Record Details

NHER Number:5847
Type of record:Monument
Name:Area of Saxon town with occupation and pottery/metalwork production sites, St Mary's Estate

Summary

This site lies within the area of the Late Saxon town and has been subject to extensive excavation on several occasions, beginning in the late 1940s. The earliest documented discovery within the area was in 1947, when several chalk-lined inhumations likely of medieval date were discovered near Nelson Crescent. Subsequent excavation by G. Knocker to the west of the discovery recorded an additional 40 inhumations (Site 5, 1949), and further burials were encountered in 1967.
The majority of G. Knocker's extensive 1948-1949 excavations were located in the northwest of the site, which was densely occupied in the Late Saxon period. Activity appears to have been focused on a flint and cobble road running northwest-southeast (NHER 5929) which was resurfaced several times, and a second east-west road in the extreme north of the site. The roads were lined with a confusing succession of buildings, primarily post built structures of various sizes but also a small number of sunken featured buildings. A large number of intercutting pits were recorded, primarily containing domestic rubbish and including possible wells and cess pits. Both domestic and industrial activity was represented, particularly textile production, iron working, and pottery production. A succession of three Thetford ware pottery kilns were recorded in the north of the excavated area. These have all been identified as single-flue updraught kilns and contained over nine thousand Thetford ware sherds. A small area was excavated in the northeast of the site in 1949, identifying another possible north-south road and recording additional evidence for Late Saxon occupation, but features in this area were much more sparse. Further excavation in the north of the site from 1994-1996, between G. Knocker's Sites 2 (North and South) and 4, has confirmed that the Late Saxon occupation extended across this area, though was somewhat less dense towards the east of the site. Additional evidence for the cobbled north-south road in the east was recorded while in the extreme southwest a well-defined layer of ash and areas of intensely burnt ground representing hearths or furnaces was observed. The latter features were associated with significant quantities of iron tap slag and fragments of furnace liner, indicating that iron smelting was likely carried out here. Other activities identified during the 1994-1996 excavations include lead working, small scale bronze working, stone working, and leather working.
Throughout the northern portion of St Mary's Estate the earliest excavated features have been dated to the early 10th century and dense occupation appears to have continued until the mid-11th century. The general lack of open spaces between structures, pits and roads in comparison with other excavated areas of the Saxon town (see NHER 5756) has led to the suggestion that this may have been a poorer, slum region. The area appears to have been abandoned by the late 11th or early 12th century. Very little medieval pottery was recovered during the excavations and only a single chalk wall in the northwest of G. Knocker's Site 2 North could be dated to the 12th century or later. The 1994-1996 excavations confirmed that much of this area had reverted to agricultural use in the medieval period, when a ploughsoil appears to have accumulated over the Late Saxon features.
While no pre-Saxon features have been identified, a small quantity of residual Roman and Prehistoric material was recovered during the excavations, and a possible hoard consisting of six 4th century Roman coins was recovered in 1958. The Prehistoric material consists primarily of Late Neolithic to Early Bronze Age worked flint, but also includes three Palaeolithic worked flint implements: a lower to middle Palaeolithic handaxe, an Upper Palaeolithic implement, and a flake. The Palaeolithic material likely originated within a gravel deposit.

Images - none

Location

Grid Reference:TL 86 82
Map Sheet:TL88SE
Parish:THETFORD, BRECKLAND, NORFOLK

Full description

1870. Casual Finds.
Pottery sherds, bone awls, stone and bone amulets, and hut sites were recorded in the field now occupied by the gasworks (NHER 5868) and across the road. The 'site across the road' probably referred to this site at St Mary's Estate. The finds are thought to date to the Saxon period based on comparison with other finds from this site. Alternatively, the 'finds across the road' could have originated at NHER 5758, also located across the road from the gas works.
Information from note by W.G. Clarke in an article in (S1).
H. Hamilton (NLA), 31 January 2008.

January 1947. Excavation.
Excavation at Nelson Crescent recorded medieval inhumations including several in chalk-lined graves.
See (S2), (S3), and (S34) for further details.
H. Hamilton (NLA), 24 September 2008.

