Record Details

NHER Number:1396
Type of record:Monument
Name:Evidence for prehistoric activity, medieval ridge and furrow and post medieval quarrying, Redgate Hill

Summary

Excavations during the 1970s and in 2001 have revealed evidence for Late Neolithic, Bronze Age and Iron Age activity. Features discovered include Late Neolithic and Bronze Age pits and round houses, Neolithic to Iron Age structures and a Neolithic to Iron Age palisaded enclosure. Artefacts collected during these excavations and fieldwalking undertaken in this area include Mesolithic, Neolithic and Bronze Age worked flints and Late Neolithic, Bronze Age, possible Iron Age and Roman pottery.

Images - none

Location

Grid Reference:TF 676 395
Map Sheet:TF63NE
Parish:HUNSTANTON, WEST NORFOLK, NORFOLK

Full description

1961. Fieldwalking.
Area west of Redgate Hill investigated by [1]. Small assemblage of worked flints recovered; these now held by the Norwich Castle Museum (NWHCM : 1961.288). Information from (S1). These flints were of probable Neolithic date and are listed in (S2) (Table 15; microfiche) as comprising 8 cores, 7 flakes, 5 blades, 1 ?unfinished arrowhead, 13 scrapers and 1 borer.
Amended by P. Watkins (HES), 18 December 2013.

1970, 1971, 1976 to 1977.
Excavations on Neolithic pits and enclosures and Iron Age settlement. Roman and medieval sherds; Beaker flint assemblage.

Full publication of main site (S2) does not finally decide whether the settlement is Neolithic, Bronze Age or Iron Age; and adds medieval ridge and furrow and post medieval quarry pits.

See (S3) for details of Iron Age features excavated between 1976 and 1977.

A phosphate survey of the field to the west of the excavated areas was undertaken by the British Museum Research Laboratory in 1974. In 1976 a magnetometer survey was completed by the Ancient Monuments Laboratory.

See full details in file.
E. Rose (NAU), 26 November 1993.

1975. Fieldwalking.
Fieldwalking of area to west of excavation by [1] (area of geophysical survey). The assemblage of worked flints recovered is described in detail in (S4), in which a number of the pieces are illustrated. The assemblage is also summarised in (S2) (Table 15; microfiche). The majority of the material was Neolithic or Late Neolithic/Early Bronze Age, although 5 small blade cores (2 single-platform and 3 two-platform bipolar) are probably the potentially Mesolithic pieces noted in (S2). One of these cores was drawn (S5).

The quantities for the later prehistoric material given by (S2) and (S4) differ slightly. The assemblage is listed in (S4) as comprising the following (all probably Neolithic unless specified otherwise):
3 cores, including 2 single-platform flake cores (S6) and 1 keeled core.
9 hammerstones.
48 scrapers, including 16 end scrapers (S8) (S10), 1 end scraper with serrated edge (S15), 9 side and end scrapers (S11), 14 horseshoe scrapers (S12) (S13) and 1 disc scraper (S14) and 6 scrapers on broken flakes.
1 discoidal knife (S18).
2 notches.
1 fabricator (S19).
1 spurred flake with spur on scraper-like edge (S20).
4 borers (S21), one with a very long point (a Late Neolithic trait).
1 Late Neolithic/Early Bronze Age triangular arrowhead (S7).
2 Late Neolithic/Early Bronze Age plano-convex knives (S16) (S17) and possible fragment of third.
10 Late Neolithic/Early Bronze Age 'Beaker-type' scrapers, including 5 end scrapers (S9), 1 side and end scraper and 4 horseshoe scrapers.
P. Watkins (HES), 18 December 2013.

1987. Fieldwalking.
Surface collection undertaken by [2]. This work is mentioned in (S2) and (S22). It is clear from (S22) that quite a large area was examined, including a field to the south-east (NHER 17754). Healy lists a number of finds from this phase of fieldwalking in (S2); these presumably only the flints that came from this site and distinct from the material recorded under NHER 17754. The following worked flints are listed in (S2):
14 cores, 26 flakes, 29 blades, 9 scrapers, 1 microlith and 1 end-polished chisel. The microlith is Mesolithic, but no dates are given for the remainder of the collection. It is possible that some of the blades were also Mesolithic, although presumably the majority of the pieces are Neolithic or Late Neolithic/Early Bronze Age.
P. Watkins (HES), 18 December 2013.

1995. Fieldwalking.
Further work by [2]. As with earlier fieldwalking it appears that the areas covered by both NHER 1396 and NHER 17754. The only source of information on this work is (S22) and unfortunately the summary given conflates both the evidence from the two sites and the results of the two phases of work. It is recorded that a number of additional Mesolithic pieces were recovered, including blade cores and blades. This material was "heavily plough battered". According to a file note at least some of the blade cores were found at the southern end of this site. It is also reported that a sparse background pottery scatter was identified, although the date of the material recovered is not specified.
P. Watkins (HES), 18 December 2013.

