Record Details

NHER Number:1006
Type of record:Monument
Name:Roman industrial suburb and multi-period finds

Summary

An industrial suburb outside of a defended Roman town (NHER 1124), consisting of a large number of pottery kilns built alongside a Roman road. These kilns were used to mass-produce kitchen goods for local markets and further afield throughout the Roman period. Production at the site reached its peak in the 2nd century. The site also includes an Early Saxon sunken featured building.

Metal detecting between 1999 and 2014 recovered further Roman and medieval pottery sherds; Roman, Late Saxon, medieval and post-medieval coins including a silver penny of Cnut; Roman and medieval pottery and Bronze Age, Roman and Late Saxon to post-medieval metal objects including Roman dolphin brooches and a mount; a Late Saxon brooch and strap-end; Late Saxon to post-medieval spindle whorl; medieval to post-medieval dress accessories; a medieval harness pendant and rotary key; a medieval/post-medieval standing weight and a leg and foot from a copper alloy vessel and post-medieval crotal bells, a seal matrix, lead weight and a knife terminal.

Images

  • A hypocaust underneath a bath house in Brampton Roman town during excavation  © Norfolk County Council

Location

Grid Reference:Not displayed
Map Sheet:TG22SW
Parish:BRAMPTON, BROADLAND, NORFOLK

Full description

1941. Stray Find.
Ploughed up at Context 7:
Roman material, including several complete kiln wasters, indicating the site of a kiln. See watercolour sketch of waster (S1).
Material "presented to parish" (held, at least for a time, by St Peter's Chuch, Brampton).
Information from (S2).

13 May 1948. Stray Find
Roman sherds found by R. R. Clarke (NCM).
Information from (S2).

1954. Excavation.
Kiln excavated by NCM staff after dump of pottery (including wasters) exposed during digging for sewage plant.
Finds held by Norwich Castle Museum Castle Museum (NWHCM : 1954.20).
Information from (S2). This work is noted in (S3) and (S4).

1966. Excavation.
Excavation of single kiln by A. K. Knowles.
Some finds deposited with Norwich Castle Museum (NWHCM : 1966.689).
Information from (S2). See also reports (S5) and (S6).

1967. Excavation.
Identification of nine additional kiln by A. K. Knowles, six of which were excavated.
Some material deposited with Norwich Castle Museum (NWHCM : 1967.855).
Information from (S2). For further information see reports (S7) and (S8), one of which reproduces kiln plans (S9) and (S10). See also drawings of mortaria stamps recovered from three of the kilns (S11).

1967. Stray Find.
Found on surface:
1 Roman silver coin.
Information from (S2).

1968. Stray Find.
Found on surface:
1 Roman copper alloy enamelled copper alloy terret. See drawing (S12).
On loan to Norwich Castle Museum (NWHCM : L1969.1.2).
One of two terrets from Brampton described and illustrated in (S13).
1 Roman copper alloy deer's head. Slightly damaged. Originally mounted by iron pit. Looks Celtic.
Also on loan to Norwich Castle Museum (NWHCM : L1969.1.2). Noted and figured in (S14).
Information from (S2).

Before 1970. Stray Find.
Found at Context 16 [5]:
1 Neolithic flaked flint axehead. See drawing (S15).

Found at Context 17 [6]:
1 Neolithic part-polished flint axehead. See drawing (S16).
Information from (S17).

Spring 1970. Stray Find.
Found at Context 15 [7]:
1 Neolithic part-polished flint axehead. See drawing (S18).
Information from (S17).

1971. Stray Find.
Found at Context 18 [8]:
1 Neolithic polised stone axehead (cutting edge only). Group VII (N. 143) - see (S19).

1973 to 1974. Excavation.
Excavation of Roman kilns and building.
See published report (S20) for further details. The results of this work are also summarised in (S21) and (S22) and noted in newspaper article (S23).

1975. Excavation.
Excavation of Beaker pit, Beaker, possible Iron Age, and Roman pottery, and some prehistoric flints.

1978. Field Observation.
Gas pipe trench cut. Roman pottery sherds and metalwork, and "IA feature" later reidentified as an Early Saxon grubenhaus.
See reports in file for NHER 1124 and drawings of Early Saxon pottery sherds (S24)-(S27).

1980.
Traces of kiln noted in pipe trench.
See report (S28).

1982 to 1984.
Fieldwork produced Iron Age, Roman and Early Saxon sherds.
See plan showing survey extent (S29).

See full details in file.
E. Rose (NAU) 29 January 1991.

