Record Details

NHER Number:9794
Type of record:Monument
Name:Multi-period site at Harford Farm

Summary

Cropmarks of several possible Bronze Age ring ditches, rectangular enclosures and linear features at this site overlooking the Roman town of Venta Icenorum (NHER 9786) and are now recorded under separate numbers, see NHER 52324 for details. The area was destroyed by the construction of the southern Norwich bypass but excavations in advance of this identified that the site was a prehistoric barrow cemetery, an area of Middle Iron Age occupation, Late Iron Age enclosures and a Saxon inhumation cemetery dated to the 7th and 8th century AD. Two groups of Saxon graves were identified, one where coffins were used and the other where bodies were placed directly into the ground, sometimes on mats of organic material. Some of the Saxon graves contained objects, some of very high quality, including boxes, pendants, pin suites and chatelaines.

Images

  • A Roman intaglio remounted in the Early Saxon period and made into a pendant. The pendant was found on the site of Harford Park and Ride.  © Norfolk Museums & Archaeology Service. NWHCM 1994.5.235:A

Location

Grid Reference:TG 2249 0430
Map Sheet:TG20SW
Parish:CAISTOR ST EDMUND, SOUTH NORFOLK, NORFOLK

Full description

The cropmarks for this site are now recorded under separate numbers, see NHER 52324 for details.

Harford Farm

1933. Aerial photographs.
Discovery of circular cropmarks.

1938. Excavation.
Inconclusive excavations.
See (S1) and (S2).

1990. Norwich Southern Bypass Project.
Five ring ditches were excavated, along with evidence of Middle Iron Age occupation, six square-ditched enclosures probably of Late Iron Age date and 48 Middle Saxon inhumations of late 7th or early 8th century date.

The worked flints recovered included core flakes, blades and a range of retouched pieces and other tools. The high proportion of scrapers and the presence of barbed and tanged arrowheads suggests that this assemblage is at least partially of Late Neolithic/Early Bronze Age date. A small number of diagnostic earlier pieces are however also present, including a Mesolithic microlith and an Early Neolithic leaf arrowhead.

All finds from this excavation were donated to the Norwich Castle Museum (NWHCM : 1994.5). The prehistoric evidence is published in (S3); the Saxon cemetery is published separately (S4).

1991 to 1992. Watching brief.
On line of Norwich Southern Bypass.
Pit filled with Neolithic flint and prehistoric pottery.
Also see file for NHER 29040.
E. Rose (NLA), July 1992.

13 July 1993. NLA air photography.
Several cropmarks; that of a ring ditch and a square barrow can just be identified. The cropmark response over the site is very weak at this time.
S. Massey (NLA), 8 February 2001.

15 October 1993. NLA air photography.
Area of site can be seen and some cropmarks are visible.
H. Clare (NLA), 21 February 2001.

11 August 1997. NLA air photography.
Cropmarks still visible. Several ring ditches, square enclosure/barrow etc.
H. Clare (NLA), 2 November 2001.

2002.
Square enclosures (NHER 9794 and 9589) suggested as Roman, and associated with the postulated cadastre and other sites.
See (S5).
D. Gurney (NLA), 2 April 2002.

March 2009. Norfolk NMP.
The cropmarks for this site are now recorded under separate numbers, see NHER 52324 for details, including components of a barrow cemetery (NHER 52280), several phases of enclosures and fields of later prehistoric to Roman date (NHER 52278, 52292), Iron Age roundhouses and associated structures (NHER 52314, 52277, 52279) and a group of square-ditched funerary monuments of later Iron Age or Roman date (NHER 52289).
S. Horlock (NMP), 24 March 2009.

Article relating to the showing of Harford farm brooch in Gold: power and allure exhibition.
See (S6) for further information.
M. Langham-Lopez (HES), 13 September 2012.