May to June 2001. CAU excavation.
From context 1000.
Examined a Late Neolithic roundhouse, pits and postholes, complementing the work of 1970 to 1971.
See report (S23) in file. This work was also reported in (S24)
D. Gurney (NLA), 6 March 2002.

Monument Types

  • FINDSPOT (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Mesolithic - 10000 BC to 4001 BC)
  • BUILDING (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • ENCLOSURE (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • GRANARY (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • PIT (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • ROUND HOUSE (DOMESTIC) (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • STOCK ENCLOSURE (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Late Neolithic to Early Bronze Age - 3000 BC to 1501 BC)
  • HEARTH (Late Neolithic to Early Bronze Age - 3000 BC to 1501 BC)
  • ROUND HOUSE (DOMESTIC) (Late Neolithic to Early Bronze Age - 3000 BC to 1501 BC)
  • BUILDING (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • GRANARY (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • PIT (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • POST HOLE (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • ROUND HOUSE (DOMESTIC) (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • STOCK ENCLOSURE (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • BUILDING (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • GRANARY (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • PIT (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • ROUND HOUSE (DOMESTIC) (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • SETTLEMENT (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • STOCK ENCLOSURE (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • RIDGE AND FURROW (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • QUARRY (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)

Associated Finds

  • QUERN (Undated)
  • BLADE (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • CORE (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • FLAKE (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • SCRAPER (TOOL) (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • BLADE (Mesolithic - 10000 BC to 4001 BC)
  • BLADE CORE (Mesolithic - 10000 BC to 4001 BC)
  • BLADE CORE (Mesolithic - 10000 BC? to 4001 BC?)
  • MICROLITH (Mesolithic - 10000 BC to 4001 BC)
  • ANIMAL REMAINS (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • ARROWHEAD? (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • AXEHEAD (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • BLADE (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • BORER (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • BORER? (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • CHISEL (Neolithic - 4000 BC? to 2351 BC?)
  • CORE (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • CORE (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • DISC (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • DISCOIDAL KNIFE (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • END SCRAPER (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • FABRICATOR (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • FLAKE (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • FLAKED AXEHEAD (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • HAMMERSTONE (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • HAMMERSTONE (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • LITHIC IMPLEMENT (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • MACE (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • MOLLUSCA REMAINS (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • PLANT REMAINS (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • PLANT REMAINS (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • POT (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • RETOUCHED FLAKE (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • SAW (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • SCRAPER (TOOL) (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • SCRAPER (TOOL)? (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • SIDE AND END SCRAPER (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • TRANSVERSE ARROWHEAD (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • WORKED OBJECT (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • WORKED OBJECT (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • END SCRAPER (Late Neolithic to Early Bronze Age - 3000 BC to 1501 BC)
  • PLANO CONVEX KNIFE (Late Neolithic to Early Bronze Age - 3000 BC to 1501 BC)
  • SIDE AND END SCRAPER (Late Neolithic to Early Bronze Age - 3000 BC to 1501 BC)
  • TRIANGULAR ARROWHEAD (Late Neolithic to Early Bronze Age - 3000 BC to 1501 BC)
  • ANIMAL REMAINS (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • LITHIC IMPLEMENT (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • MOLLUSCA REMAINS (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • PIN (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • PLANT REMAINS (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • PLANT REMAINS (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • POT (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • POT (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • UNIDENTIFIED OBJECT (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • WORKED OBJECT (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • ARROWHEAD (Beaker - 2300 BC to 1700 BC)
  • BRIQUETAGE (Beaker - 2300 BC to 1700 BC)
  • DISCOIDAL KNIFE (Beaker - 2300 BC to 1700 BC)
  • HAMMERSTONE (Beaker - 2300 BC to 1700 BC)
  • LITHIC IMPLEMENT (Beaker - 2300 BC to 1700 BC)
  • PLANO CONVEX KNIFE (Beaker - 2300 BC to 1700 BC)
  • POT (Beaker - 2300 BC to 1700 BC)
  • POT BOILER (Beaker - 2300 BC to 1700 BC)
  • BEAD (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • BEAD (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • LOOMWEIGHT (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • PIN (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • POT (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • POT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • POT (Post Roman - 410 AD to 1900 AD)
  • POT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)

