Record Details

NHER Number:5587
Type of record:Monument
Name:Roman settlement and temple

Summary

The site of a substantial Roman settlement with a strong religious focus, known from cropmarks, earthworks, excavations, fieldwalking evidence and metal-detected finds. Aerial photographs of the site show the cropmarks and earthworks of an organised settlement, with a regular pattern of roads and numerous buildings. The settlement is bisected by the linear earthwork known as the Fossditch, of probable post-Roman date (NHER 1089). In the 1950s several diadems and a crown were discovered on the site after ploughing, prompting an excavation which revealed chalk floors and pits. One of the buildings excavated close to the findspot of the crowns and diadems was either a temple or a related religious structure. Coins, brooches and votive objects were recovered from the immediate area, as well as another diadem, which was found inside the area of the building. Two pewter hoards have also been found on the site, and another has been found nearby, see NHER 5588. The finds from the site suggest that that the temple was connected with the cult of Attis and Cybele. The finds include a large number of coins, brooches, pottery, building material including tesserae, and other high quality Roman metal finds. Prehistoric flints and a fragment of Late Bronze Age pottery suggest that there may have been pre-Roman activity on the site, and finds dating from the Early Saxon to the post-medieval periods have also been recovered.

Images

  • A Roman horse and rider brooch from the site of a Roman settlement and temple  © Norfolk Museums & Archaeology Service
  • A Roman zoomorphic stag brooch from Hockwold-cum-Wilton.  © Norfolk Museums & Archaeology Service

Location

Grid Reference:Not displayed
Map Sheet:TL78NE
Parish:HOCKWOLD CUM WILTON, WEST NORFOLK, NORFOLK
WEETING WITH BROOMHILL, BRECKLAND, NORFOLK

Full description

Roman settlement divided in two by the Fossditch (NHER 1089).

1931. Casual find.
Roman sherds.

1947. Stray Find.
Found at [3] (Context 7):
Antler haft for iron knife with inscription in Ogham characters. ?Pictish import 5th-6th century. See drawing (S1).
This object is described and figured in (S7). It was subsequently suggested in (S8) that the name reads GEDEVI and indicates Irish influence. The discovery was first reported in (S9) and is also noted in (S10) and (S11). The object itself was donated to the Norwich Castle Museum (NWHCM : 1950.24).
Information from file notes. See also related correspondence (S12).
Amended by P. Watkins (HES), 4 November 2015.

Also prehistoric material and inhumation.

1948.
Finds of Roman sherds, coins, quern.

1949.
Excavation on NHER 1089 produced also Roman sherds from this site. Pottery elsewhere on site.

1949 to 1953.
Finds of Roman coins and sherds.

1950.
Finds of Neolithic flint and stone tools.

1953.
Roman sherds, coins and quern found. Excavation of Roman building.

1954.
Casual find of Roman sherds.

1956 to 1957.
Roman priests' crowns or diadems ploughed up.

1957. Excavation of crowns/diadems site.
Revealed Roman floor, many brooches and ritual pit; interpreted as stall for selling brooches.

1957.
Hut site discovered with Roman sherds.

1959.
Roman coins, sherds, copper alloy vessel found.

1960.
Find of Roman copper alloy vessel.

1961.
Roman coins, brooches and querns found.

1966.
Excavation of Roman building; inhumation underneath it.

1966.
Roman pewter hoard, uterine sound, lead disc and metalwork

1967.
Excavation of Roman timber-lined well.
Roman coins, pewter hoard and medieval green glazed ware.

1970 to 80. Found with metal detecting.
Roman lead purse and coin hoard found.

1974. Found with metal detecting.
Roman furniture fitting and brooches, Early Saxon brooch.

1975. Found with metal detecting.
Roman metalwork.

1976.
Casual find of Roman brooch and surgical implement.
See (S1) for further details.
S. Howard (NLA), 10 September 2010.

1977. Found with metal detecting.
Roman coin and pewter plate.

1978.
Evidence of Roman building noted. Pottery, tiles and quern.

1979.
Iron Age and Late Saxon sherds found.

1980.
Cropmark of small rectangles seen.

1980.
Field survey/surface collection by T. Gregory (NAU).
See (S2) in file.
The finds recovered during this work have been deposited with the Norwich Castle Museum (NWHCM : 1995.59).

1981.
Finds of Roman coins and lead weight and pottery. See rubbings of coins (S13)-(S16).

1982. Found with metal-detecting.
Roman cauldron.

1983. Found with metal-detecting.
Roman lamp and figure of otter.

1983.
Observation of trenching revealed Roman pits and ditches.

1984.
Excavations in advance of ditch cleaning revealed Roman pottery.

1984. Metal-detecting finds.
Roman, Bronze Age metalwork.

1985. Found with metal-detecting.
Roman bracelet, bowl and sherds.

1985 or before. Metal-detecting.
Found by [1] at [2]:
1 Roman nail cleaner.
Acquired by Moyse's Hall Museum (1985-35B).
Information from museum records (see copy of record card in file).
P. Watkins (HES), 30 August 2016.

