Record Details

NHER Number:29171
Type of record:Monument
Name:Iron Age and Roman settlement

Summary

Extensive fieldwalking and metal-detecting on this site between 1991 and 2012 has uncovered a concentration of Iron Age and Roman finds that suggests there was settlement here during these periods. Five Iron Age silver coins and an Iron Age miniature votive shield have been recovered. Late Iron Age pottery has also been identified. Over 300 Roman coins dating from the first century to the 4th century and a large amount of Roman pottery sherds have also been recovered. There is little evidence for activity in the Saxon period, but there are some medieval and post medieval finds. This scatter may extend to include NHER 31253.

Images

  • Roman mount probably portraying Silenus from Besthorpe  © Norfolk Museums & Archaeology Service

Location

Grid Reference:Not displayed
Map Sheet:TM09NE
Parish:BESTHORPE, BRECKLAND, NORFOLK

Full description

1991. Metal detecting.
Thirty three Roman coins (1st-4th century). See list in file.
Five Iron Age coins- Boar/Horse weight 0.958g; Face/Horse, weight 0.947g Three Pattern/Horse: a= ECEN weight 0.84g; b= ECEN symbol type, 0.99g; c= ANTED weight 0.92g.
I.D. J. Davies (NCM), 22 October 1991.

Twenty six Roman brooches pin, ring, nail cleaner, bucket escutcheon.
Identified by D. Mackreth, 4 December 1991 & 21 January 1992.

Medieval rolled up silver coin, padlock key, 13th century casket strap, and two cauldron feet.
16th century oval seal-matrix, 16th/17th century gilt bronze belt or harness mount, post medieval lead token and glass bottle base.
Undated solid conical object.
See (S1).
Identified by S. Margeson (NCM), 1991
See list in file
W. Milligan (NCM), 15 April 1991

1991. Metal detecting. Further finds by [1].
Roman vessel escutcheon.
Late Saxon Urnes-style mount.
Medieval copper alloy barrel padlock, weights, lead seal matrix.
Post medieval weights.
List in file.
S. Margeson (NCM), 30 January 1992.

1992. Metal detecting.
Twelve 3rd/4th century coins. See list in file.
Identified by J. Davies (NCM) 21 September 1992.
Trumpet brooch - c.75 to 150/175 AD.
Identified by D. Mackreth 27 January 1993.
Iron Age leaf-shaped object - ?votive shield 3rd century BC.
See (S1).
Identification by Prehistoric and Roman Department British Museum, December 1992.
14th century strap end with animal head terminal on the front plate.
14th century strap end with elaborate trefoil terminal.
Medieval openwork buckle plate or mount fragment - rocket arm decoration.
See (S1).
Charles I twopence.
Charles I rose farthing token.
Further details in file.
W. Milligan (NCM) 18 December 1992.

1993. Metal detecting.
Five Roman brooches, pins, box mount, vessel fragments and a possibly box attachment (S5).
Twelve medieval and eight post medieval metal objects.
See list in file.
Identified by S. Margeson (NCM). Brooches identified by D. Mackreth 1994.
Three Iceni coins.
Thirty-six 2nd-4th century coins.
Five post medieval coins.
One jetton.
One token.
See lists in file.
Identified by J. Davies (NCM) 15 December 1993.
See (S1).

Context 2.
Late Roman finger ring.
See (S2).
Identified by C. M. Johns (British Museum, Prehistoric and Romano-British Antiquities) 18 February 1994.
W. Milligan (NCM) 24 August 1994.

Metal detecting in 1993.
Identification of [1]'s find no 29 by [2] in file with (S1).

Probably early 1990s. Metal-detecting.
Additional objects found by [1]:
1 ?Roman ?armlet fragment, 1 ?miniature votive axe and 1 curved copper alloy rod fragment.
1 medieval knife-handle end-cap, 1 strap end, 1 buckle and 1 copper alloy vessel leg.
1 ?medieval casket handle and 2 copper alloy spoons.
2 medieval/post-medieval book clasps.
1 post-medieval copper alloy toggle, 1 copper alloy mould (for lead shot), 1 lead powder-flask lid (Civil War period), 2 lead cloth seals and 1 lead toy soldier.
1 undatable fragment of copper alloy metal-working debris (droplet).
Probably identified by W. Milligan (NCM), see notes and photocopies of objects [3].
P. Watkins (HES), 23 August 2016.

