Record Details

NHER Number:25986
Type of record:Monument
Name:Bronze Age ring ditches and multi-period finds

Summary

At least three Bronze Age ring ditches and a semi-circular enclosure have been identified from aerial photographs. These appear to be enclosed by a square enclosure and have associated linear features.

Metal-detecting on this site between 1991 and 2013 recovered undatable metal-working debris; an Early Neolithic flint leaf arrowhead; Roman, medieval and post-medieval coins and Iron Age to post-medieval metal objects. The metal objects include an Iron Age brooch; a Roman brooch; an Early Saxon girdle hanger and sleeve clasp; an Irish or Viking enamelled stud dated to the late 8th or early 9th century AD; medieval to post-medieval dress accessories; a medieval seal, spur, harness fitting and weight; medieval/post-medieval book clasps and purse bar and a post-medieval harness fitting.

Images

  • A late 8th or early 9th century Irish or Viking enamelled stud found in Bawburgh  © Norfolk Museums & Archaeology Service
  • A Viking horse and rider brooch from Fulmodeston.  © Norfolk Museums & Archaeology Service

Location

Grid Reference:TG 15 08
Map Sheet:TG10NE
Parish:BAWBURGH, SOUTH NORFOLK, NORFOLK

Full description

15 August 1990. NAU Air photography.
Cropmarks.
Two ring ditches.
D. A. Edwards (NAU), 17 January 1991

1991. Metal detecting.
Roman Colchester derivative two piece brooch (pin missing)-very worn.
Medieval copper alloy ring brooch, flattened ring with four collets containing white paste, alternating with three (of four) rosette-shaped plates riveted on to the ring. Each of the three surviving plates has a copper alloy spherical boss in centre and relief quatrefoil/cross on alternating plates. Loop for pin on inside, near one of collets.
13th/14th century. Maximum height of collet 9mm
See (S1)
S. Margeson (NCM), 13 January 1992.

March-April 1994. Metal detecting.
Medieval coin. See list in file.
Medieval bell or vessel fragment.
Late medieval rowel 'box' from spur-long arm.
Pointed oval medieval lead seal matrix, loop on reverse at top. S'ESA(?)---NSI:-AR I. See (S1).
Oval medieval lead seal matrix. Rib on reverse and broken loop. Fleur-de-lis in centre, with no inscription. Either very worn or unfinished. See (S1).
I.D. J. Davies (NCM) and S. Margeson (NCM).
A. Rogerson (NLA), 11 November 1994.

[1] reports to NCM that this site was visited on a Saturday morning, probably the 19 April by eight metal detector users, and that the area of the ring ditches was 'thrashed'.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 2 May 1997.

27 July 1994. NLA air photography.
At least three ring ditches visible.
M. Brennand (NLA), 30 August 2001.

29 June 1995. NLA air photography.
The cropmarks of this site are more extensive than previously indicated.
There are three ring ditches visible. Two of these are presumably the two initially recorded. Of the three ring ditches two are of much the same size, c. 20m diameter, located at [2]. The third, however, is very much smaller, only c. 5m diameter. it is located at [3], just to the south-east of one of the larger ring ditches. Both of these ring ditches are contained within a square enclosure, which can be found at the corner where two linear features meet (to the south-west of the site).
One of the linear features (a single ditch) is aligned approximately north-south ([4]), whilst the other (a double-ditched feature) is aligned west-east ([5]). This second linear feature seems to be a trackway, and a further trackway can be seen to the north of the site ([6]).
A single ditched linear seems to link these two (aligned north-south).
A second enclosure can be seen a short way to the east of the enclosure and ring ditches already mentioned. One side of this enclosure is bounded by the west-east linear, the rest of the enclosure curves round northwards meeting the linear at [7]. It is approximately semi-circular in shape, and centres on [8].
Further cropmarks of linear features and pits can be seen scattered across the site, including two parallel ditched linears, aligned approximately north-south, which are next to/adjacent to the semi-circular enclosure. One of these cuts the enclosure's north-east side, the other lies about 10-15m further east (these are about 80m long).
Some shorter linears can also be seen at the eastern side of the site associated with one of the ring ditches.
Another two linear cropmarks are visible crossing the site approximately northeast-southwest. The linears are negative cropmarks with a right angle turn at the south-west end (just south of, and catching the eastern corner of the semi-circular enclosure). These cropmarks could suggest the location of a road or railway at some point, but this is not conclusive. These features do appear to overlay the rest of the site.
H. Clare (NLA), 3 August 2001.

2 July 1996. NLA air photography.
Cropmarks of two ring ditches clearly visible.
S. Massey (NLA), 23 July 2001.

March-April 2002. Metal-detecting.
1 Late Iron Age brooch (La Tene III).
1 Early Saxon girdle hanger.
1 Undatable piece of metal working debris.
Identified by S. Ashley (NLA). See list in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 10 May 2002.
Updated by J. Page (HES), 5 February 2014.

Before 19 April 2002. Metal detecting.
Enamelled harness stud of Irish manufacture, late 8th/9th century, (S6).
Post medieval hooked fastener.
See list in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 31 May 2002.

July 2010. Norfolk NMP.
At least three Bronze Age ring ditches and a semi-circular enclosure have been identified from aerial photographs (S2-S5). These appear to be enclosed by a square enclosure and have associated linear features.
They are largely consistent with the features described above (H. Clare, 2001) except that the two ring ditches measuring c. 20m in diameter are centred on TG 1604 0890 and TG 1584 0884, the smaller (C.6m diameter) ring ditch is centred on TG1585 0883, and the semi-circular enclosure is centred on TG 1590 0886. There may be a fourth ring ditch visible to the southwest, centred on TG 1582 0881, but it is difficult to be certain of this, as it is only partially visible. There are also several possible pits visible across the area, and although these may be the result of underlying geology the largest of these have been mapped, including one that appears to be visible in the centre of the smallest of the ring ditches.
E. Bales (NMP), 20 July 2010.