1987. Found with metal-detecting.
Iron Age coin.

1990. Fieldwork revealed patch of tesserae.

1996. Metal-detecting finds.
Iron Age, Roman coins. Roman, Early Saxon, Middle Saxon, medieval and post-medieval metalwork.

1997. Metal-detecting finds.
Neolithic flints, Iron Age brooch, Roman coins, sherd and brooch. Undated gold fragment.

See details in file.
Site plans and photographs, correspondence, press cuttings in file.
For full details see (S3).
A. Rogerson (NLA), 31 January 1998.

February 1999. Metal-detecting. For NGR see Notes.
811 Roman 4th century (mostly irregular) coins.
Found fused together 50m north of plantation and 40m west of Fossditch.

October 1999.
5 more coins within 2 metres of above, in top 5 cm of soil.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 8 November 2000.

October 2000. Metal-detecting.
2 Roman coins, Roman sherds and brooch.
See lists in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 30 November 2000.

See list by T. Gregory (NAU) in file of sherds found by [1] in October 1953 (NCM 7. 954).
Includes Middle Saxon and post medieval sherds, Roman fine tile, undated (non Roman?) spindle whorl or bead.
A. Rogerson (NLA) 24 January 2001.

January to March 1999. Metal-detecting.
Further Roman finds.
See lists in file.
Bronze Age chisel.
Iron Age sherd.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 27 April 2001.

January to February 2001. Gridded metal-detecting and fieldwalking of area of site to west of Fosse Ditch.
75 Roman coins.
Roman, Early Saxon and undated metal objects.
See lists in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 26 February 2001.

Before 16 February 2001. Field walking.
Iron Age sherd.
139 Roman sherds.
Roman glass, bricks, etc.
Unusual medieval barrel padlock case.
See list in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 29 September 2001.

February to April 2001. Metal-detecting.
Further Roman coins, metalwork, etc.
Late Bronze Age spearhead.
See lists in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 8 May 2001.

May-June 2001. Metal-detecting.
Further finds.
See lists in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 4 June 2001.

June 2001. Metal-detecting.
Further Roman coins and sherd.
Undatable metal objects.
See lists in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 22 June 2001.

1 coin found 16 May 2001 in square B10 centre S edge is Iceni (not Roman).
See list in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 4 September 2001.

2001 to 2002.
Further gridded field survey.
See list in file.

November 2001.
Rapid excavation of pewter and glass hoard.
See preliminary list of contexts in file. Also notes and photographs (added 2007)
A. Rogerson (NLA), 24 April 2002.

May 2002. Metal-detecting.
Further finds including part of Roman pewter dish.
See file sheet 56 which also lists finds made 13 June 2001 and omitted from earlier lists.
See lists in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 15 June 2002.

See file for definitive list/catalogue of 1999 4th century coin hoard by I. Leins of British Museum, see (S4).
A. Rogerson (NLA), 7 June 2002.

Before 15 November 2002. Surface finds.
Roman sherds, tile fragments, daub, etc. collected from two areas.
See list and copy of map in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 23 December 2002.

May 2003. Metal-detecting.
Roman linch pin.
See description in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 12 September 2003.

November 2003. Metal-detecting.
Silver coins and silver ingot disclaimed as treasure.
See note in file.
E. Darch (NLA), 12 May 2004.

May to December 2003 and December 2003 to March 2004. Continuation of gridded survey.
One Iron Age and 522 Roman coins.
Prehistoric and Late Neolithic/Early Bronze Age worked flints.
Iron Age and Roman sherds.
Iron Age, Roman, Early Saxon, medieval, post-medieval and undatable metal objects.
Roman glass and bone gouge.
See finds sheets 59 to 84 and 125 coin sheets in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 20 December 2004.

30 January 2005 to 21 January 2006. Further gridded metal-detecting.
133 Roman coins and metalwork.
See coin lists, and sheets 85 to 89 in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 25 February 2006.

January to May 2006. Gridded fieldwalking.
Early Neolithic flints.
Many Roman coins.
Iron Age, Roman and Early Saxon metal objects.
Undatable stone polisher.
See lists in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 7 July 2006.

See for detailed description of finger ring with glass intaglio found in K6 northwest corner on 11 November 2003.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 3 July 2006.

August 2006.
Scheduled monument consent granted for a metal-detecting survey to be carried out.
See (S5)
H. White (NLA), 2 April 2009.

November 2006.
Oculist's stamp found by [1] in soil surrounding pewter and glass hoard excavated in November 2001.
See description and scanned image in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 18 November 2006.