February to June 1948. Excavation. G. Knocker (MOW) Site 1.
A lack of recorded edges of the excavated areas and inexact recording of features has rendered interpretation of this site difficult. A pair of northwest to southeast ditches were recorded on the western side of the site, but their relationship to the road surfaces in Site 2 South (see below) remain uncertain. Six features were identified as huts by the excavator, but only one appears to be a convincing structure. This is a 5m by 3m cellar below a building constructed of posts set into the base of a pit around a clay floor. One of the 'huts' may have been a rectangular sunken feature while three others were likely the weathered upper parts of pits. The small size and lack of associated structural evidence of the remaining 'hut' indicates that it is also unlikely a cellar. Twenty-four pits were recorded, two of which yielded some evidence of having been lined. Five pits had hearths in their upper fills. Most were small and shallow and all but two contained rubbish. Textile production is indicated by iron heckle teeth, bone needles, and spindle whorls. No other crafts were represented on any scale by other small finds. Examination of the ceramic record indicates the the activity primarily dates to the 10th century. Apart from some medieval pottery recovered from the upper filling of hut 3, the latest context recorded was the 11th century filling of hut 4.
See (S4, pp 4-13) for further details.
See (S5) to (S14) for interim reports on Knocker's 1948-1949 excavations in this area.
See (S15) to (S30) for press cuttings.
H. Hamilton (NLA), 20 August 2008.

June 1948 to April 1949. Excavation. G. Knocker (MOW) Site 2 South.
Excavation of a large area immediately northwest of Site 1 recorded additional evidence for dense Late Saxon occupation in this area. Three super-imposed flint and cobble road surfaces ran northwest to southeast across the northern portion of the excavated area. At least ten possible buildings were identified by the excavator. Some of these appear to have been hollows with associated post holes and hearths while others were identified by preserved floor areas, spreads of post holes, or a marked absense of pits. Some of these features may have actually been pits, but others appear to have been sunken featured buildings. It is uncertain how many structures would have been in use at any one time, but the quantity of features suggest that there was a dense distribution of buildings along the road.
Fifty-nine pits were recorded within the excavated area. The majority were likely rubbish pits, and about ten may have had a wooden lining. Three pits, two deeper than 5m and one which exceeded 8.5m, have been interpreted as possible wells and five have been identified as possible cess pits. Finds include extensive ash deposits, iron slag, crucibles, textile manufacturing tools, and pottery wasters, indicating that a wide variety of industrial activities took place.
Dating for the site remains problematic, but the earliest features which lay beneath the earliest road have been roughly dated to the first half of the 10th century. Occupation appears to have quickly intensified, continuing until the mid 11th century. Very little medieval material was recovered, and the area appears to have been abandoned by the 12th century. The lack of open spaces between structures, pits and roads in comparison with the area excavated by B. K. Davison to the north (NHER 5756) has led to the suggestion that this may have been a poorer, slum area of the Late Saxon town.
A small quantity of residual Prehistoric worked flint was also recovered from this site. Of particular interest is a blade core or steep scraper which has been dated to the Upper Palaeolithic period. The remainder of the flint assemblage has been dated to the Late Neolithic to Early Bronze Age and includes scrapers, a retouched flake, and an axe.
See (S4, pp 14-25) for further details.
See (S5) to (S14) for interim reports on Knocker's 1948-1949 excavations in this area.
See (S15) to (S30) for press cuttings.
H. Hamilton (NLA), 23 September 2008.