1996. Fieldwalking extended area.
Pot boiler scatter.
Neolithic/Bronze Age flints.
Iron Age pottery.
Roman coin, tegula, tile, pottery.
Medieval base.
Undated daub, artefact, oysters, bones.
See (S3) and list in file.
D. Gurney (NLA) 4 October 1996.

January 2004. Metal detecting.
Thirty-four Roman, one medieval and two post medieval coins.
Three post medieval jettons.
Roman, medieval, post medieval and undatable metal objects.
See lists in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 18 March 2004.

January 2004. Metal detecting as above.
?Iron Age, Roman and post medieval sherds. Roman tiles.
See list in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 23 July 2004.

Before 25 March 2004. Metal detecting.
Two Roman and two post medieval coins.
Iron Age, Roman and medieval sherds.
?Iron Age, Roman, medieval and post medieval metal finds.
See lists in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 16 July 2004.

23-24 November 2005. Fieldwalking.
Roman pottery concentration defined, with varying degrees of certainty, to east, west and south.
Iron Age sherds present in all four areas of subdivision. Very few medieval sherds.
Some late prehistoric worked flints.
See lists, notes and (S3) in file.
See also (S4).
A. Rogerson (NLA), 6 February 2006.

2 November 2012. Metal-detecting.
Neolithic flint implement.
Middle Iron Age to post-medieval copper alloy ring.
2 Roman coins and 3 pottery sherds.
6 medieval coins and a harness pendant.
Medieval/post-medieval strap fitting, lead trade weight, decorative mount and a copper alloy vessel fragment.
1 post-medieval coin and a lead trade weight.
Information from PAS import.
A. Beckham (HES), 5 February 2013.

Monument Types

  • FINDSPOT (Unknown date)
  • BURNT MOUND (Prehistoric - 1000000 BC to 42 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Prehistoric - 1000000 BC to 42 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Late Prehistoric - 4000 BC to 42 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Middle Neolithic to Late Iron Age - 3500 BC to 100 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Middle Iron Age to 16th Century - 200 BC to 1600 AD)
  • SETTLEMENT (Late Iron Age to Roman - 100 BC to 409 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Medieval to 19th Century - 1066 AD to 1900 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)