See letter and note by [2] for future publication in Britannia on lead curse tablet (grid H9 2001) in file. (S6).
A. Rogerson (NLA), 30 May 2008.

31 August 2011.
Roman coin and knee brooch.
See lists in file.
A. Rogerson (HES), 19 September 2012.

January 2018. 'Brecks from Above' and Breckland National Mapping Programme.
The remains of the Roman settlement at Hockwold are visible on aerial photographs and lidar data (S17-S35) as cropmarks and earthworks, both surviving and levelled earthworks. The central core of the site, where a series of roads, enclosures and buildings are clearly apparent, some of which have been excavated, is recorded from cropmarks (S19, S22-26, S33). The western part of the site (previously recorded under 36368), survived as earthworks into at least the 1940s, but would now appear to be largely plough levelled (S17, S19 S21-22, S27-28).The earthworks visible at the site in the 1940 and 1950s (S17-S20) eastern part of the site would appear to be still surviving to some extent as low earthworks the 2m resolution Environment Agency lidar (S34) and recent aerial photographs (S29-S32). The extent of the site was originally defined in 1930 by ‘surface indications’ and finds locations (S3, S10). It is not clear whether any of the earthworks recorded from the aerial photographs have been previously identified on the ground. None of the existing HER, NMR or published material explicitly states so. The site has been extended considerably from the aerial photographic evidence. See also NHER 62016 for potentially related features to the east – and to a lesser extent NHER 62018 to the northwest. Similar low earthworks and vegetation marks have been recorded to the south in Suffolk (eg. BRD 257 & BRD 260), some of which are also associated with Roman finds and building material. Significant amounts of further work and investigation on the ground is required at this site to ascertain the significance, condition and plan of these earthworks. As outlined below, there were many issues relating to earthworks and/or vegetation marks having a different appearance on the historic and modern aerial photographs and lidar data, making it hard to decipher definite nature and form of earthworks. Also heathland management activities within the eastern part of the site may have affected the site and consequently non-archaeological features to be included within the mapping in error.

The central field of the settlement exhibits the more regular plan and exceptional cropmarks in the 1980s (S23-S27). The most productive cropmarks were produced in 1949 (S23-S26), but it must be noted that the cropmarks appeared to be reversed within large parts of the field. This is assumed to be caused by the fact the site has underlying areas and ridges of sandy material against pockets of peat. The reversal affect could also relate to the fact that the ditches may be filled with sandy material, which does not hold water well.

The most notable feature of these cropmarks is the presence of numerous post-built structures and/or fence-lines. The size of the timber structures appear to range in size from 6m by 3.5m, to 22.5m by 6m. The largest of these timber buildings is aligned east-west and has a rounded apsidal eastern end. Whilst this building may represent a large agricultural barn, given the alignment and apsidal eastern end could feasibly indicate an early church or chapel site. A number of small sub-circular anomalies were identified, which appear to represent a compacted or stone-built central feature, surrounded by a ditch. Although the reversal of the cropmarks in 1989 makes interpretation of some of the features uncertain – see above. It may be that these are actually small stone built structures around a central sunken area. It is possible that these might relate to corn drying ovens, kilns or a similar structures. These were suggested by stunted and/or darker areas of crop, seemingly surrounded by ditch or gully. It is interesting to note that many of these features appear to be located alongside the roads. Another site in the Breckland region, for example the excavations in advance of dualling and improvements of the A11 at Elveden (SHER ELV059 /S36) revealed evidence for a late Roman centralisation of agricultural activity, in particular in relation to the drying and storing of grain. It is possible that the numerous barn-like post-built structures and possible ovens could feasibly also suggest this for the Hockwold site.

There is clear evidence for more than one phase to the settlement within the cropmark area. More curvilinear enclosures appear to be overlain by and/or overlie more rectilinear boundaries. Several of the numerous post built structures at the site appear to have been built over earlier boundaries or conversely pre-date them. The earthworks and vegetation marks to the east of the site also clearly indicate several phases of boundaries, tracks and enclosures. As discussed below it is not clear how much of this is medieval to post medieval in date. It could be postulated that if ploughed – like the central section – that these areas of platforms and boundaries might reveal a similarly dense area of post-built structures and settlement remains.

Outside of this central area – where the evidence is predominantly derived from cropmarks – there were issues with earthworks and/or vegetation marks having a different appearance on differing sources, although an attempt was made to incorporate the varying plots. There were several areas where the historic and modern aerial photographs and lidar data showed features differently making it hard to decipher nature and form of earthworks. At TL 7566 8710 for example the historic aerial photographs appear to suggest a more rectilinear arrangement of enclosures and banks in this area and the later aerial photographs indicate a more parallel linear arrangement, suggesting some potential changes at the site or that some features were only showing under particular conditions. It must also be noted that on some of the Google Earth images, in particular in 2003 (S31), that some of the features that look like they are sunken, are shown to be raised on the Environment Agency 2m resolution lidar (S34). This suggests that the appearance of some areas of surface vegetation may be giving a false impression of the state of the earthworks. Further investigation of the eastern part of the site on the ground is essential.

