Record Details

NHER Number:3565
Type of record:Monument
Name:Middle Saxon building and possible Roman to Late Saxon settlement and Early Saxon cemetery

Summary

Excavation of a small area of this field in 1971 recorded a clay floor with a central hearth and a line of post holes down the centre overlain by a large quantity of wattle and daub. Associated finds included Middle Saxon pottery and iron knives, and the features were interpreted as the remains of a Middle Saxon building.
Since the excavation fieldwalking and metal detecting has found a wide range of multi-period items including Iron Age and Early Saxon to post medieval pottery. Metal finds include a fragment of a rare Early Saxon saucer brooch, a Late Saxon copper alloy ingot, a Late Saxon stylus and a Viking ring headed pin. The whole assemblage is indicative of a Middle Saxon settlement site, part of a larger Roman to Early Medieval settlement, and Early Saxon cemetery complex evident at NHER 11743, NHER11816, NHER 25765, NHER 30690, NHER 30754, and NHER 31073.

Images

  • A Viking ring-headed pin from Congham.  © Norfolk Museums & Archaeology Service and S. White
  • A Viking silver ingot from Congham.  © Norfolk Museums & Archaeology Service
  • A medieval horse harness pendant from Congham.  © Norfolk Museums & Archaeology Service
  • A Middle Saxon figner ring from Congham.  © Norfolk Museums & Archaeology Service
  • Part of an Early Saxon saucer brooch from Congham.  © Norfolk Museums & Archaeology Service

Location

Grid Reference:Not displayed
Map Sheet:TF72SW
Parish:CONGHAM, WEST NORFOLK, NORFOLK

Full description

1968. Stray Find.
Medieval pottery sherds found by [1].
It was reported that the same finder recovered part of what may have been a Roman kiln in a field to the north (NHER 3560) around the same time. This is probably an item in the King's Lynn Museum described as kiln lining or daub from building" (KILLM : 1970.92.5). The grid reference listed in the museum records (TF 718 233) suggests that this object was actually recovered here.
Amended by P. Watkins (HES), 9 December 2013.

Pre 1970. Casual find in the northeast corner of the field.
Chipped Neolithic flint axe found.

1971. Resistiviy survey, surface finds and excavation.
A resistivity survey was carried out following a report of clay daub found on the surface of the field after ploughing.
Excavations in the area of an anomaly identified by the survey recorded the remains of a Middle Saxon building with a central hearth and measured 5' 5 by 4 m the area of the hut was indicated by the dark soil and occupation-debris. A line of five post holes was recorded along the centre, and associated finds include Ipswich ware and iron knives. The quantity of daub observed on the surface of the field and above the clay floor indicates that the excavated building is part of a larger settlement.
See (S1), (S2), (S3) and (S4) for further details.
H. Hamilton (HES), 28 November 2012.

January 1978. Casual Find.
Late Saxon sherds found.

1983. Metal detecting.
Medieval pendant.

1984. Metal detecting.
Medieval coins - hoard?

1994. Metal detecting.
Roman, Early Saxon, Middle Saxon (S6), Late Saxon, medieval metalwork.
Post medieval jetton.
Iron Age, Early Saxon, Middle Saxon, medieval sherds.

1996. Metal detecting.
Early Saxon wristclasp.

1997. Metal detecting.
Roman, Middle Saxon, Late Saxon, medieval, post medieval coins.
Roman, Middle Saxon, Early Saxon (S7 and S8), Late Saxon, medieval (S9) metalwork.

1998. Metal detecting.
Roman, medieval, post medieval coins.
Early Saxon, Middle Saxon, Late Saxon (S9) metalwork.

January 1999. Metal detecting.
Found by [2] in central area:
2 ?Mesolithic/Early Neolithic worked flints: 1 flake and 1 blade.
1 Middle Saxon coin and 1 copper alloy pin.
1 ?Middle Saxon or medieval unusual buckle plate (S5).
1 medieval coin (Stephen) and 1 rivet/stud.
1 undatable metal working debris fragment (small molten lump).
Amended by P. Watkins (HES), 9 December 2013.

1999. Metal detecting.
Roman, Late Saxon and medieval coins.
Roman brooch, Early Saxon belt-mount, Middle Saxon pin.
Medieval, post medieval metal finds.
See full details and press cuttings in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 2 April 1999.

