Record Details

NHER Number:25763
Type of record:Monument
Name:Late Neolithic to Early Bronze Age features and post medieval brick kiln, prehistoric to post-medieval finds

Summary

This site was excavated in 2000 by the Cambridge Archaeological Unit. A small group of Beaker pits and a Late Neolithic to Early Bronze Age 'buried soil' deposit were revealed, both containing pottery and flints. An 18th century brick kiln was also excavated. Metal detecting on the site has recovered prehistoric flints, Late Saxon pottery; Roman, Late Saxon, and medieval and post medieval coins, medieval and medieval/post-medieval jettons; and Middle to Late Bronze Age and Early Saxon to post-medieval metal objects. The metal finds include a Middle to Late Bronze Age sickle blade end, awl and pin; Roman brooches; an Early Saxon brooch; Middle Saxon brooch; Late Saxon brooch; Late Saxon/medieval stirrup strap mount, possible mount and bridle cheek piece; medieval harness pendants, a brooch, lead seal matrix, coin weight, and a muscial instrument; and a post-medieval domed mount and finger ring.

Images - none

Location

Grid Reference:TL 88 84
Map Sheet:TL88SE
Parish:KILVERSTONE, BRECKLAND, NORFOLK
THETFORD, BRECKLAND, NORFOLK

Full description

November to December 1989. Metal detecting. [1].
Finds generally distributed on building site, overlapping site NHER 17268.
2 prehistoric flint flakes.
Roman Colchester type one-piece brooch; 4? Coil spring with axis bar. Lower bow, part of pin and chord missing. Small wings. AD 20-70. Photographed.
Identified by D. Gurney (NLA).
13th century copper alloy buckle with rectangular decorated plate.
Short cross cut halfpenny reverse: Rogerson, A. (NLA)( )NDE Raul or Raulf of London 1180-1247.
Long cross cut halfpenny obv: HENRI CVS REX TE RCI. Moneyer NICOLE(London). Henry III. North class 2 1248.
Farthing of Edward III obv: EDWARVS REX rev: CIVITAS LONDON.
Identified by S. Margeson (NCM).
A. Rogerson (NLA), 10 January 1990.

Pre-April 1995. Metal detecting find. [2].
General location plan in file; if this is accurate then the object must have been found before 1989 when the supermarket was built.
Medieval seal matrix with unusual legend, see file.
A. Rogerson (NLA) 7 July 1995.

In fact the shaded area extends just beyond the supermarket to the southwest.

1998. Metal detecting find at [3].
Medieval unusual buckle frame and intact pin. Frame is made up to two figures dressed in short flowing robes (one with shield?). Each have an outstretched hand which reaches behind the others' head. Lion or large dog at their feet. Openwork of figures suggests sewing holes. Unusual. If a conventional buckle, the end of the belt would surely have obscured one figure.
Polaroid.
K. Sussams (NCM) 21 October 1998.

January 2000. Systematic Fieldwalking and Metal-detecting Survey.
Prehistoric potboilers.
Neolithic/Bronze Age flints.
Late Saxon, medieval to post medieval sherds.
See report (S1) for further information. The results of this work are also summarised in (S7).
E. Rose (NLA) 10 February 2000. Amended by P. Watkins (HES), 24 March 2015.

June 2000. Trial Trenching.
Evaluation of north-west field (Trenches 1-4).
At the eastern end of the most northerly trench (Trench 1, Area D), the remains of a Suffolk-type brick kiln were revealed. While the superstructure no longer survived, the below-ground remains appeared to be very well-preserved. These included two vaulted firing tubes, and the floor of the firing chamber. In addition, it is likely that a 'moulders pit' may survive immediately to the south of the trench.
Trench 2 (Area B) was found to contain a partially preserved Neolithic land surface. This buried soil was found to contain evidence of flint knapping, most of which appeared to be in situ. This trench also contained a single ditch thought to be a Roman field boundary.
See report (S2) for further details. The results of this work are also summarised in (S8).
D. Gurney (NLA), 24 October 2000. Amended by A. Cattermole (NLA), 13 August 2008.