There are also some discrepancies between how things appear on the modern sources. A linear boundary and/or track appears to cut across the eastern part of the site. On the 1940s aerial photographs (S17-S19) this would appear to be a relatively late feature compared to the other earthworks. However it does appear to continue on from a road/track that seemingly relates to parts of the Roman town. It must be noted that the excavations in 1957 (S3) within the western part of the site uncovered the remains of trackway made of rammed chalk and gravel, with wheel ruts worn into the surface that was of relatively recent date, thought to be associated with movement of gravel along the Fossditch and to barges on the river to the south in the late nineteenth century. Further work would be needed to ascertain how this excavated trackway and the road clearly visible as cropmarks relate to each other. It is possible that this apparently late linear feature to the east of the Fossditch also relate to this activity. This linear hasn’t been included on the main NMP mapping (but is recorded on a notes layer), other than parts where it possibly incorporates other earthworks potentially of an earlier date. Further investigation on the ground would be required to ascertain whether this linear does relate to the road recorded to the west on the cropmarks.

There is also a suggestion that some of the earthworks and building platforms may be post-Roman in date, feasibly relating to medieval to post medieval use of the same area. There are also possible traces of the remains of bank-like boundaries visible on the lidar (S34) over the eastern edge of the central arable field, which do not correspond with the ditches visible as cropmarks in (S23-26). It is possible this relates to remnants of post-Roman boundaries – and it must be noted that the boundary shares alignment with another bank visible on the lidar to the west – that have been reduced by ploughing. However it is also possible that it relates to recent agricultural activity in the field.

Some possible additional ditches are visible on Google Earth 2003 within the south eastern part of the site (S31) but these were not included in the mapping as many of them has the appearance of linear disturbances in the vegetation caused by access. It is also hard to be certain about some of the possible features mapped to the south of the central site on (S33) due to recent activity. It seems likely that more archaeological features could be added to the western area from (S33), however without a site visit to establish. It must also be noted that a road and/or bank seems to run alongside the Fossditch (NHER 1089), which would suggest that it is a later part of the site, unless the southern route of this Saxon boundary was following the line of an existing road or bank. It is possible that some of the site relates to Saxon activity at the site, also suggested by Saxon finds.

In the western area of site in July 1981 (S22) exhibits numerous features that look like pits, but only those substantial and clear examples were included in mapping. Many of them form dense linear spreads and it was assumed that they related to either agriculture or geology. A road or trackway to the northwest of the main area of the site has been included in the site (S22). The alignment of the route is reflected by some of the boundaries and enclosures to the south, although it may well be of a different date. It could feasibly relate to agricultural activity or access, rather than a archaeological feature. Seen NHER 62018 for discussion of other possible cropmarks in this area.

To the north of the previously recorded area some of evidence of the settlement continuing was identified, particularly to the northeast on (S17, S20). To the north of the main cropmark area, the evidence was less clear and very little was included in the mapping. The main features worth noting are visible on the Google Earth 1999 layer (S35), where there is a series of wide and blurred soilmarks – recorded by ‘extent of area’. A series of sub circular features, potentially frost mounds or similar periglacial features, are visible, although they do broadly correspond with find locations and may require further assessment. A broad boundary or hollow and some other rectilinear elements are visible, some of which may relate to the Roman settlement, although a later date and/or agricultural origin seems most likely.
S. Horlock (Norfolk Historic Environment Service), 5th January 2018.

Monument Types

  • INHUMATION (Unknown date)
  • RECTILINEAR ENCLOSURE (Unknown date)
  • FINDSPOT (Prehistoric - 1000000 BC to 42 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Mesolithic - 10000 BC to 4001 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Early Neolithic - 4000 BC to 3001 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Late Neolithic - 3000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Early Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 1501 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Middle Bronze Age - 1600 BC to 1001 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Late Bronze Age - 1000 BC to 701 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • BARN? (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BUILDING (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BUILDING (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BUILDING PLATFORM (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • CHURCH? (Roman to Late Saxon - 43 AD? to 1065 AD?)
  • CORN DRYING OVEN? (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • CURVILINEAR ENCLOSURE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • DITCH (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • ENCLOSURE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • HOUSE PLATFORM (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • INHUMATION (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • KILN? (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • OVEN? (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • PIT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • PLATFORM (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • POST BUILT STRUCTURE (Roman to Late Saxon - 43 AD to 1065 AD?)
  • RITUAL SHAFT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • ROAD (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • ROUND HOUSE (DOMESTIC) (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • SETTLEMENT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • SHOP (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • SQUARE ENCLOSURE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • TEMPLE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • TESSELLATED FLOOR (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • TRACKWAY (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • WELL (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BUILDING PLATFORM (Early Saxon to Medieval - 410 AD? to 1539 AD?)
  • FINDSPOT (Early Saxon - 410 AD to 650 AD)
  • HOUSE PLATFORM (Early Saxon to Medieval - 410 AD? to 1539 AD?)
  • PLATFORM (Early Saxon to Medieval - 410 AD? to 1539 AD?)
  • FINDSPOT (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)

