Record Details

NHER Number:9202
Type of record:Building
Name:Abbey Farm, site of Old Buckenham Priory and Old Buckenham castle

Summary

The castle was founded by D'Albini in the late 11th century and in 1146 on the completion of New Buckenham Castle (NHER 40577) was granted to the Augustinian Canons. They built a priory on the site but left the moats intact. The priory was dissolved in 1536. Moats, earthworks, cropmarks, foundations and one pier base of the priory church remain. Further soilmarks are visible to the west and have been recorded separately as NHER 57337. Abbey Farm, a 16th to 18th century building, contains much reused stone including one complete wall which probably comes from the priory. There is also a 17th century timber framed barn.

Images - none

Location

Grid Reference:TM 071 925
Map Sheet:TM09SE
Parish:OLD BUCKENHAM, BRECKLAND, NORFOLK

Full description

Site of castle, late 11th century. Given to Augustinian Canons as a priory in 1146.
Moats, earthworks, cropmarks, foundations and one pier base of church remain.
Abbey Farm may include parts of monastic buildings and is otherwise 16th to 18th century with much reused stone in one part, and possibly one complete stone wall (Grade II*).
17th century timber framed barn (Grade II).

1949.
Excavations on crossing of church.

1971.
17th century pottery (S25 and S26), etc. found in cesspit.

1996. Watching Brief.
Observations of a cable trench for Eastern Electricity recorded a wall close to the present farmhouse, perhaps part of the medieval priory.
Information taken from (S24)
M. Langham-Lopez (HES), 11 July 2013.

1997.
The site of Old Buckenham castle stands next to the remains of the later Albini priory founded when the castle was abandoned in the late 11th century. The early castle consists of at least two roughly rectangular platforms, whose moats resemble a crushed figure of 8. The main defence was to the north and is now reached by modern causeway through the moat to the west. The remains of a rampart lines the inner shore of the still mostly water-filled moat, which strongly suggests that this enclosure was the main ward. The rampart to the west has been destroyed, probably as part of the 12th century demolition. To the north the rampart is about 8 feet high internally and about 200 feet above the water level. In several places there are traces of a flint built wall projecting from the north side.
See (S1) for further details.
S. Howard (NLA), 11 January 2010.

1999. Earthwork survey.
See full details, plans and drawings, schedule documents in file.
See also (S3).
E. Rose (NLA), 5 Oct 1999.

8 July 1996. NLA air photography.
Site visible.
H. Clare (NLA), 25 September 2001.

The castle was founded by D'Albini in the late 11th century and in 1146 on the completion of New Buckenham Castle (NHER 40577) was granted to the Augustinian Canons. They built an abbey on the site but left the moats intact. The abbey was dissolved in 1536. Moats, earthworks, cropmarks, foundations and one pier base of the abbey church remain. Abbey Farm, a 16th to 18th century building, contains much reused stone including one complete wall which probably comes from the abbey. There is also a 17th century timber framed barn.
M. Dennis (NLA), 12 May 2006.

September 2009. Geophysical survey.
A geophysical survey was undertaken to compare the results of a gradiometry and two-dimensional geophysical survey for detecting archaeological anomalies previous identified through aerial photography.
See (S2).
S. Howard (NLA), 17 March 2010.

December 2010. Building recording.
The tithe map depicts at least three of the buildings one of which matches the buildings still standing on the south-western area of the site. The results of the building recording indicate that the building ranges to the east are likely to have been contemporary and appear to have been constructed for the purpose of enclosing the farmyard with its access opposite the farmhouse. The long building appears to have been purpose built as a cow shed. The gable ends facing the farmhouse were more ornate than other parts of the buildings also reflecting their orientation in relation to the farmhouse. The north-eastern end of the south-eastern range includes the date stone 188[2?] W [TB?] which fits with the presence of these ranges on the 1887 map but absence from the 1841 tithe map. The western building ranges are of a similar style and material to the eastern ranges and it is likely that all building are broadly contemporary but that the absence of them on the 1997 map suggests that they might post-date the 1882 construction date for the eastern ranges. A piece of graffiti "LJ 1801" was recorded on a brick inside the south-west building range, which might indicate that this brick was re-used from an earlier building. The open-sided shelter of the western ranges included three extant wooden dividers and the remains of a hay rack indicating that this area was probably used to house cattle.
See (S4).
S. Howard (HES), 12 March 2012.

January 2011. Watching brief.
An undated ditch and pit were recorded during the excavation and are likely to be earlier than the late 19th century construction of the extant ranges. The ditch was aligned closely with an extant ditch of the Abbey Farm drainage system and is likely to be of medieval or post-medieval date. A second linear feature of uncertain date may be a ditch or robbed-out wall. A brick-arched culvert may be contemporary with the 16th to 18th century farmhouse. Re-used medieval masonry was recorded in some of the standing buildings and part of a traceried window are likely to date to between AD 1280 and 1320.
See (S4).
S. Howard (HES), 12 March 2012.