October 2001. Metal detecting.
Medieval ?buckle plate fragment.
See list in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 13 December 2001.

January 2006. Metal detecting in northeast corner.
Early Saxon, Late Saxon, and medieval metal objects.
See list in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 6 April 2006.

Before 14 November 2008. Metal detecting
5 Roman, 1 Middle Saxon, 4 medieval & 3 post-medieval coins, medieval jetton, medieval/post-medieval coin weight, Roman brooch, bell, strap fitting, Early Saxon brooch, Middle Saxon pins, tweezers, Mid/Late Saxon hooked tags, Late Saxon buckle, Late Saxon/Medieval buckle (S10), medieval brooch, buckle, strap end, harness mount, leash, furniture fitting, medieval/post-medieval unidentified object & post-medieval knif and Jew's harp.
See description in file
A. Rogerson (NLA) 1 May 2009

Monument Types

  • FINDSPOT (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Early Mesolithic to Early Neolithic - 10000 BC? to 3001 BC?)
  • FINDSPOT (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • SETTLEMENT? (Roman to Medieval - 43 AD to 1300 AD)
  • CEMETERY? (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • BUILDING (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • HEARTH (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • POST HOLE (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • SETTLEMENT (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)

Associated Finds

  • HORSESHOE (Undated)
  • INGOT (Undated)
  • METAL WORKING DEBRIS (Undated)
  • RING (Undated)
  • RING (Unknown date)
  • UNIDENTIFIED OBJECT (Undated)
  • UNIDENTIFIED OBJECT (Undated)
  • UNIDENTIFIED OBJECT (Undated)
  • LITHIC IMPLEMENT (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • BLADE (Early Mesolithic to Early Neolithic - 10000 BC? to 3001 BC?)
  • FLAKE (Early Mesolithic to Early Neolithic - 10000 BC? to 3001 BC?)
  • FLAKED AXEHEAD (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • POT (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • BROOCH (Late Iron Age to Roman - 20 AD to 65 AD)
  • BELL (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BOW BROOCH (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BROOCH (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BROOCH (Roman - 43 AD to 80 AD)
  • COIN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • COIN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FURNITURE FITTING (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • KILN FURNITURE? (Roman - 43 AD? to 409 AD?)
  • STRAP FITTING (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • STRAP FITTING (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FINGER RING (Roman - 200 AD to 409 AD)
  • BOW BROOCH (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • BROOCH (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • GIRDLE HANGER (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • POT (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • RING (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • SLEEVE CLASP (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • STRAP FITTING (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • ARCHITECTURAL FRAGMENT (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • BROOCH (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • BUCKLE (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • BUCKLE (Middle Saxon to Medieval - 651 AD to 1539 AD)
  • COIN (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • COIN (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • DRESS COMPONENT (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • FINGER RING (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • HOOKED TAG (Middle Saxon to Late Saxon - 651 AD to 1065 AD)
  • KNIFE (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • PIN (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • PIN (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • PIN (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • POT (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • STRAP FITTING (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • STRAP FITTING (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • STYLUS (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • TWEEZERS (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • PIN (Middle Saxon to Late Saxon - 720 AD to 900 AD)
  • BROOCH (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • BUCKLE (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • BUCKLE (Late Saxon to Medieval - 851 AD to 1539 AD)
  • COIN (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • COIN (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • HARNESS (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • HARNESS FITTING (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • INGOT (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • PIN (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • POT (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • POT (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • STIRRUP (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • STRAP FITTING (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • STYLUS (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • BELL (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • BOX (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • BROOCH (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • BROOCH (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • BROOCH (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • BUCKLE (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • BUCKLE (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • COIN (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • COIN (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • COIN HOARD (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • COIN WEIGHT (Medieval to Post Medieval - 1066 AD to 1900 AD)
  • FURNITURE FITTING (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • GAMING PIECE (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • HARNESS (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • HARNESS MOUNT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • HARNESS PENDANT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • JETTON (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • KNIFE (Medieval to Post Medieval - 1066 AD to 1900 AD)
  • LANTERN (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • LEASH (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • PENDANT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • PILGRIM BADGE (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • POT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • POT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • PURSE (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • RIVET (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • SEAL (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • STEELYARD WEIGHT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • STRAP FITTING (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • STUD (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • UNIDENTIFIED OBJECT (Medieval to Post Medieval - 1066 AD to 1900 AD)
  • WEIGHT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • WINDOW (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • BUCKLE (Medieval - 1200 AD to 1400 AD)
  • STRAP END (Medieval - 1200 AD to 1400 AD)
  • UNIDENTIFIED OBJECT (Medieval - 1200 AD to 1500 AD)
  • BROOCH (Medieval - 1250 AD to 1350 AD)
  • BUCKLE (Medieval - 1300 AD to 1400 AD)
  • BUCKLE (Medieval - 1300 AD to 1400 AD)
  • BUCKLE (Medieval - 1450 AD to 1539 AD)
  • BELL (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • BUCKLE (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • COIN (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • COIN (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • COIN (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • GAMING PIECE (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • HARNESS MOUNT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • JETTON (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • KNIFE (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • PURSE (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • STRAP FITTING (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • TOKEN (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)