Associated Finds

  • ANIMAL REMAINS (Undated)
  • ARCHITECTURAL FRAGMENT (Undated)
  • BEAD (Undated)
  • BRACELET (Undated)
  • FINGER RING (Undated)
  • METAL WORKING DEBRIS (Undated)
  • METAL WORKING DEBRIS (Unknown date)
  • METAL WORKING DEBRIS (Unknown date)
  • MOLLUSCA REMAINS (Undated)
  • NAIL (Undated)
  • PLAQUE (Undated)
  • POLISHER (Unknown date)
  • QUERN (Undated)
  • RING (Unknown date)
  • RING (Unknown date)
  • ROOF TILE (Unknown date)
  • SPINDLE WHORL (Undated)
  • UNIDENTIFIED OBJECT (Undated)
  • UNIDENTIFIED OBJECT (Unknown date)
  • UNIDENTIFIED OBJECT (Unknown date)
  • UNIDENTIFIED OBJECT (Unknown date)
  • FLAKE (Lower Palaeolithic to Late Iron Age - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • LITHIC IMPLEMENT (Lower Palaeolithic to Late Iron Age - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • POT BOILER (Lower Palaeolithic to Late Iron Age - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • SADDLE QUERN (Lower Palaeolithic to Late Iron Age - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • SHARPENER (Lower Palaeolithic to Late Iron Age - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • FLAKE (Mesolithic - 10000 BC to 4001 BC)
  • ARROWHEAD (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • BLADE (Early Neolithic - 4000 BC to 3001 BC)
  • FLAKE (Early Neolithic - 4000 BC to 3001 BC)
  • LITHIC IMPLEMENT (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • LITHIC IMPLEMENT (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • POLISHED AXEHEAD (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • RETOUCHED FLAKE (Early Neolithic - 4000 BC to 3001 BC)
  • SCRAPER (TOOL) (Early Neolithic - 4000 BC to 3001 BC)
  • SCRAPER (TOOL) (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • WORKED OBJECT (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • SCRAPER (TOOL) (Late Neolithic - 3000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • AWL (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • CHISEL (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • POT (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • PUNCH (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • SCRAPER (TOOL) (Early Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 1501 BC)
  • SPEAR (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • AWL (Middle Bronze Age - 1600 BC to 1001 BC)
  • KNIFE (Late Bronze Age - 1000 BC to 701 BC)
  • SPEAR (Late Bronze Age - 1000 BC to 701 BC)
  • BROOCH (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • COIN (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • COIN (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • HARNESS FITTING (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • POT (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • STRAINER (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • UNIDENTIFIED OBJECT (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • ARCHITECTURAL FRAGMENT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • AWL (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • AWL (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • AWL (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • AXEHEAD (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BEAD (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BEAD (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BELL (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BRACELET (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BRACELET (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BRACELET (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BRICK (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BROOCH (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BROOCH (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BROOCH (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BUCKET (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • CASTING WASTE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • CASTING WASTE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • CAULDRON (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • CEREMONIAL OBJECT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • CEREMONIAL OBJECT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • CEREMONIAL OBJECT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • CHAIN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • COIN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • COIN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • COIN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • COIN HOARD (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • COSMETIC ARTICLE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • COSMETIC MORTAR (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • CROWN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • CURSE TABLET (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • DISC (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • DISH (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • DOOR FITTING (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FIGURINE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FINGER RING (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FINGER RING (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FLESH HOOK (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FLOOR TILE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FLOOR TILE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FLUE TILE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FORK (UTENSIL) (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FURNITURE FITTING (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FURNITURE FITTING (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FURNITURE FITTING (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • GAMING PIECE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • GOUGE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • HAIR PIN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • HAIR PIN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • HARNESS FITTING (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • HARNESS MOUNT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • HARNESS PENDANT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • HOARD (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • HOARD (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • IMBREX (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • INGOT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • INGOT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • INSCRIBED OBJECT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • KEY (LOCKING) (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • KILN FURNITURE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • KNIFE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • KNIFE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • KNIFE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • LADLE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • LAMP (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • LINCH PIN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • LOCK (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • METAL WORKING DEBRIS (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • METAL WORKING DEBRIS (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • METAL WORKING DEBRIS (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • MINIATURE OBJECT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • MIRROR (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • NAIL (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • NAIL CLEANER (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • NAIL CLEANER (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • OCULISTS STAMP (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • PENDANT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • PIN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • PIN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • PIN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • PLANT REMAINS (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • PLATE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • PLUMB BOB (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • POT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • POT MEND (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • PUNCH (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • QUERN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • QUERN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • QUERN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • RAZOR (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • RING (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • RING (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • RIVET (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • ROOF TILE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • ROOF TILE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • ROOF TILE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • SCABBARD (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • SEAL BOX (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • SHACKLE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • SHARPENER (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • SHIELD (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • SPINDLE WHORL (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • SPINDLE WHORL (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • SPOON (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • SPOON (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • STEELYARD (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • STEELYARD WEIGHT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • STRAINER (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • STRAP FITTING (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • STUD (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • SURGICAL INSTRUMENT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • SWORD BELT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • TESSERA (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • TILE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • TILE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • TOILET ARTICLE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • UNIDENTIFIED OBJECT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • UNIDENTIFIED OBJECT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • UNIDENTIFIED OBJECT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • UNIDENTIFIED OBJECT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • VESSEL (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • VESSEL (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • VESSEL (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • VESSEL (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • VESSEL (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • VOTIVE MODEL (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • WASHER (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • WEIGHT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • WINDOW GLASS (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • COIN (Roman - 313 AD to 314 AD)
  • BROOCH (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • BUCKET (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • BUCKLE (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • DRINKING HORN (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • INSCRIBED OBJECT (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • SLEEVE CLASP (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • STRAP END (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • STRAP FITTING (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • TWEEZERS (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • BUCKLE (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • PIN (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • POT (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • POT (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • BARREL PADLOCK (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • BOOK FITTING (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • BROOCH (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • BUCKLE (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • POT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • STRAP FITTING (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • TOKEN (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • BOOK FITTING (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • POT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • RING (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • SPOON (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • STRAP FITTING (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • UNIDENTIFIED OBJECT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)