August 1999. Metal detecting. Field 28. [1].
32 Roman, 7 medieval and 8 post medieval coins.
?Bronze Age, Roman, Late Saxon, medieval and post medieval metal finds.
See finds lists, coin lists and original field find lists in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA) 27 June 2000.

September-October 1999. Metal detecting. [2].
Two Roman dolphin brooches.
1 Roman coin.
See list and form in file.
K. Hinds (NLA) 9 March 2000.

Around 1999. Metal-detecting.
Found at [9] by [2], possibly at same time as above items:
As yet unidentified object. See drawing (S29) [10].
P. Watkins (HES), 27 February 2019.

October 2001. Metal detecting.
Roman coin. See list in file.
S. Ashley (NLA), 6 December 2001.

February-March 2008. Metal detecting.
5 Romano-British and 1 medieval sherd.
See list in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 7 April 2008.

November-December 2007. Metal detecting.
Silver Late Saxon penny of Cnut.
See list and scanned photographs in file.
S. Howard (NLA), 21 May 2010.

November-December 2011. Metal-detecting.
Medieval, medieval/post-medieval and post-medieval metal objects, and one post-medieval coin (not seen by I&RS).
See lists in file.
A. Rogerson (HES), 17 January 2012.

June-September 2014. Metal-detecting. [3].
Medieval/post-medieval lead standing weight.
1 post-medieval coin.
Information from PAS import.
A. Beckham (HES), 5 October 2014.

September-October 2014. Metal-detecting. [4].
2 Roman coins and 1 pottery sherd.
Late Saxon to post-medieval spindle whorl.
1 medieval coin and 1 pottery sherd.
Post-medieval lead weight.
Information from PAS import.
A. Beckham (HES), 3 December 2014.

Monument Types

  • FINDSPOT (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Beaker - 2300 BC to 1700 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • BUILDING (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FEATURE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • PIT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • POTTERY KILN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • ROAD (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • SETTLEMENT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • SITE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • TIMBER FRAMED BUILDING (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • GRUBENHAUS (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • SETTLEMENT (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Late Saxon to Post Medieval - 851 AD to 1900 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Medieval to Post Medieval - 1066 AD to 1900 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)

Associated Finds

  • FLAKED AXEHEAD (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • POLISHED AXEHEAD (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • UNIDENTIFIED OBJECT (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • LITHIC IMPLEMENT (Beaker - 2300 BC to 1700 BC)
  • POT (Beaker - 2300 BC to 1700 BC)
  • POT (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • BROOCH (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BROOCH (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • COIN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • COIN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FIGURINE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • HARNESS FITTING (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • KILN WASTE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • METAL WORKING DEBRIS (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • METAL WORKING DEBRIS (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • POT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • POT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • STRAP FITTING (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • COIN (Roman - 138 AD to 260 AD)
  • COIN (Roman - 138 AD to 260 AD)
  • POT (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • BROOCH (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • STRAP FITTING (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • SPINDLE WHORL (Late Saxon to Post Medieval - 1000 AD to 1600 AD)
  • BUCKLE (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • CAULDRON (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • COIN (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • COIN (Medieval to Post Medieval - 1066 AD to 1900 AD?)
  • FLASK (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • HARNESS PENDANT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • KEY (LOCKING) (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • LOCK (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • POT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • SPUR (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • STRAP FITTING (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • VESSEL (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • VESSEL (Medieval to Post Medieval - 1066 AD to 1900 AD)
  • WEIGHT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • WEIGHT (Medieval to Post Medieval - 1100 AD to 1600 AD)
  • POT (Medieval - 1200 AD to 1400 AD)
  • COIN (Medieval - 1494 AD to 1501 AD)
  • BUCKLE (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • BUTTON (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • CLOTH SEAL (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • COIN (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • COIN (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • CROTAL (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • DRESS HOOK (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • JETTON (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • KNIFE (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • POT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • STRAP FITTING (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • TOKEN (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • COIN (Post Medieval - 1579 AD to 1579 AD)
  • WEIGHT (Post Medieval - 1600 AD to 1800 AD)

