Record Details

NHER Number:41004
Type of record:Monument
Name:Early Saxon inhumation cemetery and multi-period finds

Summary

The number of Early Saxon metal finds, including brooches, mounts and other metalwork, as well as Early Saxon pottery, suggest that this is the site of an Early Saxon inhumation cemetery. Prehistoric flint flakes, a Mesolithic/Early Neolithic flint blade, Roman coins, pottery and metalwork, medieval coins, pottery and buckles, a medieval papal bulla, and a post medieval weight have also been found by metal detecting.

Images

  • Early to Middle Saxon counter-plate from a belt set from East Rudham. The plate is a Frankish type  © Norfolk Museums & Archaeology Service
  • Early Saxon incomplete pin from East Rudham dated to the 6th to 7th century AD  © Norfolk Museums & Archaeology Service
  • Part of an Early Saxon hanging bowl from East Rudham.  © Norfolk Museums & Archaeology Service
  • Early Saxon cruciform brooch from NHER 41004  © Norfolk County Council
  • Early Saxon cruciform brooch from NHER 41004  © Norfolk County Council
  • Early Saxon florid cruciform brooch from NHER 41004  © Norfolk County Council
  • Early Saxon sleeve clasp from NHER 41004  © Norfolk County Council
  • Early Saxon small-long brooch from NHER 41004  © Norfolk County Council
  • Early Saxon squared headed brooch from NHER 41004  © Norfolk County Council
  • Early Saxon weight from NHER 41004  © Norfolk County Council
  • Medieval seal matrix from NHER 41004  © Norfolk County Council
  • Medieval seal matrix from NHER 41004  © Norfolk County Council
  • Medieval seal matrix cast from NHER 41004  © Norfolk County Council
  • Medieval seal matrix cast from NHER 41004  © Norfolk County Council
  • Roman unidentified object from NHER 41004  © Norfolk County Council

Location

Grid Reference:Not displayed
Map Sheet:TF82NW
Parish:EAST RUDHAM, WEST NORFOLK, NORFOLK

Full description

September/October 2004. Metal detecting.
Mesolithic/Early Neolithic flint blade.
2 Roman and 4 medieval coins.
Bronze Age tool (S2).
Roman, Early Saxon, medieval and undatable metal objects.
Early Saxon and medieval sherds.
The eight Early Saxon objects are suggestive of an inhumation cemetery.
See lists in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 8 November 2004.

October/November 2004. Metal detecting.
7 Roman and 4 medieval coins.
Prehistoric flint flake.
Roman, Early Saxon (S3), Early/Midlle Saxon (S4) Middle Saxon, medieval, post medieval and undatable metal objects.
See lists in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 13 December 2004.

October/November 2006. Metal detecting.
Prehistoric worked flints.
12 Roman, 7 medieval and 1 post medieval coins.
Early Saxon pottery sherd.
Roman, Early Saxon, Early/Middle Saxon (S5), Middle Saxon, Late Saxon, medieval and post medieval metal objects.
See lists in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 8 December 2006.

December 2006 - January 2007. Metal detecting.
Prehistoric flints.
8 Roman and 2 medieval coins.
Roman and Early Saxon metal objects.
Late Saxon pottery sherd.
See lists in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 30 January 2007.

Before 14 December 2009. Metal-detecting.
Half a lead bulla of Pope Urban IV.
See description in file.
T. Pestell (NCM), 20 December 2009.