Protected Status

  • Scheduled Monument
  • Higher Level Stewardship

Sources and further reading

---Aerial Photograph: TL7587 N-ABK,ABM-ACA,ACC-ACK,ACM-ACB,ADJ-AFM,AFQ-AFX.
---Article in Serial: Green, C., Rigold, S. E. and Clarke, R. R. 1954. Other Archaeological Excavations 1953. Norfolk Research Committee Bulletin. Series 1 No 6 (for 1953) pp 2-4. p 4.
---Serial: 1956. Council for British Archaeology Group 7 Bulletin of Archaeological Discoveries. No 3. p 5.
---Serial: 1957. Council for British Archaeology Group 7 Bulletin of Archaeological Discoveries. No 4. p 5.
---Serial: 1974. Council for British Archaeology Group 7 Bulletin of Archaeological Discoveries for 1974. No 21. p 8.
---Serial: 1975. Council for British Archaeology Group 7 Bulletin of Archaeological Discoveries for 1975. No 22. p 13.
---Designation: [unknown]. Ancient Monuments Form. SAM Record. DNF277.
---Photograph: NLA. Finds Photograph.
---Illustration: Woollestone, D.. 1999. Sketch Plan.
---Photograph: 2001. [unknown].
---Photograph: I & RS. Digital finds image.
---Map: Finder's Map..
---Record Card: Ordnance Survey Staff. 1933-1979?. Ordnance Survey Record Cards. TL 78 NE 11 [2]; TL 78 NE 12 [2]; TL 78 NE 13 [4]; TL 78 NW 11.
---Record Card: NAU Staff. 1974-1988. Norfolk Archaeological Index Primary Record Card.
---Correspondence: Green, E.B. and Edwardson, R.. 1964. Letters.
---Correspondence: Curtis, F. and Langley, A.C.. 1966. Letters.
---Correspondence: Hassall, M.W.C.. 1979. Letter. 7 November.
---Correspondence: Mycock, C.. 1994. Letter. 12 September.
---Newspaper Article: The Observer. 1958. Crown and diadems. 13 April.
---Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 1956. Hockwold find of bronze crowns an 'outstanding rarity'. 4 September.
---Correspondence: Tomlin, R.S.O.. 2001. Letter. 27 April.
---Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 1987. Court will decide on coins. 19 June.
---Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 1984. Evidence of sandstorm. 12 March.
---Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 2000. Norfolk finds deemed to be treasure trove. 15 December.
---X-ray: 2003. X ray (NX6199, NX6201, NX6006 and NX6015).
---Article in Serial: Wells, C.. 1967. A Roman Surgical Instrument from Norfolk.. Antiquity. Vol 41, No 162, pp 139-141.
---Illustration: White, S.. 2002. Drawing of an Iron Age copper alloy terret.. Film. 2:1.
---Illustration: Ashley, S.. 2001. Drawing of a Late Bronze Age blade.. Film. 1:1.
---Illustration: Ashley, S.. 2001. Drawing of a Middle Bronze Age awl.. Film. 1:1.
---Illustration: Gregory, T.. 1980. Drawing of an Iron Age pottery sherd,. Paper. 1:1.
---Illustration: Ashley, S.. 1999. Drawing of a Late Bronze Age spearhead.. Film. 1:1.
---Illustration: Holness, A.. 2000. Drawing of a Romano British unusual hinged brooch.. Film. 2:1.
---Illustration: Gibbons, J.. Drawing of a Romano British horse and rider brooch.. Film. 2:1.
---Illustration: Paterson, O.. 2006. Drawing of a Roamno British zoomorphic stag brooch.. Film. 2:1.
---Illustration: Gregory, T. 1975. Drawing of a Romano British bronze dolphin brooch.. Card. 1:1.
---Illustration: Milligan, W.. 1966. Drawing of a possible Romano British bronze trident.. Card. 1:1.
---Illustration: Clough, T.. 1975. Drawing of an Early Saxon cruciform brooch.. Card. 1:1.
---Illustration: Ashley, S.. 1979. Drawing of Bronze Age tanged chisel blade.. Film. 1:1.
---Illustration: Holness, A.. 2001. Drawing of a Romano British leaded bronzed vessel. Film. 2:1.
