Record Details

NHER Number:3560
Type of record:Monument
Name:Probable Roman villa

Summary

A range of finds were recovered at this site during the 1960s, including a prehistoric macehead; prehistoric, Roman, Early Saxon, Middle Saxon and Late Saxon pottery and Roman tile. The remains of a Roman villa were identified at this site in 1973, when it was partially excavated. Features including a ditch or a robber trench and floor layers were located and pits were excavated. Although no walls were found and the site seems to have had building material removed in the post Roman period. Lots of red, orange, yellow and blue painted wall plaster was found. Some of the fragments were painted to imitate marble. These indicate the building would have been quite luxuriously decorated, and was probably a villa. A geophysical survey carried out in 1991 demonstrated that the archaeology around the villa is also of interest with archaeological features identifying former buildings or centres of industrial activity across the whole area of the survey. Fieldwalking and casual finds around the area continue to recover Roman pottery and metal objects.

Images - none

Location

Grid Reference:Not displayed
Map Sheet:TF72SW
Parish:CONGHAM, WEST NORFOLK, NORFOLK

Full description

Roman villa. Site falls within large metal detecting scatter NHER 25765.

Pre 1931.
Roman sherds recorded - really Late Saxon?

1968-9. Stray Find.
A range of finds were recovered in [1] in Willow Pit Field between 1968 and 1969. These finds were reported to the King's Lynn Museum and it appears that the majority were donated to the museum (KILLM : 1968.88 and KILLM : 1970.92). Finds from this field have been identified on the basis of either the field name or the grid reference listed. The finds reported and/or held by the museum include:
1 prehistoric stone macehead with hour-glass perforation (KILLM : 1968.88.4), described in the museum records as made of a fine-grained brown stone. These simple maceheads are not closely datable, having been found in both Mesolithic and later prehistoric contexts.
Neolithic pottery sherds.
?Iron Age pottery sherds.
Roman pottery sherds, 2 tiles (KILLM : 1968.88.5; 1 with scored marking and 1 tegula) and 1 hypocaust tile (KILLM : 1968.88.16).
Early Saxon pottery sherds, including some stamped sherds. The sherds held by the KLM were examined by C. Dallas in 1973, who identified decorated sherds of a type that have been dated by Myres to the 5th-6th centuries.
1 Middle Saxon Ipswich ware pottery sherd (KILLM : 1970.92.4). Identified by C. Dallas in KLM collections.
Late Saxon pottery sherds. Much Thetford Ware was identified by C. Dallas in his examination of the KLM collections.
1 post-medieval copper alloy ring with further loop (KILLM : 1968.88.1).
1 undatable sharpening stone (KILLM : 1970.92).

It is also recorded in the file notes that "part of a kiln" was recovered in this field. This is probably the item in the KLM that is described as "kiln lining or daub from building" (KILLM : 1970.92.5). It should however be noted that the grid reference listed in the museum records (TF 718 233) places this find in a field to the south-west (NHER 3565).
Amended by P. Watkins (HES), 8 December 2013.

1973. Excavation.
Excavation of villa produced Roman (S3) and Late Saxon (S7) metalwork, wallplaster etc.

1975. Metal detecting.
Roman metalwork (S4, S5 and S6).

Pre 1976.
Jet beads found.

1983. Metal detecting.
Roman and medieval metalwork.

1984. Casual finds.
Samian ware and Roman coin.

1991.
Roman, medieval sherds found.

1991.
Roman tiles found. Geophysical survey, extending outside scheduled area.

See full details, (S1 and S2) in file.

Monument Types

  • FINDSPOT (Early Mesolithic to Early Bronze Age - 10000 BC to 1501 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Neolithic - 4000 BC? to 2351 BC?)
  • FINDSPOT (Iron Age - 800 BC? to 42 AD?)
  • DITCH (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FLOOR (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • KILN (Roman - 43 AD? to 409 AD?)
  • PIT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • VILLA (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)

Associated Finds

  • METAL WORKING DEBRIS (Undated)
  • WHETSTONE (Unknown date)
  • MACE (Early Mesolithic to Early Bronze Age - 10000 BC to 1501 BC)
  • POT (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • POT (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • POT (Iron Age - 800 BC? to 42 AD?)
  • ARCHITECTURAL FRAGMENT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BEAD (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BROOCH (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BUCKLE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • COIN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FINGER RING (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FLUE TILE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FLUE TILE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FLUE TILE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • KILN FURNITURE? (Roman - 43 AD? to 409 AD?)
  • MOLLUSCA REMAINS (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • PIN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • POT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • POT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • POT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • POT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • ROOF TILE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • ROOF TILE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • STUD (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • TEGULA (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • TILE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • TWEEZERS (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • VESSEL (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • VESSEL (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • WORKED OBJECT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • POT (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • POT (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • POT (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • POT (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • POT (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • DRESS COMPONENT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • POT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • TOKEN (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • RING (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)

Protected Status

  • SHINE
  • Scheduled Monument

Sources and further reading

---Serial: 1968. Council for British Archaeology Group 7 Bulletin of Archaeological Discoveries for 1968. No 15. p 5.
---Archive: Ordnance Survey Staff. 1933-1979?. Ordnance Survey Record Cards. TF 72 SW 2.
---Archive: NAU Staff. 1974-1988. Norfolk Archaeological Index Primary Record Card.
---Archive: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Roman. Congham [2].
---Archive: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Late Saxon. Congham.
---Secondary File: Secondary file.
---Slide: Various. Slide.
---Illustration: Unknown. Unknown. Drawing of a Late Saxon strap end.. Card. 1:1.
<S1>Unpublished document: Linford, N. (EH). 1991. Ancient Monuments Laboratory Report 83/92 Report on Geophysical Survey at Congham, Norfolk, April 1991. April.
<S2>Unpublished document: English Heritage. 1974. Schedule Report.
<S3>Illustration: Gregory, T.. 1974. Drawing of a Roman copper alloy buckle.. Card. 2:1.
<S4>Illustration: Unknown. 1975. Drawing of a pair of Roman tweezers.. Card. 1:1.
<S5>Illustration: Unknown. 1975. Drawing of a Roman enamelled brooch.. Card. 1:1.
<S6>Illustration: Unknown. 1975. Drawing of a Roman enamelled brooch.. Card. 1:1.

Related records

25765Part of: Late Iron Age activity, Early Saxon cemetery and Roman to early medieval settlement (Monument)

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