Protected Status

  • Scheduled Monument
  • SHINE

Sources and further reading

---Photograph: See file.
---Aerial Photograph: TG2123 A-C, W-X; TG2223 A-AFS,AGR-AGT.
---Aerial Photograph: Edwards, D.A. (NLA). 1996. TG 2123AD - AE.
---Photograph: I & RS. Digital finds image.
---Record Card: Ordnance Survey Staff. 1933-1979?. Ordnance Survey Record Cards. TG 22 SW 3 [2]; TG 22 SW 30.
---Record Card: NAU Staff. 1974-1988. Norfolk Archaeological Index Primary Record Card.
---Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 1980. Quiet village with a busy past. 24 January.
---Monograph: Swan, V. G.. 1984. The Pottery Kilns of Roman Britain. Royal Commission on Historical Monuments Supplementary Series. 5.
---Secondary File: Secondary File.
---Slide: Various. Slide.
---Fiche: Exists.
---Illustration: Gregory, T.. 1983. Plan of fieldwalking in Brampton.. Film. 1:1250.
---Collection: Norfolk Historic Environment Record Staff. 1975-[2000]. HER Record Notes. Norfolk Historic Environment Service.
---Designation: Department Of The Environment. 1882-1984?. Department of the Environment Scheduling Notification. Notification. DF454.
<S1>Illustration: [Unknown]. 1941. Watercolour sketch of a Roman pottery waster from Brampton. Card. 1:1.
<S2>Record Card: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Roman. Brampton [12].
<S3>Serial: 1954. Council for British Archaeology Group VII Bulletin of Archaeological Discoveries. No 1. p 2.
<S4>Article in Serial: Clarke, R. R. 1955. Norwich Museum Excavations 1954. Norfolk Research Committee Bulletin. Series 1 No 7 (for 1954) p 1.
<S5>Unpublished Report: Knowles, A. K.. 1967. A Roman Pottery Kiln at Brampton, Norfolk.
<S6>Article in Serial: Knowles, A. K. 1967. A Roman Pottery Kiln at Brampton, Norfolk. Norfolk Research Committee Bulletin. Series 1 No 17 pp 12-15.
<S7>Article in Serial: Knowles, A. K. 1969. Further Work on Roman Pottery Kilns at Brampton, Norfolk. Norfolk Research Committee Bulletin. Series 1 No 18 pp 14-19.
<S8>Unpublished Report: Knowles, A. K. 1968. Roman Pottery Kilns at Brampton Norfolk.
<S9>Illustration: [Unknown]. 1967. Plans of Roman pottery kilns.. Card. Unknown.
<S10>Illustration: [Unknown]. 1967. Sketch plan of Roman pottery kiln and drawings of Roman mortaria stamps. Card.
<S11>Illustration: [Unknown]. 1967. Sketches of Roman mortaria stamps. Card. Unknown.
<S12>Illustration: Milligan, W. 1971. Drawing of an Iron Age enamelled copper alloy terret. Card. 2:1.
<S13>Article in Serial: Green, B. 1972. Three Iron Age Bronze Terrets. Antiquaries Journal. Vol 52 p 346.
<S14>Article in Serial: Richards, L. 1971. Deux Massacres de Cerf [Two Deer Killings]. Annales de Bretagne. Vol LXXVII Pt 1 pp 257-266.
<S15>Illustration: Clough, T. 1971. Drawing of Neolithic flaked flint axehead. Card. 1:1.
<S16>Illustration: Clough, T. 1971. Drawing of Neolithic part-polished flint axehead. Card. 1:1.
<S17>Record Card: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Neolithic. Brampton (4).
<S18>Illustration: Clough, T. 1971. Drawing of Neolithic part-polished flint axehead. Card. 1:1.
<S19>Article in Serial: Clough, T. H. Mck. and Green, B. 1972. The petrological identification of stone implements from East Anglia. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society. Vol 38 pp 108-155.
<S20>Article in Monograph: Green, C. 1977. Excavations in the Roman Kiln Field at Brampton, 1973-4. Norfolk. East Anglian Archaeology. No 5 pp 31-96.
<S21>Serial: 1974. Council for British Archaeology Group 7 Bulletin of Archaeological Discoveries for 1974. No 21. p 2.
<S22>Serial: 1975. Council for British Archaeology Group 7 Bulletin of Archaeological Discoveries for 1975. No 22. p 4.
<S23>Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 1975. Excavations described. 15 December.
<S24>Illustration: [Unknown]. 1978. Drawing of an Early Saxon pottery sherd. Film. 1:1.
<S25>Illustration: [Unknown]. 1978. Drawing of an Early Saxon pottery sherd. Film. 1:1.
<S26>Illustration: [Unknown]. 1978. Drawing of an Early Saxon pottery sherd. Card. 1:1.
<S27>Illustration: [Unknown]. 1978. Drawing of an Early Saxon pottery sherd. Card. 1:1.
<S28>Unpublished Report: Gregory, T. 1980. Brampton Kiln Field.
<S29>Illustration: Ashley, S. 1999. Drawing of an undated unidentified ?bone object. Film. 1:1.

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