Record Details

NHER Number:9791
Type of record:Monument
Name:Roman kiln and inhumation and Early Saxon cemetery, Caistor St Edmund

Summary

An Early Saxon cemetery was found here in the 16th century. It was excavated between 1932 and 1935 when over 500 cremations and 57 inhumations were uncovered. More recent metal detecting on the field has uncovered Iron Age and Roman finds including coins, brooches and pottery and a Roman inhumation still wearing four copper alloy bracelets. The Roman finds are indicative of possible settlement at this site, and there is also evidence for Iron Age activity. The cropmarks formerly under this number are now under NHER 52202, 52229-30.

Images - none

Location

Grid Reference:Not displayed
Map Sheet:TG20SW
Parish:CAISTOR ST EDMUND, SOUTH NORFOLK, NORFOLK

Full description

The cropmarks formerly under this number are now under NHER 52202, 52229-30.

1754.
Early Saxon urns found.

1814.
Early Saxon urns ploughed up.

1835.
Early Saxon urn found.

19th century (perhaps 1840 to 1860.)
Early Saxon cremations with gravegoods.

1870.
Early Saxon urn excavated.

1932.
Roman kiln excavated.

1932-1938.
Excavation of Early Saxon cemetery. 502 cremations. 57 inhumations in 37 graves. Many 7th century graves.
See (S1).

1944.
Iron Age sherds found.

1946.
Cropmarks of Roman roads.

1958.
Roman sherds found.

1973 to 1976.
Early Saxon and Roman sherds.

1982.
Early Saxon brooch, Roman sherds and coins, flints.

1983 to 1984.
Iron Age coins, Roman and medieval metalwork, (S2, S3, S4, S5, S6 and S7).

1985.Metal detecting.
Roman coins, Late Saxon brooch.

1986.
Roman glass and tile dug up.

1987.
Early Saxon sherds found.

1988.
Flint flake found.

1989. Metal detecting.
Early Saxon ring, medieval coin etc.

1989. NAU air photography.
Cropmarks of early Roman defences?

1990. Metal detecting.
Early Saxon brooches, Roman miniature anvil.

1990. Metal detecting.
?Vessel mount in form of human head.

1991. Metal detecting.
Coins, pottery and other Roman objects. Early Saxon mould, (S8).

1992 to 1993. Metal detecting.
Roman and medieval coins and metalwork.

1993 Excavated from pit.
Early Saxon urn, Roman sherds and metalwork.

1994. Metal detecting.
Roman coins and brooch, post medieval tokens.

1995. Metal detecting.
Roman coins and brooch, medieval harness.

1996. Fieldwalking.
Roman, Middle Saxon, medieval sherds, flints. Roman glass and coins.

15 October 1993. NLA air photography.
Site can be seen, but cropmarks are not visible, and earthworks are not clear.
H. Clare (NLA), 21 February 2001.

September 2001. Metal detecting.
Prehistoric flint flake.
Roman pottery.
Roman coins.
Medieval/early post medieval stylus or writing lead.
Late post medieval malting kiln floor tile fragment.
Assorted post medieval fragments.
See lists in file.
S. Ashley (NLA), 8 September 2001.

September 2001. Metal detecting.
Roman coins.
Roman pottery
Early post medieval book clasp.
Assorted post medieval finds.
See lists in file.
S. Ashley (NLA), 8 November 2001.

September/October 2001. Metal detecting.
Roman coin.
Roman owl brooch.
See lists in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 3 January 2001.

October 2001. Metal detecting.
Two Roman coins (with 10 figure National Grid References)
Four Neolithic flints.
See lists in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 14 December 2001.

January to February 2002.
Somewhere in field.
Very fine sherd greyware with barbotine dots in vertical and horizontal alignment. Quite thick walled. Not a normal sized beaker, but from a larger vessel. Slightly micaceous.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 14 March 2002.

7 August 2002. Metal detecting.
Roman coin in area of context 6.
Post medieval jetton.
See list in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 11 September 2002.

Before 22 September 2003. Metal detecting.
Four Roman coins in northwest corner of field.
Rim of greyware bowl.
See lists in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 9 October 2003.

September 2003. Metal detecting.
Nine Roman coins and four Roman sherds.
See lists in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 26 February 2004.

January 2004. Metal detecting.
Two 3rd/4th century Roman coins.
See list in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 22 September 2004.