Monument Types

  • FINDSPOT (Mesolithic - 10000 BC to 4001 BC)
  • CREMATION (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Late Prehistoric - 4000 BC to 42 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • INHUMATION (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • PIT (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • ROUND BARROW (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • GRAVE (Middle Neolithic to Beaker - 3260 BC to 2040 BC) + Sci.Date
  • GRAVE (Late Neolithic to Beaker - 2560 BC to 2040 BC) + Sci.Date
  • CREMATION (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • INHUMATION (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • RING DITCH (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Beaker - 2300 BC to 1700 BC)
  • INHUMATION (Beaker - 2300 BC to 1700 BC)
  • PIT (Beaker to Early Bronze Age - 1940 BC to 1640 BC) + Sci.Date
  • FINDSPOT (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • MORTUARY ENCLOSURE? (Early Iron Age to Roman - 800 BC to 409 AD)
  • PIT CLUSTER (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • RECTANGULAR ENCLOSURE (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • ROUND HOUSE (DOMESTIC) (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • SQUARE BARROW? (Early Iron Age to Roman - 800 BC to 409 AD)
  • ENCLOSURE (Late Iron Age to Roman - 100 BC to 409 AD)
  • RECTANGULAR ENCLOSURE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • SQUARE BARROW (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • TEMPLE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • INHUMATION (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)

Associated Finds

  • PLANT REMAINS (Undated)
  • MICROLITH (Mesolithic - 10000 BC to 4001 BC)
  • ADZE (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • BLADE (Late Prehistoric - 4000 BC to 42 AD)
  • FABRICATOR (Late Prehistoric - 4000 BC to 42 AD)
  • FLAKE (Late Prehistoric - 4000 BC to 42 AD)
  • FLAKED AXEHEAD (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • LEAF ARROWHEAD (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • LITHIC IMPLEMENT (Late Prehistoric - 4000 BC to 42 AD)
  • LITHIC IMPLEMENT (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • POLISHED AXEHEAD (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • POT (Late Prehistoric - 4000 BC to 42 AD)
  • ROUGHOUT (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • ARROWHEAD (Late Neolithic to Early Bronze Age - 3000 BC to 1501 BC)
  • BARBED AND TANGED ARROWHEAD (Late Neolithic to Early Bronze Age - 3000 BC to 1501 BC)
  • POT (Late Neolithic to Early Bronze Age - 3000 BC to 1501 BC)
  • BEAD (Early Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 1501 BC)
  • BEAD (Early Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 1501 BC)
  • BEAD (Early Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 1501 BC)
  • BOX (Early Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 1501 BC)
  • BRACELET (Early Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 1501 BC)
  • LOOMWEIGHT (Early Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 1501 BC)
  • PIN (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • RIVET (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • SPINDLE WHORL (Early Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 1501 BC)
  • WHETSTONE (Early Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 1501 BC)
  • HUMAN REMAINS (Beaker - 2300 BC to 1700 BC)
  • POT (Beaker - 2300 BC to 1700 BC)
  • POT (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • BROOCH (Late Iron Age to Roman - 100 BC to 409 AD)
  • COIN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • COSMETIC PESTLE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • POT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • AWL (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • BAG (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • BAG (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • BARREL (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • BEAD (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • BOX (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • BRACELET (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • BRACELET (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • BRACELET (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • BRACELET (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • BROOCH (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • BROOCH (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • BUCKLE (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • BUCKLE (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • BUCKLE (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • CHAIN (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • CHEST (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • CHEST (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • COFFIN (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • COIN (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • COMB (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • COMB (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • COSMETIC SET (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • FURNITURE FITTING (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • FURNITURE FITTING (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • HOOKED TAG (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • HUMAN REMAINS (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • KEY (LOCKING) (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • KNIFE (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • LACE TAG (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • NAIL (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • PADLOCK (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • PENDANT (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • PENDANT (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • PENDANT (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • PENDANT (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • PIN (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • RELIQUARY (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • RING (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • RING (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • RING (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • RIVET (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • ROD (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • SHEARS (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • SPEARHEAD (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • SPINDLE WHORL (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • SPINDLE WHORL (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • STRIKE A LIGHT (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • UNIDENTIFIED OBJECT (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • UNIDENTIFIED OBJECT (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • UNIDENTIFIED OBJECT (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • UNIDENTIFIED OBJECT (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)

