  • BLADE (Upper Palaeolithic - 40000 BC? to 10001 BC?)
  • BLADE CORE (Mesolithic - 10000 BC to 4001 BC)
  • MICROLITH (Mesolithic - 10000 BC to 4001 BC)
  • AXEHEAD (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • BORER (Late Prehistoric - 4000 BC to 42 AD)
  • CEREMONIAL OBJECT (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • CORE (Late Prehistoric - 4000 BC to 42 AD)
  • FABRICATOR (Late Prehistoric - 4000 BC to 42 AD)
  • FLAKE (Late Prehistoric - 4000 BC to 42 AD)
  • KNIFE (Late Prehistoric - 4000 BC to 42 AD)
  • KNIFE (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • LITHIC IMPLEMENT (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • POT (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • POT (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • SCRAPER (TOOL) (Late Prehistoric - 4000 BC to 42 AD)
  • POT (Late Neolithic to Early Bronze Age - 3000 BC to 1501 BC)
  • POT (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • POT (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • POT (Beaker - 2300 BC to 1700 BC)
  • POT (Middle Bronze Age to Late Bronze Age - 1600 BC to 701 BC)
  • LITHIC IMPLEMENT (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • POT (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • ARCHITECTURAL FRAGMENT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BRACELET (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • COIN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • COIN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • COIN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • POT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • POT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • ROOF TILE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • POT (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • COIN (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • ANIMAL REMAINS (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • ANIMAL REMAINS (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • ARCHITECTURAL FRAGMENT (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • ARCHITECTURAL FRAGMENT (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • ARROWHEAD (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • AWL (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • AXEHEAD (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • BEAD (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • BRACELET (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • BROOCH (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • BROOCH (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • BUCKLE (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • COFFIN (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • COIN (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • COMB (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • DOOR FITTING (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • DRESS COMPONENT (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • EAR RING (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • FINGER RING (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • FINGER RING (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • FISH HOOK (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • GAMING BOARD (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • GAMING PIECE (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • GOUGE (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • HARNESS (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • HORSESHOE (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • HUMAN REMAINS (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • ICE SKATE (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • KEY (LOCKING) (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • METAL WORKING DEBRIS (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • METAL WORKING DEBRIS (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • MOLLUSCA REMAINS (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • MUSICAL INSTRUMENT (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • NEEDLE (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • PERSONAL ORNAMENT (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • PIN (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • PLANT REMAINS (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • POT (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • QUERN (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • SHEARS (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • SICKLE (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • SPEAR (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • SPINDLE WHORL (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • SPINDLE WHORL (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • SPINDLE WHORL (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • SPUR (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • STRAP FITTING (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • TEXTILE (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • TEXTILE EQUIPMENT (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • UNIDENTIFIED OBJECT (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • WASTER (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • WEIGHT (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • WEIGHT (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • WHETSTONE (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • WORKED OBJECT (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • WORKED OBJECT (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • ANIMAL REMAINS (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • ARCHITECTURAL FRAGMENT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • AWL (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • BALANCE (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • BRACELET (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • BRICK (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • BROOCH (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • BUCKLE (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • BUCKLE (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • CANDLE HOLDER (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • CHISEL (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • COIN (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • DOOR FITTING (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • DRESS COMPONENT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • DRILL BIT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • FINGER RING (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • FLOOR TILE (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • HARNESS (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • HORSESHOE (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • ICE SKATE (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • KEY (LOCKING) (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • KNIFE (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • METAL WORKING DEBRIS (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • METAL WORKING DEBRIS (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • MORTAR (VESSEL) (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • MOULD (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • PADLOCK (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • PADLOCK (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • PENDANT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • PIN (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • PIN (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • POT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • POT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • PUNCH (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • ROOF TILE (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • SCABBARD (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • STRAP FITTING (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • STRAP FITTING (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • TEXTILE EQUIPMENT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • UNIDENTIFIED OBJECT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • VESSEL (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • WEIGHT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • WEIGHT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • CLAY PIPE (SMOKING) (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • CLAY PIPE (SMOKING) (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • GUNFLINT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • HORSESHOE (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • POT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • POT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)