---Illustration: Ashley, S.. 2001. Drawing of a Romano British knife handle.. Film. 2:1.
---Illustration: Holness, A.. 2001. Drawing of a Romano British figurine base.. Film. 2:1.
---Illustration: White, S.. 2004. Drawing of a Romano British lead plaque.. Film. 2:1.
---Article in Serial: Marsden, A.. 2009. Roman intaglios and sealings from Norfolk, 2002-2008.. Norfolk Archaeology. XLV, pp 529-38.
---Photograph: 2001. KSY 1-8, Romano British knife handle..
---Photograph: 2001. KTA 21-26, Medieval iron barrel lock..
---Photograph: 2002. KTD 4-6, Romano British enameled brooch..
---Photograph: 2002. KTD 7-8, Romano British military pendant fragment..
---Photograph: 2002. KTD 9, Romano British lead object..
---Photograph: 2002. KTD 10-11, Leaded brooch fragment..
---Photograph: 2002. KTD 12, Votive axe..
---Photograph: 2002. KTD 34, Romano British knife handle..
---Photograph: 2002. KTD 20, Unidentified lead object..
---Photograph: 2002. KTD 20-27, Ring terret fragment..
---Photograph: 2002. KTD 28-29, Belt fitting..
---Photograph: 2002. KTD 30-33, Seal box lid..
---Photograph: 2003. KTX 34-36, Lead plaque with inscription..
---Photograph: 2003. KTZ 1-2, Early Saxon strap end..
---Photograph: 2003. KTZ 3-4, Early Saxon strapend..
---Photograph: 2004. KTZ 30-36, Romano British bronze figurine..
---Serial: 1959. Council for British Archaeology Group 7 Bulletin of Archaeological Discoveries for 1959. No. 6. p 4.
---Serial: 1960. Council for British Archaeology Group 7 Bulletin of Archaeological Discoveries for 1960. No 7. p 4.
---Record Card: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Roman. Weeting with Broomhill.
---Record Card: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Early Saxon. Hockwold Cum Wilton.
---Article in Serial: 1958. Other Archaeological Excavations 1957. Norfolk Research Committee Bulletin. Series 1 No 10 (for 1957) pp 1-2. p 2.
---Secondary File: Secondary File.
---Fiche: Exists.
---Photograph: CNU, CJY, CML.
---Illustration: [Norwich Castle Museum staff]. 1967. Drawing of a Roman jet bead from Hockwold cum Wilton. Card. 1:1.
---Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 1957. More ancient bronze crowns unearthed at Hockwold. 5 December.
---Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 1957. [Article on the excavation carried out in 1957].
---Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 1958. Reproduction of Roman diadems for Norwich Museum. 15 May.
---Collection: Norfolk Historic Environment Record Staff. 1975-[2000]. HER Record Notes. Norfolk Historic Environment Service.
<S1>Illustration: [Unknown]. [unknown]. Drawing of an Ogham inscribed antler knife handle from Weeting. 1:1.
<S2>Unpublished Document: Gregory, T.. 1980. Fieldwalking survey results.
<S3>Monograph: Gurney, D.. 1986. Settlement, Religion and Industry on the Fen-edge: Three Romano-British Sites in Norfolk.. East Anglian Archaeology. Vol 31.
<S4>Unpublished Document: Leins, I.. 1999. Report.
<S5>Designation: DCMS. [?]-2016. Scheduled Monument Consent. SAM Consent. DNF277.
<S6>Unpublished Document: Tomlin, R. S. O.. 2008. Note on Curse tablet, Hockwold. April.
<S7>Article in Serial: Clarke, R.R.. 1952. An Ogham inscribed knife-handle from south-west Norfolk.. The Antiquaries Journal. Vol XXXII.
<S8>Article in Serial: Wrenn, C. L. 1959. Saxons and Celts in South-West Britain. Transactions of the Honorable Society of Cymmrodion. pp 38-75. pp 40, 42.