Protected Status

  • Scheduled Monument
  • SHINE
  • SHINE

Sources and further reading

---Photograph: GWA-GWK (inc.).
---Aerial Photograph: Edwards, D.A. (NLA). 1993. TG 2204ALV - AMD.
---Aerial Photograph: Edwards, D.A. (NLA). 1993. TG 2204ALL - ALU.
---Aerial Photograph: Edwards, D.A. (NLA). 1997. TG 2204AME - AMH.
---Photograph: NAU.
---Newspaper Article: 2002. Eastern Daily Press. 25 October.
---Archive: NAU Staff. 1974-1988. Norfolk Archaeological Index Primary Record Card.
---Thesis: Garrow, D.. 2006. Pits, Settlement and Deposition during the Neolithic and Early Bronze Age in East Anglia. during the Neolithic and Early Pits, Settlement and Deposition during the Neolithic and Early Bronze Age in East Anglia.
---Article in Serial: Gurney, D. (ed.). 1991. Excavations and Surveys in Norfolk 1990. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XLI Pt II pp 240-246. pp 240-241.
---Archive: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Iron Age. Casiton (markshall).
---Archive: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Roman. Caister-By-Norwich.
---Secondary File: Secondary file.
---Slide: Various. Slide.
<S1>Article in Serial: Clark, G. 1936. The Timber Monument at Arminghall and its Affinities. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society. Vol II Pt 1 pp 1-51. p 3, p 4, fig. 2, site H.
<S2>Article in Serial: Wake, T. 1942. Some Recent Archaeological Discoveries in Norfolk. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XXVIII Pt I pp 23-30. p. 27.
<S3>Monograph: Ashwin, T. and Bates S. 2000. Norwich Southern Bypass, Part I: Excavations at Bixley, Caistor St Edmund, Trowse. East Anglian Archaeology. No 91.
<S4>Publication: Penn, K.. 2000. Excavations on the Norwich Southern Bypass, 1989-91. Part II: The Anglo-Saxon Cemetery at Harford Farm, Caistor St Edmund, Norfolk. EAA 92.
<S5>Unpublished Document: Peterson, J.. 2002. Iron Age and Roman square enclosures near Venta Icenorum: Roman changes in a prehistoric ritual landscape.
<S6>Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 2012. Ancient gold has power to dazzle in our Olympic year. 30 June.

Related records

52316Parent of: Cropmarks of a group of square ditched enclosures (Monument)
52315Parent of: Cropmarks of a possible square ditched enclosure (Monument)
52290Parent of: Cropmarks of a small group of sub-rectangular pits (Monument)
52293Parent of: Cropmarks of a trackway and another major boundary and/or road of possible Roman to post medieval date (Monument)
52294Parent of: Cropmarks of ditches and field boundaries of unknown but possible post medieval date (Monument)
52289Parent of: Cropmarks of square ditched enclosures, possibly Iron Age to Roman funerary features (Monument)
52291Parent of: Cropmarks of the Middle Saxon inhumation cemetery excavated at Harford Farm (Monument)
52310Parent of: Ditched boundary of possible late Saxon to post medieval date, Harford Farm (Monument)
52280Parent of: Harford Farm barrow cemetery (Monument)
52279Parent of: Iron Age roundhouse (Monument)
52277Parent of: Iron Age roundhouse, Harford Farm (Monument)
52314Parent of: Iron Age settlement, Harford Farm (Monument)
52281Parent of: Site of a Bronze Age barrow (Monument)
52286Parent of: Site of a Bronze Age barrow (Monument)
52284Parent of: Site of a Bronze Age barrow (Monument)
52283Parent of: Site of a Bronze Age barrow (Monument)

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