Record Details

NHER Number:8712
Type of record:Monument
Name:Late Iron Age to Roman rectangular enclosure, Ashill and Holme Hale

Summary

This is a complex Late Iron Age to Roman site dating mainly from the 1st century. A large rectangular enclosure is visible on aerial photographs. The site was excavated in 1874 when a railway was being constructed over the site, and two timber-lined ritual shafts or wells were found. The shafts contained a large amount of Roman pottery, with many complete vessels, dating to the 1st century. Building materials also show that there was a Roman building within the enclosure. Roman coins, brooches and other metalwork have been found by metal detecting. The original purpose of the site is unclear, but it is close to the Panworth Ditch and a nearby Roman road (NHER 1082), suggesting that it may have served a military purpose. However, the site could also have been constructed for purely ritual purposes.

Images

  • An excavation of a Roman enclosure in 1874 during the construction of the railway through Ashill  © Norfolk County Council
  • A Roman military buckle with a fleur-de-lys pin  © Norfolk Museums & Archaeology Service

Location

Grid Reference:Not displayed
Map Sheet:TF90NW
Parish:ASHILL, BRECKLAND, NORFOLK
HOLME HALE, BRECKLAND, NORFOLK

Full description

Early Roman rectangular enclosure, probably ritual rather than defensive.

Iron Age metalwork and Middle Saxon pottery also from site.

1874.
Railway cut through site. Excavation of ritual shaft. See (S1).

1933.
Fieldwork produced Roman sherds and building material.

1953.
Casual find of Roman sherds and building material.

1955.
Reported find of Roman floor, sherds and coin.

1961.
Excavation across ditch of enclosure by Norwich Research Committee.

1970.
Casual find of building material, sherds and ironwork.

1972.
Reported find of palstave.

1975.
Casual find Roman objects and Middle Saxon pottery.

1976.
Air photograph of Roman road.

1976.
Find of Roman pottery.

1978.
Find of Roman pottery.

1979.
Fragment of Roman horse statue found with metal detecting.

1979.
Fieldwork produced Roman sherds and building material.

1979.
Report of illegal excavation. Roman statue, pottery and lamp.

1979.
Metal detecting finds of Iron Age and Roman coins and metalwork, also flint.

1979 to 1980.
Found with metal detecting. Iron Age to Roman coins and metalwork, (S4, S5, S6, S7, S8, S9, S10

1980.
Iron Age or Roman head found.

1970 to 1980s.
Iron Age coin found, details unknown.

1989. Finds in fieldwalking and metal detecting.
Roman sherds and metalwork, post medieval metalwork.

August 1991. Metal detecting finds.
Roman coins, pin and brooch.

See file for full details, photographs, site notes of early excavations, draft copy of (S2).
CUCAP air photos are at Norwich Castle Museum
D.A. Gurney (NLA), 20 August 1991.

22 July 1996. NLA air photography.
Cropmarks still visible (earthwork enclosure showing as cropmarks).
H. Clare (NLA), 4 January 2002.

25 July 1996. NLA air photography.
Cropmarks of Roman enclosure still visible.
S. Massey (NLA), 22 November 2001.

Before July 2001. Field walking.
Large number of Roman sherds.
Medieval sherd.
Roman brick/tile, medieval roofing tile.
See list in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 21 December 2001.

Monument Types

  • BUILDING (Late Iron Age to Roman - 0 AD to 409 AD)
  • FLOOR (Late Iron Age to Roman - 0 AD to 409 AD)
  • RITUAL SHAFT (Late Iron Age to Roman - 0 AD to 409 AD)
  • ROAD (Late Iron Age to Roman - 0 AD to 409 AD)
  • SQUARE ENCLOSURE (Late Iron Age to Roman - 0 AD to 409 AD)
  • WELL (Late Iron Age to Roman - 0 AD to 409 AD)