<S9>Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 1951. [Article and a letter to the editor on the Antler haft for an iron knife].
<S10>Article in Serial: Clarke R. R. 1955. The Fossditch - A Linear Earthwork in South-West Norfolk. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XXXI pp 178-196. pp 184-187, Fig 3.
<S11>Monograph: Clarke, R. R. 1960. East Anglia. Ancient People and Places. 14. pp 139, 230-231; Pl 44.
<S12>Correspondence: Various. 1950s. Letters about Ogham knife handle.
<S13>Illustration: [Unknown]. 1981. Rubbings of Roman coins. Paper. 1:1.
<S14>Illustration: [Unknown]. 1981. Rubbings of Roman coins. Paper. 1:1.
<S15>Illustration: [Unknown]. 1981. Rubbings of Roman coins. Paper. 1:1.
<S16>Illustration: [Unknown]. 1981. Rubbings of Roman coins. Paper. 1:1.
<S17>Vertical Aerial Photograph: Various. Vertical Aerial Photograph. RAF/106G/LA/227 FP 1138-1141 17-APR-1945 (HEA Original Print).
<S18>Vertical Aerial Photograph: Various. Vertical Aerial Photograph. RAF/106G/UK/1634 FS 2407-2408 09-JUL-1946 (HEA Original Print).
<S19>Vertical Aerial Photograph: Various. Vertical Aerial Photograph. RAF/CPE/UK/1952 RP 4024-4025 25-MAR-1947 (HEA Original Print).
<S20>Vertical Aerial Photograph: Various. Vertical Aerial Photograph. RAF/58/2688 F21 0408-0409 25-JAN-1959 (HEA Original Print).
<S21>Vertical Aerial Photograph: Various. Vertical Aerial Photograph. OS/71216 V 046-047, 062-063 14-MAY-1971 (HEA Original Print).
<S22>Vertical Aerial Photograph: Various. Vertical Aerial Photograph. ADAS RC9-48 92-93 01-JUL-1981 (NHES TL 7487H, TL 7586A).
<S23>Oblique Aerial Photograph: Various. Oblique Aerial Photograph. Norfolk Historic Environment Record TL7587ACD-ADH 12-JUL-1989 (NLA 237/DMG2-DMJ13) (Print).
<S24>Oblique Aerial Photograph: Various. Oblique Aerial Photograph. Norfolk Historic Environment Record TL7587ABZ 13-JUL-1989 (NLA 239/DPP9) (Slide).
<S25>Oblique Aerial Photograph: Various. Oblique Aerial Photograph. Norfolk Historic Environment Record TL7587ADL-AFF 13-JUL-1989 (NLA 239/DMT10-DMW11) (Print).
<S26>Oblique Aerial Photograph: Various. Oblique Aerial Photograph. Norfolk Historic Environment Record TL7587AFG-AFV 17-JUL-1989 (NLA 241/DNU11-FZA1) (Print).
<S27>Oblique Aerial Photograph: Various. Oblique Aerial Photograph. Norfolk Historic Environment Record TL7587AFN-AFP 17-JUL-1989 (NLA 214/DNV2-3) (Print).
<S28>Oblique Aerial Photograph: Various. Oblique Aerial Photograph. Norfolk Historic Environment Record TL7587AFY-AGC 01-JUL-1996 (NLA 2366/JDB7-11) (Print).
<S29>Oblique Aerial Photograph: Various. Oblique Aerial Photograph. NMR 26673/15-020 16-APR-2010 (HEA Digital).
<S30>Oblique Aerial Photograph: Various. Oblique Aerial Photograph. NMR 27774/39-047 05-JUL-2013 (HEA Digital).
<S31>Vertical Aerial Photograph: Various. Vertical Aerial Photograph. EARTH.GOOGLE.COM 19-MAR-2003 ACCESSED 05-JAN-2017 (Digital).
<S32>Vertical Aerial Photograph: Various. Vertical Aerial Photograph. EARTH.GOOGLE.COM 01-JAN-2005 ACCESSED 05-JAN-2017 (Digital).
<S33>Vertical Aerial Photograph: Various. Vertical Aerial Photograph. Next Perspectives APGB Imagery TL7587, TL7687 03-JUL-2010 (Digital Colour).
<S34>LIDAR Airborne Survey: Various. LIDAR Airborne Survey. LIDAR TM7587 Environment Agency 2m DTM 01-OCT-2014.
<S35>Vertical Aerial Photograph: Various. Vertical Aerial Photograph. EARTH.GOOGLE.COM 01-JAN-1999 ACCESSED 24-JAN-2017 (Digital).

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