December 2000-June 2001. Excavation.
Excavation of Areas B and D.
Area B:
A 40m by 40m area was opened to further investigate the buried Neolithic soil identified in the evaluation. The deposit was found to extend across this whole area. However, once the deposit had been investigated in more detail, it was found to have been disturbed, with some flints showing evidence of plough damage. The vast majority of the artefacts within this deposit suggest that it was initially formed during the Late Neolithic or Early Bronze Age. A vast quantity of worked flints was recovered from a small sample of the deposit, 1025 pieces in total from a 2.19% sample. Only 18 sherds of prehistoric pottery were recovered. Scrapers and other flint tools were recovered, suggesting that while substantial amounts of flint-working waste were found, activities other than flint-knapping certainly took place here. Other finds recovered from this deposit included wheat and barley grains and a sheep bone.
Four intercutting pits were found towards the east of this area, all of which contained Beaker pottery. Three further pits were found 20m to the west. Although these features contained no diagnostic finds it is certainly possible that they date from the same period. Relatively large amounts of burnt flint were found in these pits which may indicate that a specific practice involving the burning of flint was carried out nearby. It is probable that these pits were dug during a single visit to the site. Despite the fact that only a single pit cluster was dug there, this place appears to have remained a focus of occupation for some time, resulting in the material found in the buried soil (above).
The relationship between the buried soil and the pit cluster suggests that the pits formed the primary, and possibly fairly brief, phase of occupation. Over time, while this site persisted as a focus of activity, the kinds of deposition which took place here appear to have changed. The practice of pit-digging appears to have ceased and people chose to accumulate occupation in a midden without burying it.
Area D:
This area was excavated to investigate the Suffolk-type kiln discovered during the evaluation. The kiln appears to have been built between 1700 and 1780, but is not depicted on any contemporary maps. A large pit nearby, now infilled with modern material, is quite possibly the original clay source for the kiln. The kiln appears to have been used for a relatively long period of time. A large quantity of post medieval brick and tile was recovered from in and around the brick kiln.

See published report (S3), archive report (S4) and publication draft (S5) for full details. The results of this work are also summarised in (S9). The prehistoric pits are also considered in (S10).
The associated archive has been deposited with the Norwich Castle Museum (NWHCM : 2006.391).
A. Cattermole (NLA), 13 August 2008. Amended by P. Watkins (HES), 24 March 2015 and 5 May 2019.

January/February 2002. At area centred [4].
2 Roman coins, brooch and pendant.
Medieval coin and lead spindle whorl.
See lists in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 19 March 2002.

Before September 2005. Metal-detecting. [5].
Middle to Late Bronze Age sickle blade end, awl and pin.
Early Saxon brooch.
Middle Saxon to Late Saxon ansate brooch.
1 Late Saxon coin and a brooch.
Late Saxon/medieval stirrup strap mount, possible mount, and bridle cheek-piece.
4 medieval coins, 4 jettons, harness pendants, a coin weight, brooch, musical instrument, and lead seal matrix.
1 medieval/post-medieval jetton.
Post-medieval domed mount and finger ring.
Information from PAS download.
A. Cattermole (HES), 8 January 2013. Amended E. McDonald (HES), 7 February 2017.

March 2010. Norfolk NMP.
The assessment of the aerial photographs for this site as part of the Norfolk NMP project revealed no convincingly archaeological cropmarks.
S. Horlock (NMP), 24 March 2010.

Monument Types

  • FINDSPOT (Prehistoric - 1000000 BC to 42 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Early Neolithic to Late Bronze Age - 4000 BC to 701 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • BURIED SOIL HORIZON? (Late Neolithic to Early Bronze Age - 3000 BC to 1501 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Late Neolithic - 3000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • LITHIC WORKING SITE (Late Neolithic to Early Bronze Age - 3000 BC to 1501 BC)
  • PIT CLUSTER (Late Neolithic to Early Bronze Age - 3000 BC to 1501 BC)
  • PIT (Late Neolithic - 2620 BC to 2460 BC) + Sci.Date
  • FINDSPOT (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Middle Bronze Age to Late Bronze Age - 1600 BC to 701 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • DITCH (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FIELD BOUNDARY (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Early Saxon - 410 AD to 650 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Middle Saxon to Late Saxon - 651 AD to 1065 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Late Saxon to Medieval - 851 AD to 1539 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Medieval to 19th Century - 1066 AD to 1900 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • BRICK KILN (17th Century to 19th Century - 1700 AD to 1900 AD?)