March 2009. Norfolk NMP.
This number now only relates to the Roman kiln and the Early Saxon cemetery and the multi-period finds. The cropmarks relating to the Roman settlement and streets are now recorded separately under NHER 52202 for the defences and NHER 52229-30 for the extramural streets and settlement. Other sites recorded within this area are under NHER 52199, 52231-2, 52034.
S. Horlock (NMP), 24 March 2009.

Monument Types

  • CREMATION (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • INHUMATION (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • POTTERY KILN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • CEMETERY (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • INHUMATION (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • PIT (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • HOUSE (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)

Associated Finds

  • METAL WORKING DEBRIS (Undated)
  • LITHIC IMPLEMENT (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • FLAKE (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • SCRAPER (TOOL) (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • BUTTON (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • COIN (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • COIN (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • POT (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • ARCHITECTURAL FRAGMENT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BOX (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BRACELET (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BROOCH (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BROOCH (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BUCKET (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • CEREMONIAL OBJECT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • COIN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • COIN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • DRESS COMPONENT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FIGURINE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FINGER RING (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FLUE TILE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FURNITURE FITTING (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • HARNESS (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • KEY (LOCKING) (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • LATCHLIFTER (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • MINIATURE OBJECT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • MIRROR (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • NAIL (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • PIN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • POT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • POT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • RAZOR (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • RING (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • ROOF TILE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • SEAL (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • SEAL BOX (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • SKILLET (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • SPOON (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • STEELYARD WEIGHT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • STUD (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • TILE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • VESSEL (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • VESSEL (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • WASTER (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • WINDOW GLASS (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • ANIMAL REMAINS (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • BEAD (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • BROOCH (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • BROOCH (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • KNIFE (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • MOULD (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • POT (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • RING (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • SHEARS (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • STAMP (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • TWEEZERS (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • VESSEL (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • POT (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • BROOCH (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • COIN (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • HARNESS (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • KNIFE (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • POT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • STYLUS (Medieval to Post Medieval - 1066 AD to 1900 AD)
  • TOKEN (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • VESSEL (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • BOOK FITTING (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • COIN (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • FLOOR TILE (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • JETTON (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • POT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • TOKEN (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • WEIGHT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)

Protected Status

  • SHINE
  • Scheduled Monument

Sources and further reading

---Photograph: See file.
---Aerial Photograph: TG2303 AMD-AMG,AMM,AMN,AMP,AMX; TG2403 V-X,AW.
---Aerial Photograph: Edwards, D.A. (NLA). 1993. TG 2203APF - APR; TG 2303AND - ANH; TG 2203AEN - AES.
---Article in serial: Gurney, D. and Penn, K. (eds). 1997. Excavations and Surveys in Norfolk 1996. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XLII Pt IV pp 547-564. p 549.
---Photograph: Wicks, D.. 1983. HES Film EAA. Caister St Edmunds Small Finds.. Print and negatives. Frames 19, 23-29.
---Photograph: EAV.
---Article in serial: Gurney, D. and Penn, K. (eds). 1998. Excavations and Surveys in Norfolk 1997. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XLIII Pt I pp 193-210. p 195.
---Archive: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Iron Age. Caistor-by-Norwich.
---Archive: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Roman. Caister-By-Norwich [4].
---Archive: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Early Saxon. Caistor St Edmund.
---Monograph: Swan, V. G.. 1984. The Pottery Kilns of Roman Britain. Royal Commission on Historical Monuments Supplementary Series. 5.
---Photograph: 1995. LDD 31-33, Romano British brooch..
---Secondary File: Secondary file.
---Archive: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Post-Medieval. Caistor st Edmund.
<S1>Publication: Myres, J.N.L. & Green, E.B.. Anglo-Saxon Cemeteries of Caistor by Norwich and Markshall.
<S2>Illustration: Gregory, T.. 1984. Drawing of Roman la tene III brooch.. Film. 2:1.
<S3>Illustration: Gregory, T.. 1984. Sketch of a Roman brooch.. Film. 2:1.
<S4>Illustration: Gregory, T.. 1984. Drawing of a Roman patera handle fragment.. Film. 2:1.
<S5>Illustration: Gregory, T.. 1984. Drawing of a Roman bronze bound bucket handle fragment and a medieval iron knife pommel knob.. Film. 2:1.
<S6>Illustration: Gregory, T.. 1984. Drawing of two Roman bronze pins.. Film. 2:1.
<S7>Illustration: Gregory, T.. 1984. Drawing of a Roman mortarium rim fragment.. Film. 2:1.
<S8>Illustration: Penn, K. 1991. Drawing of a Early Saxon silver fragment of a mould with an engraved human face.. Film. 1:1.

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