June 2012. Norfolk NMP.
Old Buckenham castle is visible on aerial photographs (S5-S22) as earthworks and cropmarks. The moat itself has not been mapped, as its extent is visible on the available historic maps. Its extent is difficult to see on the earliest photographs (S5- S6) as it is covered with vegetation, and it appears to have been extended and re-dug in recent years (ie: between photographs from 1946 and 1970) (S7), prior to the earthwork survey (see above).
On the banked platform area within the moat, centred on TM 0718 9258, it is possible to distinguish a rectangular ditched area at TM 0716 9256 on the earliest photographs (S5, S6) which may relate to the ‘angular motte’ classified by Renn (S23), although it is difficult to be certain of this. The ditches measure 30m by 19m in maximum distance, with a possible division in the centre. A raised platform is also clearly visible on the photographs from 1970 (S7) centred on TM 0721 9262, and this has also been mapped, although it may relate to earth movement as a result of clearance of the moat.
On later photographs (S13) it is possible to distinguish six square vegetable plots, within the moated area, which remain visible on photographs as recently as 1999 (S21).
To the west of the moated area, centred on TM 0714 9249 (S8, S9, S11- S19) the parchmarks of a possible building footprint are visible, perhaps representing a range of buildings, measuring approximately 58m by 32m, with a possible bank to the south, measuring up to 7m in width. This may represent buildings associated with the priory that was founded on the site in 1146 (see above). Further soilmarks are visible to the west and have been recorded separately as NHER 57337.
E. Bales (NMP), 2012.

Monument Types

  • POND (Unknown date)
  • BANK (EARTHWORK) (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • CASTLE (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • CHURCH (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • ENCLOSURE (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • HOUSE (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • MOAT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • PRIORY (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • TIMBER FRAMED BUILDING (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • BARN (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • HOUSE (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • TIMBER FRAMED BUILDING (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • CART SHED (Post Medieval - 1882 AD to 1900 AD)
  • COW HOUSE (Post Medieval - 1882 AD to 1900 AD)

Associated Finds

  • ARCHITECTURAL FRAGMENT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • FLOOR TILE (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • POT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • BRICK (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1799 AD)
  • POT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • TILE (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1799 AD)
  • WALL PAINTING (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)