Protected Status

  • Scheduled Monument

Sources and further reading

---Aerial Photograph: TL8682 G-M,N-R,Y-Z,AA-AJ.
---Article in Serial: 1959. Other Archaeological Excavations 1958. Norfolk Research Committee Bulletin. Series 1 No 11 (for 1958) pp 1-2. p 2.
---Archive: NAU Staff. 1974-1988. Norfolk Archaeological Index Primary Record Card.
---Thesis: Garrow, D.. 2006. Pits, Settlement and Deposition during the Neolithic and Early Bronze Age in East Anglia. during the Neolithic and Early Pits, Settlement and Deposition during the Neolithic and Early Bronze Age in East Anglia.
---Archive: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Roman. Thetford.
---Archive: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Late Saxon. Thetford [8].
---Secondary File: Secondary file.
---Slide: Various. Slide.
---Fiche: Exists.
---Archive: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Middle Saxon. Stamford Ware, Thetford Brandon Road.
---Photograph: FQW.
<S1>Archive: NAU Staff. 1974-1988. Norfolk Archaeological Index Primary Record Card.
<S2>Monograph: Rogerson, A. and Dallas, C. 1984. Excavations in Thetford 1948-59 and 1973-80. East Anglian Archaeology. No 22. p 68, nos 7-8, fig 109; p 69, nos 14, 25 and 62, figs 110 and 113; p 170, no 46, fig 190.
<S3>Unpublished Document: Knocker, G.. 1956. Excavations in the School Playing Fields North of the London Road at Thetford, July 1955..
<S4>Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 1955. Schoolgirl Archaeologists. 27 July.
<S5>Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 1955. Sixth Form Girls on Excavations at Thetford. 27 July.
<S6>Monograph: Dallas, C. 1993. Excavations in Thetford by B. K. Davison between 1964 and 1970. East Anglian Archaeology. No 62.
<S7>Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 1959. 'Exciting Finds' May be Made at Thetford. 17 January.
<S8>Article in Serial: Davison, B. K. 1968. The Late Saxon Town of Thetford. Medieval Archaeology. Vol XI (for 1967) pp 186-208.
<S9>Map: Wade, K.. 1965. Plans and sections of finds at various locations south of Redcastle Furze, between London Road and Brandon Road, Thetford..
<S10>Scheduling Record: English Heritage. Scheduling Report.
<S11>Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 1982. Land saved for archaeologists. 16 January.
<S12>Correspondence: Barraclough, P.. 1988. Letter regarding amalgamation of SAM No. 288 and SAM No. 291. 30 November 1988.
<S13>Unpublished Document: Andrews, P.. 1989. NAU Interim Report. Trial excavations at London Road, Thetford..
<S14>Unpublished Document: Davies, J. A.. Proposal for the publication of excavations at a late Neolithic site at London Road, Thetford.
<S15>Unpublished Report: Davies, J. Excavations at London Road, Thetford, 1989. Publication draft.
<S16>Article in Serial: Davies, J. A. 1993. Excavation of an Iron Age Pit Group at London Road, Thetford. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XLI Pt IV pp 441-461.
<S17>Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 1989. Site probe call. 16 January.
<S18>Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 1989. Study backed for field. 21 January.
<S19>Unpublished Contractor Report: Penn, K. 1994. Report on an Archaeological Watching Brief at Redcastle Furze Middle School, London Road, Thetford, February 24th 1994. Norfolk Archaeological Unit.
<S20>Unpublished Document: Davison, A.. 2001. ? site of a Church at Thetford. 3 July.
<S21>Unpublished Contractor Report: Emery, P. 2001. Report on an Archaeological Watching Brief at St Martin's Way, off London Road, Thetford.. Norfolk Archaeological Unit. 624.
<S22>Unpublished Contractor Report: Penn, K. and Hutcheson, A. 2007. An Archaeological Desk Based Survey of a proposed development site at Jubilee Close, Thetford. NAU Archaeology. 1250.
<S23>Newspaper Article: The Daily Telegraph. 1966. 'Digs' reveal Saxon town planning. 15 January. 15 January.
<S24>Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 1964. Wealth of Saxon Finds at Thetford. 8 May.
<S25>Newspaper Article: The Daily Telegraph. 1966. 'Spectacular' Finds of Thetford Ware. 31 October.
<S26>Scheduling Record: DCMS. 2007. Scheduled Monument Consent.
<S27>Unpublished Contractor Report: Boyle, M. 2009. An Archaeological Excavation at Jubilee Court, Thetford, Norfolk. NAU Archaeology. 1672b.
<S28>Unpublished Contractor Report: Boyle, M. 2008. An Archaeological Excavation at Jubilee Close, Thetford, Norfolk. Assessment Report and Updated Project Design. NAU Archaeology. 1672a.
<S29>Unpublished Contractor Report: Ratcliff, M. 2009. An Archaeological Watching Brief at Jubilee Close, Thetford, Norfolk. NAU Archaeology. 1888.
<S30>Article in Serial: Gurney, D. and Hoggett, R. (eds). 2008. Excavations and Surveys in Norfolk in 2007. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XLV Pt III pp 441-452. p 451.
<S31>Article in Serial: Gurney, D. and Penn, K. (eds). 2002. Excavations and Surveys in Norfolk, 2001. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XLIV Pt I pp 162-177. p 176.
<S32>Article in Serial: Wilson, D. M. and Hurst, D. G. 1961. Medieval Britain in 1959. Medieval Archaeology. Vol IV (for 1960) pp 134-165. p 136.
<S33>Article in Serial: Wilson, D. M. and Hurst, D. G. 1966. Medieval Britain in 1964. Medieval Archaeology. Vol IX (for 1965) pp 170-220. p 173.
<S34>Article in Serial: Wilson, D. M. and Hurst, D. G. 1967. Medieval Britain in 1965. Medieval Archaeology. Vol X pp 168-219. p172.
<S35>Article in Serial: Gurney, D (ed.). 1990. Excavations and Surveys in Norfolk 1989. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XLI Pt I pp 107-112. p 112.
<S36>Article in Serial: Clarke, R. R. 1956. Other Archaeological Excavations, 1955. Norfolk Research Committee Bulletin. Series 1 No 8 (for 1955) pp 1-2. p 2.

Related records

44027Parent of: Medieval and post medieval pottery sherds, Thetford Community Ballpark (Find Spot)
42573Parent of: Neolithic to Bronze Age worked flint and Saxon to post medieval finds, London Road playing fields (Find Spot)
38137Parent of: Prehistoric flint, Saxon to medieval pottery, and post medieval clay pipe, Redcastle Furze Ballpark (Find Spot)
5755Related to: Possible site of St John's Church or St Lawrence's Church, Thetford (Monument)

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