Associated Finds

  • LITHIC IMPLEMENT (Lower Palaeolithic to Late Iron Age - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • POT BOILER (Lower Palaeolithic to Late Iron Age - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • ARROWHEAD (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • BLADE (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • BURIN (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • BURNT FLINT (Early Neolithic to Late Bronze Age - 4000 BC to 701 BC)
  • CORE (Early Neolithic to Late Bronze Age - 4000 BC to 701 BC)
  • DEBITAGE (Early Neolithic to Late Bronze Age - 4000 BC to 701 BC)
  • DENTICULATE (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • FLAKE (Early Neolithic to Late Bronze Age - 4000 BC to 701 BC)
  • HAMMERSTONE (Early Neolithic to Late Bronze Age - 4000 BC to 701 BC)
  • KNIFE (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • LITHIC IMPLEMENT (Early Neolithic to Late Bronze Age - 4000 BC to 701 BC)
  • LITHIC IMPLEMENT (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • POT (Early Neolithic to Late Bronze Age - 4000 BC to 701 BC)
  • RETOUCHED FLAKE (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • SCRAPER (TOOL) (Early Neolithic to Late Bronze Age - 4000 BC to 701 BC)
  • SCRAPER (TOOL) (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • ANIMAL REMAINS (Late Neolithic - 2620 BC to 2460 BC) + Sci.Date
  • BARBED AND TANGED ARROWHEAD (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • BLADE (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • FLAKE (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • LITHIC IMPLEMENT (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • SICKLE (Middle Bronze Age to Late Bronze Age - 1500 BC to 801 BC)
  • AWL (Middle Bronze Age to Late Bronze Age - 1150 BC to 801 BC)
  • PIN (Middle Bronze Age to Late Bronze Age - 1150 BC to 801 BC)
  • BROOCH (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • BROOCH (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • BROOCH (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BROOCH (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • COIN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • OYSTER SHELL (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • PENDANT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • QUERN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BROOCH (Early Saxon - 500 AD to 650 AD)
  • BROOCH (Middle Saxon to Late Saxon - 700 AD to 1000 AD)
  • COIN (Late Saxon - 855 AD to 870 AD)
  • BROOCH (Late Saxon - 900 AD to 1000 AD)
  • BRIDLE FITTING (Late Saxon to Medieval - 1000 AD to 1100 AD)
  • MOUNT? (Late Saxon to Medieval - 1000 AD to 1100 AD)
  • STIRRUP (Late Saxon to Medieval - 1000 AD to 1100 AD)
  • BUCKLE (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • BUCKLE (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • BURNT FLINT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • COIN (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • COIN (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • NAIL (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • POT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • SEAL (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • SPINDLE WHORL (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • MUSICAL INSTRUMENT (12th Century to 16th Century - 1200 AD? to 1540 AD)
  • SEAL MATRIX (12th Century to 13th Century - 1200 AD to 1300 AD)
  • COIN (13th Century - 1205 AD to 1230 AD)
  • COIN (13th Century - 1248 AD to 1250 AD)
  • COIN (13th Century - 1250 AD to 1280 AD)
  • BROOCH (13th Century to 15th Century - 1300 AD to 1500 AD)
  • HARNESS PENDANT (13th Century to 14th Century - 1300 AD to 1400 AD)
  • HARNESS PENDANT (13th Century to 15th Century - 1300 AD to 1500 AD)
  • COIN (14th Century - 1361 AD to 1369 AD)
  • JETTON (14th Century to 15th Century - 1380 AD to 1422 AD)
  • JETTON (15th Century - 1415 AD to 1497 AD)
  • JETTON (15th Century - 1480 AD to 1500 AD)
  • JETTON (15th Century to 16th Century - 1500 AD to 1570 AD)
  • WEIGHT (15th Century to Unknown - 1500 AD)
  • BRICK (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • MOUNT (16th Century to 17th Century - 1540 AD to 1700 AD)
  • POT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • FINGER RING (17th Century to 18th Century - 1700 AD to 1800 AD)

Protected Status - none

Sources and further reading

---Map: Finder's Map..
---Photograph: NCC Find Identification and Recording Service. c. 1975-2000. HES Find Polaroid Collection. HES Find Polaroid Collection. polaroid. black and white.
---Photograph: Wicks, D.. 1995. LCW1-3.
---Photograph: 1995. LCW 1-3, Seal matrix.
---Secondary File: Secondary File.
---Photograph: FHV4-6.
<S1>Unpublished Contractor Report: Garrow, D. 2000. An Archaeological Evaluation by Field Survey at Norwich Road, Kilverstone, Norfolk. Cambridge Archaeological Unit. 349 (revised).
<S2>Unpublished Contractor Report: Garrow, D. 2000. An Archaeological Evaluation by Trial Trenching at Norwich Road, Kilverstone, Norfolk. Cambridge Archaeological Unit. 397.
<S3>Monograph: Garrow, D., Lucy, S. & Gibson, D.. 2006. Excavations at Kilverstone, Norfolk: an Episodic Landscape History.. East Anglian Archaeology. Vol 113.
<S4>Unpublished Contractor Report: Garrow, D. 2002. Archaeological Excavations at Norwich Road, Kilverstone, Norfolk. Cambridge Archaeological Unit. 463.
<S5>Unpublished Report: Garrow, D., Lucy, S. & Gibson, D. et al. 2004. Cambridge Archaeological Unit Report. Excavations at Kilverstone, Norfolk: The Neolithic pit cluster, later prehistoric, Romano-British and Anglo-Saxon occupation and later activity. Publication draft. Vol I and II.
<S6>Archive: NIAS. Norfolk Industrial Archaeology Society Records.
<S7>Article in Serial: Gurney, D. and Penn, K. (eds). 2000. Excavations and Surveys in Norfolk 1999. Norfolk Archaeology. XLIII Pt III pp 521-543. p 529.
<S8>Article in Serial: Gurney, D. and Penn, K. (eds). 2001. Excavations and Surveys in Norfolk 2000. Norfolk Archaeology. XLIII Pt IV pp 707-728. p 714.
<S9>Article in Serial: Gurney, D. and Penn, K. (eds). 2002. Excavations and Surveys in Norfolk, 2001. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XLIV Pt I pp 162-177. p 168.
<S10>Thesis: Garrow, D.. 2006. Pits, Settlement and Deposition during the Neolithic and Early Bronze Age in East Anglia. during the Neolithic and Early Pits, Settlement and Deposition during the Neolithic and Early Bronze Age in East Anglia.

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