Protected Status

  • Scheduled Monument
  • Listed Building
  • Listed Building
  • Listed Building

Sources and further reading

---Aerial Photograph: TM0792 A-S,V-AL,AN,AR-ABC.
---Serial: 1950. The Archaeological Newsletter. Vol 3 No 2. p 38.
---Serial: 1950. Norfolk Research Committee Bulletin. Series 1 No 2 (for 1949).
---Serial: Blomefield, F.. 1805. An Essay Towards a Topographical History of the County of Norfolk.. Vol I.
---Graphic material: Various. Various. Architectural plans..
---Unpublished document: Cushion, B. (NLA). Earthwork Survey.
---Aerial Photograph: Edwards, D.A. (NLA). 1996. TM 0792ABG - ABM.
---Scheduling record: English Heritage. Scheduling Report.
---Unpublished document: H. Paterson (A&E), MPP. Section 17 Management Agreement.
---Monograph: Liddiard, R.. 2000. Landscapes of lordship: Norman castles and the countryside in medieval Norfolk, 1066-1200.. pp 46-47.
---Monograph: Cushion, B. and Davison, A.. 2003. Earthworks of Norfolk.. East Anglian Archaeology. Vol 104. p 178.
---Unpublished document: Ashwin, T.. 1997. NAU Report No. 178. Watching Brief for Eastern Electricity, Abbey Farm, Old Buckenham..
---Publication: Harrod, H. 1857. Gleanings among the Castles and Convents of Norfolk. pp 213-214.
---Illustration: 1910?. Postcard. The Abbey, Old Buckenham..
---Illustration: Hayward. 1814. Detail of plan of Old Buckenham Priory.
---Documentary source: 1760. Detail of parchment plan of Old Buckenham Priory.
---Newspaper Article: Lynn Advertiser. 1841. 24 May.
---Newspaper Article: 1998. Eastern Daily Press. 20 July.
---Newspaper Article: 1998. Eastern Daily Press. 31 January.
---Unpublished document: Purcell, D.. Old Buckenham, Norfolk. Priory (Augustinian Canons) and Castle.
---Map: 1841. Old Buckenham Tithe Map.
---Publication: Knowles, D. and Hadcock, R. N. 1971. Medieval Religious Houses of England and Wales. pp 138, 150.
---Article in serial: Gurney, D. and Penn, K. (eds). 1997. Excavations and Surveys in Norfolk 1996. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XLII Pt IV pp 547-564. p 557.
---Photograph: 1996. Photograph of Old Buckenham Castle, Old Buckenham. Colour.
---Publication: Woodward, S.. 1835. Woodward Correspondance. p.117 2.
---Archive: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Medieval. Buckenham (Old) [2].
---Secondary File: Secondary file.
---Slide: Various. Slide.
---Archive: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Post-Medieval. Buckenham (Old).
<S1>Monograph: Remfry, P.M.. 1997. Buckenham Castles 1066 to 1649.. p. 22-4.
<S2>Thesis: Webb, C.. 2009. Comparison of Magnetometer Surveying and Electrical Imaging in the search for Old Buckenham Castle..
<S3>Article in serial: Gurney, D. and Penn, K. (eds). 2000. Excavations and Surveys in Norfolk 1999. Norfolk Archaeology. XLIII Pt III pp 521-543. p 534.
<S4>Unpublished document: Mellor, V.. 2011. Archaeological Project Services Report No. 24/11. Historic building recording and archaeological watching brief on and around farm buildings at Abbey Farm, Old Buckenham, Norfolk.. March.
<S5>Vertical Aerial Photograph: RAF. 1946. RAF 3G/TUD/UK/59 5008-9 05-FEB-1946 (NMR).
<S6>Vertical Aerial Photograph: RAF. 1947. RAF CPE/UK/1938 4053-4 18-JAN-1947 (NMR).
<S7>Vertical Aerial Photograph: Ordnance Survey. 1970. OS/70282 136-7 31-JUL-1970 (NMR).
<S8>Oblique Aerial Photograph: Edwards, D.. 1977. NHER TM 0792E-M (NLA 136/19-20, 139/10-15) 04-AUG-1977.
<S9>Oblique Aerial Photograph: Edwards, D.. 1979. NHER TM 0792N-Q (NLA 198/1-3) 27-JUL-1979.
<S10>Oblique Aerial Photograph: Edwards, D.. 1980. NHER TM 0792A-D (NLA 95/APV20-23) 15-JUL-1980.
<S11>Oblique Aerial Photograph: Edwards, D.. 1983. NHER TM 0792R, T U, V (NLA 137/ATM1-3) 29-JUL-1983.
<S12>Oblique Aerial Photograph: Edwards, D.. 1983. NHER TM 0792S,W (NLA 136/ATF1-2) 28-JUL-1983.
<S13>Oblique Aerial Photograph: Edwards, D.. 1983. NHER TM 0792X-Z, AA,AB (NLA 135/ATA1-5) 21-JUL-1983.
<S14>Oblique Aerial Photograph: Edwards, D.. 1983. NHER TM 0792AC-AH (NLA 134/ASV1-6) 15-JUL-1983.
<S15>Oblique Aerial Photograph: Edwards, D.. 1983. NHER TM 0792AJ (NLA 136/SLIDE) 28-JUL-1983.
<S16>Oblique Aerial Photograph: Edwards, D.. 1986. NHER TM 0792AS-AV (NLA 185/DDD18-21) 01-AUG-1986.
<S17>Oblique Aerial Photograph: Edwards, D.. 1990. NHER TM 0792AY-AZ, ABA-ABC (NLA 275/GER5-9) 01-AUG-1990.
<S18>Oblique Aerial Photograph: Edwards, D.. 1990. NHER TM 0792AM (NLA 278/GFB15) 15-AUG-1990.
<S19>Oblique Aerial Photograph: Edwards, D.. 1990. NHER TM 0792AN, AQ,AR (NLA 279/GFG8,10,11) 21-AUG-1990.
<S20>Vertical Aerial Photograph: Ordnance Survey. 1995. OS/95513 179-80 09-APR-1995.
<S21>Vertical Aerial Photograph: Infoterra and Bluesky Ltd. 1999. Infoterra and Bluesky Ltd (Google Earth TM 0717 9259) XX-XX-1999.
<S22>Oblique Aerial Photograph: NMR. 2008. NMR TM 0792/046-50 (NMR 26148/22-26) 24-OCT-2008.
<S23>Monograph: Renn, D.F.. 1973. Norman Castles in Britain. p.121.
<S24>Article in serial: Nenk, B. S., Haith, C. and Bradley,. 1997. Medieval Britain and Ireland in 1996. Medieval Archaeology. Vol XLI pp 241-328. p279.
<S25>Illustration: Unknown. 1971. Drawings of post-medieval pottery.. Card. 1:1.
<S26>Illustration: Ashley, S.. 1971. Drawings of a post-medieval pottery fragment.. Film. 1:1.

Related records - none

Find out more...

Norfolk County Council logo Heritage Lottery Fund logo

Powered by HBSMR-web and the HBSMR Gateway from exeGesIS SDM Ltd, and mojoPortal CMS
© 2007 - 2019 Norfolk Historic Environment Service