Protected Status - none

Sources and further reading

---Photograph: HG, RJ, RH2-14.
---Aerial Photograph: TF6739.(excavation R-AH).
---Photograph: NLA. Finds Photograph.
---Map: Finder's Map..
---Archive: Ordnance Survey Staff. 1933-1979?. Ordnance Survey Record Cards. TF 63 NE 66.
---Archive: NAU Staff. 1974-1988. Norfolk Archaeological Index Primary Record Card.
---Unpublished Document: 1984. Redgate Hill, Hunstanton 1970.
---Unpublished Document: Hunstanton.
---Unpublished Document: Hunstanton, Redgate Hill. Sherds..
---Unpublished Document: Kinnes, I.. Hunstanton..
---Correspondence: Correspondence regarding NHER 1396.
---Unpublished Document: 1970. Redgate Hill Rubbish Pits and Soil Marks in the Upper Chalk.
---Newspaper Article: Lynn News and Advertiser. 1971. 18 June.
---Archive: Copy of site archive.
---Thesis: Garrow, D.. 2006. Pits, Settlement and Deposition during the Neolithic and Early Bronze Age in East Anglia. during the Neolithic and Early Pits, Settlement and Deposition during the Neolithic and Early Bronze Age in East Anglia.
---Archive: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Bronze Age. Hunstanton.
---Article in Serial: Kinnes, I. 1972. Hunstanton. Norfolk Research Committee Newsletter and Bulletin. Series 2 No 7 p 6.
---Secondary File: Secondary file.
---Slide: Various. Slide.
---Fiche: Exists.
---Article in Serial: Garrow, D. 2007. Placing Pits: Landscape Occupation and Depositional Practice During the Neolithic in East Anglia. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society. Vol 73 pp 1-24.
<S1>Archive: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Neolithic. Hunstanton [3].
<S2>Article in Serial: Bradley, R. et al. 1993. Excavations on Redgate Hill, Hunstanton, Norfolk and at Tattershall Thorpe, Lincolnshire. East Anglian Archaeology. No 57.
<S3>Article in Serial: Wymer, J. J. and Murphy, P. 1986. Early Iron Age Pottery and a Triangular Loom Weight from Redgate Hill, Hunstanton. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XXXIX Pt III pp 286-296.
<S4>Thesis: Healy, F.. 1978. The Neolithic in Norfolk. pp 348-399.
<S5>Illustration: Healey, F. 1977. Drawing of a ?Mesolithic two-platform flint blade core from Hunstanton. Film. 1:1.
<S6>Illustration: Healey, F. 1977. Drawing of a Neolithic single-platform flint flake core from Hunstanton. Film. 1:1.
<S7>Illustration: Healey, F. 1977. Drawing of a Late Neolithic/Early Bronze Age triangular flint arrowhead from Hunstanton. Film. 1:1.
<S8>Illustration: Healey, F. 1977. Drawing of a Neolithic flint end scraper from Hunstanton. Film. 1:1.
<S9>Illustration: Healey, F. 1977. Drawing of a Late Neolithic/Early Bronze Age 'Beaker type' flint end scraper from Hunstanton. Film. 1:1.
<S10>Illustration: Healey, F. 1977. Drawing of a Neolithic flint end scraper from Hunstanton. Film. 1:1.
<S11>Illustration: Healey, F. 1977. Drawing of a Neolithic flint side and end scraper from Hunstanton. Film. 1:1.
<S12>Illustration: Healey, F. 1977. Drawing of a Neolithic flint horseshoe scraper from Hunstanton. Film. 1:1.
<S13>Illustration: Healey, F. 1977. Drawing of a Neolithic flint horseshoe scraper from Hunstanton. Film. 1:1.
<S14>Illustration: Healey, F. 1977. Drawing of a Neolithic flint disc scraper from Hunstanton. Film. 1:1.
<S15>Illustration: Healey, F. 1977. Drawing of a Neolithic flint end scraper with serrated edge from Hunstanton. Film. 1:1.
<S16>Illustration: Healey, F. 1977. Drawing of a Late Neolithic/Early Bronze Age plano-convex flint knife from Hunstanton. Film. 1:1.
<S17>Illustration: Healey, F. 1977. Drawing of a Late Neolithic/Early Bronze Age plano-convex flint knife from Hunstanton. Film. 1:1.
<S18>Illustration: Healey, F. 1977. Drawing of a Neolithic discoidal flint knife from Hunstanton. Film. 1:1.
<S19>Illustration: Healey, F. 1977. Drawing of a Neolithic flint fabricator from Hunstanton. Film. 1:1.
<S20>Illustration: Healey, F. 1977. Drawing of a Neolithic spurred flint flake from Hunstanton. Film. 1:1.
<S21>Illustration: Healey, F. 1977. Drawing of a Neolithic flint piercer [borer] from Hunstanton. Film. 1:1.
<S22>Article in Serial: Smallwood, J. 1995. Postglacial Hunter-Gatherers. A review of the evidence for their presence in north-west Norfolk. The Annual. The Bulletin of the Norfolk Archaeological and Historical Research Group. No 4 pp 9-17. pp 11-12.
<S23>Unpublished Contractor Report: Patten, R. 2002. An Archaeological Excavation at Redgate Hill, Hunstanton, Norfolk. Cambridge Archaeological Unit. 465.
<S24>Article in Serial: Gurney, D. and Penn, K. (eds). 2002. Excavations and Surveys in Norfolk, 2001. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XLIV Pt I pp 162-177. p 168.

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