April-May 2012. Metal-detecting.
Early Saxon and medieval metal objects; medieval jetton and post-medieval coin.
See lists in file.
S. Ashley (HES), 14 June 2012.

18 February 2013. Metal-detecting. [9].
Late Saxon bridle cheek piece fragment from horse harness.
1 medieval coin, buckles, a strap-end and a strap-plate.
Medieval/post-medieval copper alloy vessel fragment.
1 post-medieval coin.
Information from PAS import.
A. Beckham (HES), 4 April 2013.

April-May 2013. Metal-detecting. [10].
1 Early Neolithic leaf arrowhead.
1 Roman coin.
1 medieval coin, brooch, large rotary key, probable harness fitting and lead weight.
Medieval/post-medieval purse bar, button and book clasps.
2 post-medieval coins.
Information from PAS import.
P. Watkins (HES), 4 July 2013.

Monument Types

  • ENCLOSURE (Unknown date)
  • FIELD BOUNDARY? (Unknown date)
  • FINDSPOT (Unknown date)
  • LINEAR FEATURE (Unknown date)
  • PIT? (Unknown date)
  • RING DITCH (Unknown date)
  • SQUARE ENCLOSURE (Unknown date)
  • PIT? (Prehistoric - 500000 BC? to 42 AD?)
  • FINDSPOT (Early Neolithic - 4000 BC to 3001 BC)
  • PIT? (Bronze Age - 2350 BC? to 701 BC?)
  • RING DITCH (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Medieval to Post Medieval - 1066 AD to 1900 AD)
  • FIELD BOUNDARY? (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • LINEAR FEATURE (Post Medieval to Modern - 1540 AD to 2050 AD)

Associated Finds

  • METAL WORKING DEBRIS (Unknown date)
  • ARROWHEAD (Early Neolithic to Late Neolithic - 4000 BC to 3000 BC)
  • BROOCH (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • BROOCH (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • COIN (Roman - 364 AD to 378 AD)
  • GIRDLE HANGER (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • SLEEVE CLASP (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • HARNESS FITTING (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • HARNESS FITTING (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • BELL (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • BOOK FITTING (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • BROOCH (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • COIN (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • HARNESS MOUNT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • SEAL (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • SPUR (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • VESSEL (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • WEIGHT (Medieval - 1100 AD to 1500 AD)
  • BUCKLE (Medieval - 1200 AD to 1400 AD)
  • HARNESS FITTING (Medieval - 1200 AD to 1500 AD)
  • COIN (Medieval - 1279 AD to 1284 AD)
  • COIN (Medieval - 1280 AD to 1281 AD)
  • BROOCH (Medieval - 1300 AD to 1400 AD)
  • BUCKLE (Medieval - 1300 AD to 1400 AD)
  • KEY (LOCKING) (Medieval - 1300 AD to 1500 AD)
  • STRAP END (Medieval - 1300 AD to 1500 AD)
  • STRAP FITTING (Medieval - 1300 AD to 1400 AD)
  • VESSEL (Medieval to Post Medieval - 1300 AD to 1700 AD)
  • BUCKLE (Medieval - 1400 AD to 1500 AD)
  • JETTON (Medieval - 1415 AD to 1497 AD)
  • BOOK FITTING (Medieval to Post Medieval - 1500 AD to 1700 AD)
  • BUTTON (Medieval to Post Medieval - 1500 AD to 1600 AD)
  • PURSE (Medieval to Post Medieval - 1500 AD to 1550 AD)
  • DRESS FASTENER (DRESS) (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • HARNESS FITTING (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • COIN (Post Medieval - 1596 AD to 1596 AD)
  • COIN (Post Medieval - 1611 AD to 1611 AD)
  • COIN (Post Medieval - 1625 AD to 1649 AD)
  • COIN (Post Medieval - 1661 AD to 1664 AD)

Protected Status

  • SHINE

Sources and further reading

---Photograph: NLA. Finds Photograph.
---Photograph: I & RS. Digital finds image.
---Article in Serial: Geake, H., Gaimster, M. and Bradley, J. 2003. Medieval Britain and Ireland in 2002. Medieval Archaeology. Vol XLVII pp 199-339. p 207.
---Photograph: 2002. KTG 7, Iron Age brooch..
---Photograph: 2002. KTG 8, Early Saxon girdle hanger fragment..
---Photograph: 2002. KTG 2-3, Middle/Late Saxon enamelled mount..
---Secondary File: Secondary file.
<S1>Photograph: I&RS. Finds Polaroid. Polaroid.
<S2>Oblique Aerial Photograph: Edwards, D, NLA. 1990. NHER TG 1508B-F (NLA 278/GEX9-13) 15-AUG-1990.
<S3>Oblique Aerial Photograph: Edwards, D.A. (NLA). 1994. NHER TG 1508W-Z (NLA 344/GZB1-4) 27-JUL-1994.
<S4>Oblique Aerial Photograph: Edwards, D.A. (NLA). 1995. NHER TG 1508AA-AJ (NLA 353/HEB1-6) 29-JUN-1995.
<S5>Oblique Aerial Photograph: Edwards, D.A. (NLA). 1996. NHER TG 1508P-V (NLA 367/HYE2-8) 02-JUL-1996.
<S6>Illustration: White, S.. 2002. Drawing of a Middle/Late Saxon stud.. film. 2:1.

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