Protected Status

  • SHINE

Sources and further reading

---Aerial Photograph: TF7123L-M.
---Photograph: NLA. Finds Photograph.
---Photograph: I & RS. Digital finds image.
---Monograph: Ashley, S. 2002. Medieval Armorial Horse Furniture in Norfolk. East Anglian Archaeology. No 101.
---Archive: Ordnance Survey Staff. 1933-1979?. Ordnance Survey Record Cards. TF 72 SW 27.
---Archive: NAU Staff. 1974-1988. Norfolk Archaeological Index Primary Record Card.
---Article in Monograph: Rogerson, A.. 2003. Six Middle Anglo-Saxon Sites in West Norfolk.. Markets in Early Medieval Europe: Trading and ' Productive' Sites, 650-850. Pestell, T. & Ulmschneider, K. (ed.).
---Photograph: 1999. KSE 27, Late Saxon copper alloy ingot..
---Photograph: 1999. KSE 12, Early Saxon burnt cali fragment..
---Photograph: 1999. KSE 8, Early Saxon small long brooch..
---Photograph: 1999. KSJ 24, Early Saxon belt mount..
---Photograph: 1995. LDJ 16-19, Middle/Late Saxon hooked tag..
---Secondary File: Secondary file.
---Archive: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Middle Saxon. Congham [2].
---Illustration: Ashley, S.. 1997. Drawing of a medieval horse harness pendant.. Paper. 2:1.
<S1>Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 1971. Rare Saxon hut remains. 26 March.
<S2>Newspaper Article: Lynn News. 1971. Young Archaeologist Discovers Site of Saxon Hut in Field at Congham. 30 March. 2.
<S3>Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 1977. Saxon Hut Remains Rare Find. 26 November.
<S4>Article in Serial: Webster, L. E. and Cherry, J. 1973. Medieval Britain in 1971. Medieval Archaeology. Vol XVI (for 1972) pp 147-212. p 157.
<S5>Photograph: 1999. KSH 15, ?Middle Saxon or medieval buckle plate.
<S6>Illustration: White, S. 1994. Drawing of a Viking ring-headed pin.. Film. 2:1.
<S7>Illustration: Holness, A.. 1997. Drawing of an Early Saxon saucer brooch.. Paper. 1:1.
<S8>Illustration: Holness, A.. 1997. Drawing of a Middle Saxon finger ring.. Paper. 1:1.
<S9>Illustration: White, S.. 1999. Drawing of a Late Saxon copper alloy ingot.. Film. 2:1.
<S10>Illustration: Gibbons, J.. 2009. Drawing of a Late Saxon/medieval buckle frame.. Film. 2:1.

Related records

20505Parent of: Early Saxon brooch (Find Spot)
25766Parent of: Late Saxon harness fitting (Find Spot)
18425Parent of: Late Saxon strap end (Find Spot)
20413Parent of: Medieval metal finds (Find Spot)
20503Parent of: Medieval silver penny (Find Spot)
21905Parent of: Medieval to post medieval book clasp (Find Spot)
23708Parent of: Roman miniature chisel (Find Spot)

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