A probable cemetery site includes NHER 40787 with the northern and eastern extent of this activity falling within sites NHER 40987 and NHER 40573. The site lies on a low ridge beyond the eastern limit of the present-day village, where finds loss does not appear to be concentrated and seems to be restricted to personal metalwork such as small-long brooches and wrist clasps. The southern extent of activity is bounded by a low-lying wet area. The surface finds assemblage is dominated by cruciform, long and small long brooches predominantly dating to the 5th and 6th centuries, although there are also finds dating to the 4th to 5th centuries including a ‘military’-style buckle and the 7th century (strap fitting) indicating a longer period of occupation. A high-status element is indicated by the recovery of the base of hanging bowl featuring a triskele design and traces of red and blue enamel dated to the 5th to 7th century (Brenan 1991). Hanging bowls at Sutton Hoo, Suffolk were used to contain high status-cremation burials (Carver, 2005) and this is a possibility at East Rudham. Many of the recovered artefacts exhibit the expected Anglian or Saxon influences, but two artefacts, a 7th century strap fitting (Macgregor, 1997) and a hairpin dated to the late 4th or 5th century (Bohme 1974), but possibly the late 6th to 7th century (Rogerson HES), are Frankish and demonstrate either direct or indirect exchange links with this part of continental Europe. A small concentration of Early Saxon Frankish metalwork in West Norfolk could indicate some Frankish political influence. Given that activity at NHER 41004/40787 is not overlaid by significant Middle Saxon material this might signal an end of
‘Frankish’ influence, whatever that entailed, in the area.
See (S1).
S. Howard (HES), 10 November 2011.

Monument Types

  • FINDSPOT (Prehistoric - 1000000 BC to 42 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Early Mesolithic to Early Neolithic - 10000 BC to 3001 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Late Prehistoric - 4000 BC to 42 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Early Saxon - 410 AD to 650 AD)
  • INHUMATION CEMETERY (Early Saxon - 410 AD to 650 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)

Associated Finds

  • RING (Unknown date)
  • WEIGHT (Unknown date)
  • RETOUCHED FLAKE (Lower Palaeolithic to Late Iron Age - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • BLADE (Early Mesolithic to Early Neolithic - 10000 BC to 3001 BC)
  • AWL (Late Prehistoric - 4000 BC to 42 AD)
  • BLADE (Late Prehistoric - 4000 BC to 42 AD)
  • FLAKE (Late Prehistoric - 4000 BC to 42 AD)
  • FLAKE (Late Prehistoric - 4000 BC to 42 AD)
  • POT (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • BRACELET (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BROOCH (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BROOCH (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BUCKLE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BUCKLE (Roman to Early Saxon - 43 AD to 650 AD)
  • COIN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FURNITURE FITTING (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • HARNESS MOUNT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • LOCK (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • POT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • STRAP FITTING (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • STUD (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • UNIDENTIFIED OBJECT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BROOCH (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • BUCKLE (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • FURNITURE FITTING (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • GIRDLE HANGER (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • HAIR PIN (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • HANGING BOWL (Early Saxon to Middle Saxon - 411 AD to 850 AD)
  • HARNESS MOUNT (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • POT (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • SLEEVE CLASP (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • SLEEVE CLASP (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • SPANGLE (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • STRAP FITTING (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • STRAP FITTING (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • BUCKLE (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • POT (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • BALANCE (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • BOOK FITTING (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • BUCKLE (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • BULLA (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • COIN (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • HARNESS MOUNT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • HARNESS PENDANT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • KEY (LOCKING) (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • PAGE HOLDER (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • POT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • SEAL MATRIX (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • TWEEZERS (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • VESSEL (Medieval to 19th Century - 1066 AD to 1900 AD)
  • WEIGHT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • COIN (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • SWORD BELT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • WEIGHT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)

Protected Status

  • SHINE

Sources and further reading

---Photograph: NLA. Finds Photograph.
---Photograph: I & RS. Digital finds image.
---Secondary File: Secondary File.
<S1>Thesis: Davies, G.. 2010. Settlement, economy and lifestyle: The changing social identities of the coastal settlements of West Norfolk, 450-1100 AD.. pp 199-200.
<S2>Illustration: Ashley, S.. 2004. Drawing of a Bronze Age (taunton) tool.. Film. 1:1.
<S3>Illustration: Gibbons, J.. 2004. Drawing of an Early Saxon hair pin.. Film. 2:1.
<S4>Illustration: Gibbons, J.. 2004. Drawing of an Early/Middle Saxon strap fitting.. Film. 2:1.
<S5>Illustration: Gibbons, J.. 2006. Drawing of an Early/Middle Saxon basal disk fragment from a hanging bowl.. Film. 2:1.

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