Associated Finds

  • ANIMAL REMAINS (Undated)
  • ARCHITECTURAL FRAGMENT (Undated)
  • METAL WORKING DEBRIS (Unknown date)
  • METAL WORKING DEBRIS (Unknown date)
  • METAL WORKING DEBRIS (Unknown date)
  • MOLLUSCA REMAINS (Undated)
  • RING (Unknown date)
  • UNIDENTIFIED OBJECT (Undated)
  • UNIDENTIFIED OBJECT (Undated)
  • POT BOILER (Lower Palaeolithic to Late Iron Age - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • CORE (Late Prehistoric - 4000 BC to 42 AD)
  • FLAKE (Late Prehistoric - 4000 BC to 42 AD)
  • LITHIC IMPLEMENT (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • RETOUCHED FLAKE (Late Prehistoric - 4000 BC to 42 AD)
  • WORKED OBJECT (Middle Neolithic to Late Iron Age - 3500 BC to 100 BC)
  • LITHIC IMPLEMENT (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • BROOCH (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • CEREMONIAL OBJECT (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • COIN (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • COIN (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • POT (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • RING (Middle Iron Age to 16th Century - 200 BC to 1600 AD)
  • ARMLET? (Roman - 43 AD? to 409 AD?)
  • BOX (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BRACELET (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BROOCH (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BUCKET (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • COIN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • COIN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • COIN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FIGURINE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FINGER RING (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FINGER RING (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FURNITURE FITTING (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • MINIATURE OBJECT? (Roman - 43 AD? to 409 AD?)
  • NAIL FILE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • PIN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • POT (Roman - 43 AD to 150 AD)
  • POT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • POT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • POT MEND (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • RING (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • ROD (Roman - 43 AD? to 409 AD?)
  • ROOF TILE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • STRAP FITTING (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • TILE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • TOILET ARTICLE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • TWEEZERS (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • VESSEL (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • POT (Roman - 200 AD to 300 AD)
  • COIN (Roman - 238 AD to 260 AD)
  • COIN (Roman - 388 AD to 395 AD)
  • FURNITURE FITTING (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • BALANCE (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • BALANCE (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • BELL (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • BOOK FITTING (Medieval to 19th Century - 1066 AD to 1900 AD)
  • BOX (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • BUCKLE (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • BUCKLE (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • CAME (Medieval to 19th Century - 1066 AD to 1900 AD)
  • CASKET? (Medieval - 1066 AD? to 1539 AD?)
  • CAULDRON (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • COIN (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • DRESS COMPONENT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • HARNESS (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • KEY (LOCKING) (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • KNIFE (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • LOCKING MECHANISM (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • NEEDLE (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • POT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • SEAL (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • SPOON (Medieval - 1066 AD? to 1539 AD?)
  • STRAP END (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • STRAP FITTING (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • STRAP FITTING (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • VESSEL (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • VESSEL (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • WEIGHT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • WEIGHT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • COIN (Medieval - 1080 AD to 1083 AD)
  • COIN (12th Century - 1180 AD to 1189 AD)
  • COIN (13th Century - 1217 AD to 1242 AD)
  • COIN (13th Century - 1280 AD to 1286 AD)
  • HARNESS PENDANT (13th Century to 14th Century - 1300 AD to 1400 AD)
  • STRAP FITTING (13th Century to 16th Century - 1300 AD to 1600 AD)
  • VESSEL (13th Century to 16th Century - 1300 AD to 1600 AD)
  • COIN (14th Century - 1302 AD to 1310 AD)
  • WEIGHT (14th Century to 18th Century - 1400 AD to 1750 AD)
  • COIN (15th Century - 1413 AD to 1422 AD)
  • MOUNT (15th Century to 17th Century - 1500 AD to 1700 AD)
  • BOTTLE (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • BUCKLE (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • BUTTON (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • BUTTON (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • CLOTH SEAL (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • COIN (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • COIN (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • COIN (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • DRESS COMPONENT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • FURNITURE FITTING (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • HARNESS (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • JETTON (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • MOULD (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • POT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • POWDER FLASK (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • SEAL (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • SEAL (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • STRAP FITTING (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • STUD (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • TOGGLE (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • TOKEN (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • TOKEN (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • TOY (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • WEIGHT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • WEIGHT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • COIN (16th Century - 1560 AD to 1561 AD)
  • WEIGHT (17th Century - 1625 AD to 1649 AD)

Protected Status

  • SHINE

Sources and further reading

---Photograph: NLA. Finds Photograph.
---Photograph: I & RS. Digital finds image.
---Monograph: Ashley, S. 2002. Medieval Armorial Horse Furniture in Norfolk. East Anglian Archaeology. No 101.
---Secondary File: Secondary File.
<S1>Photograph: NCC Find Identification and Recording Service. c. 1975-2000. HES Find Polaroid Collection. HES Find Polaroid Collection. polaroid. black and white.
<S2>Unpublished Document: Johns, C.M... 1994. Treasure Report: Late-Roman Gold Ring from Besthorpe. 18 February.
<S3>Map: Finder's Map..
<S4>Article in Serial: Gurney, D. and Penn, K. 2006. Excavations and Surveys in Norfolk in 2005. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XLV Pt I pp 124-136. p 124.
<S5>Illustration: Jones, C.. 1994. Drawing of a Roman silenus bust possibly from a box attachment.. Paper. 2:1.
<S6>Illustration: Penn, K. 1992. Drawing of a Late Saxon Urnes-style openwork plaque or mount fragment. Film. 2:1.

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