Associated Finds

  • BRIQUETAGE (Undated)
  • MOLLUSCA REMAINS (Undated)
  • UNIDENTIFIED OBJECT (Undated)
  • LITHIC IMPLEMENT (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • PALSTAVE (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • BRACELET (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • COIN (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • COIN (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • COIN (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • FIGURINE (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • PERSONAL ORNAMENT (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • SWORD (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • ANIMAL REMAINS (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • ARCHITECTURAL FRAGMENT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • ARCHITECTURAL FRAGMENT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • ARCHITECTURAL FRAGMENT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BRACELET (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BRICK (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BROOCH (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BUCKET (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BUCKLE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • CHISEL (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • COIN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • COIN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • COIN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • DRESS COMPONENT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FIGURINE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FIGURINE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • HAMMERSTONE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • KNIFE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • KNIFE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • LAMP (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • LATCHLIFTER (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • MOLLUSCA REMAINS (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • NAIL (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • PLANT REMAINS (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • POLISHER (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • POT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • POT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • POT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • QUERN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • QUERN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • ROOF TILE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • SAW (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • SHOE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • SKILLET (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • STRING (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • TILE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • TOILET ARTICLE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • UNIDENTIFIED OBJECT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • UNIDENTIFIED OBJECT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • VESSEL (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • VESSEL (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • VESSEL (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • WHETSTONE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • POT (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • POT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • ROOF TILE (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • ROOF TILE (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • HORSESHOE (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • TILE (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • VESSEL (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)

Protected Status

  • Scheduled Monument

Sources and further reading

---Photograph: PY 12, 16, BPK 1-12 (coins).
---Aerial Photograph: Edwards, D.A.. 1995. TF9105/A - D.
---Aerial Photograph: Edwards, D.A. (NLA). 1996. TF 9005AE - AG.
---Aerial Photograph: Edwards, D.A. (NLA). 1996. TF 9005AH - AR.
---Aerial Photograph: CUCAP. TF 9005AS-AV.
---Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 2010. Norfolk's treasures revealed.. 16 September.
---Archive: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Roman. Ashill [19].
---Article in serial: 1963. Archaeological Discoveries in Norfolk, 1961. Norfolk Research Committee Bulletin. Series 1 No 14 (for 1961 and 1962) pp 1-3. pp 1-2.
---Secondary File: Secondary file.
---Slide: Various. Slide.
<S1>Article in serial: Barton, T. 1879. Roman Discoveries at Ashill. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol VIII pp 224-230.
<S2>Monograph: Gregory, A.. 1977. The Roman Enclosure at Ashill.. East Anglian Archaeology. Vol V, p 9.
<S3>Article in serial: 1986. Britannia. Vol XVII, p 268.
<S4>Illustration: Gregory, T.. 1980. Drawing of an Iron Age copper alloy terminal.. Film. 2:1.
<S5>Illustration: Gregory, T.. 1980. Drawing of two Iron Age copper alloy bosses.. Card. 2:1.
<S6>Illustration: Gregory, T.. 1980. Drawing of an Iron Age copper alloy La Tene I strip-bow brooch.. Paper. 2:1.
<S7>Illustration: Gregory, A. 1980. Drawing of a Roman copper alloy buckle pin.. Card. 2:1.
<S8>Illustration: Gregory, T.. 1980. Drawing of a Roman copper alloy elliptical plate with rear studs.. Film. 2:1.
<S9>Illustration: Gregory, T.. 1980. Drawing of a Roman copper alloy elliptical plate with rear studs.. Film. 2:1.
<S10>Illustration: Gregory, T.. 1980. Drawing of a Roman copper alloy elliptical plate with rear studs.. Film. 2:1.
<S11>Illustration: Gregory, T.. 1980. Drawing of a Roman copper alloy hook and eye bracelet. Film. 2:1.
<S12>Illustration: Gregory, T.. 1980. Drawing of a Roman copper alloy plate with peltate head.. Film. 2:1.
<S13>Illustration: Gregory, T.. 1980. Drawing of an undated unidentified object.. Film. 2:1.

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