December 1948 to November 1949. Excavation. G. Knocker (MOW) Site 2 North.
Excavation continued, extending Site 2 South to the north and east. The majority of the excavated area was located immediately east of the road identified within Site 2 South, and a similar dense succession of Late Saxon buildings was recorded in this area. Nineteen features were identified as huts by the excavator, but records were inadequate to identify several of these and only one building plan for a cellared structure could be confirmed.
Much of the northeastern portion of the site was occupied by poorly understood and sparsely recorded chalk and clay floors. Three pottery kilns were identified in the northern, central portion of the site. These were all of single-flue updraught type and appear to have been used in succession. Over nine thousand Therford ware pottery sherds were associated with the kilns, including several complete jars and cresset lamps.
A second road was identified at the northern end of the excavated area. This road was aligned east-west, but had three super-imposed surfaces similar to the northwest-southeast road identified previously. The two roads may have formed a junction outside the northwest corner of the excavated area.
Eighty-eight pits were recorded. Similar to the features recorded at Site 2 South, several of these appear to have had wood and/or wicker linings, two may have been wells, and several may have been cess pits or have contained secondary sewage deposits. Ash was noted throughout the site, but in smaller quantities than Site 2 South. Small finds included tools for textile production, slag and crucibles, but there were no notable concentrations of these materials.
Occupation of this area spanned the same period as Site 2 South. No sealed deposits could be dated earlier than the 10th century and the majority of the activity appears to have ceased around the mid-11th century. However, a small number of features in the extreme northeast of the site including a chalk wall indicate possible activity in the late 12th century and later.
A small quantity of residual prehistoric worked flint was also recovered from this site. Of particular interest is a Lower to Middle Palaeolithic handaxe and a retouched flake which is also likely Palaeolithic. The remainder of the flint assemblage has been dated to the Late Neolithic to Early Bronze Age and includes flakes, and an axe.
See (S4, pp 26-41) for further details. The Palaeolithic handaxe is also noted in (S38) and (S39).
See (S5) to (S14) for interim reports on Knocker's 1948-1949 excavations in this area.
See (S15) to (S30) for press cuttings.
H. Hamilton (NLA), 23 September 2008.

November to December 1949. Excavation. G. Knocker (MOW) Site 4.
A small L-shaped area was excavated about 130m northeast of Site 2 North. A layer of rough cobbling containing a relatively large quantity of animal bone and oyster shell was was enountered immediately below the topsoil. 14 horseshoes were found on and within it, leading to the suggestion that it may have been a road. Other small finds recovered from within or above the cobbles include a copper alloy balance and pan, a coin of Carausius, two crucibles, three bone skates, a bone spindle whorl, and several iron objects including knives, a buckle, shears, a bridle cheek piece, and heckle teeth.
A slot-like feature, about eight post holes, and several pits were sealed beneath the cobbles. An additional pit was sealed beneath a burnt clay surface recorded in the extreme west of the site. A pair of iron shears was recovered from this surface. Small finds recovered from the pits indicate that textile production and copper working was carried out in the area as well as domestic activities. The pottery dates this activity to the 10th and 11th centuries, contemporary with the remains excavated at Sites 2 North and 2 South, but occupation in this area appears to have been much less dense.
See (S4, pp 43-4) for further details.
See (S5) to (S14) for interim reports on Knocker's 1948-1949 excavations in this area.
See (S15) to (S30) for press cuttings.
H. Hamilton (NLA), 23 September 2008.

November to December 1949. Excavation. G. Knocker (MOW) Site 5.
Three trenches were excavated approximately 85m south of Site 1, just west of an area where Late Saxon occupation and burials had been found by R. W. Feacham in 1947 (see above). Approximately forty inhumations aligned southwest to northeast were recorded in the southernmost and largest of the trenches. Finds associated with the burials were limited to pottery, including at least one Thetford ware bowl rim, and an iron staple. Grave cuts were identified for about ten of the inhumations. At least one grave was outlined with chalk and flint, and this was cut into a pit containing Thetford ware. Two other graves were sealed by a rectangular area of dark soil which may have contained two disturbed skulls.
Following excavation, the skeletal remains were muddled and parially lost. Twenty three individuals were identified during post excavation analysis, but these could not be reliably correlated with the graves identified during excavation.
A single pit containing Thetford ware sherds, an iron staple, an iron ring, and a decorated bone mount was recorded in the northernmost trench while the central trench was void of archaeological features.
See (S4, pp 45-7) for further details.
See (S5) to (S14) for interim reports on Knocker's 1948-1949 excavations in this area.
See (S15) to (S30) for press cuttings.
H. Hamilton (NLA), 24 September 2008.

September 1955. Casual Find.
Several Late Saxon sherds were found in the garden [1].
See file for further details.
H. Hamilton (NLA), 25 September 2008.

Pre-August 1958. Casual Find.
Six fourth century Roman coins, including four copper alloy, were found in a garden [2].
The coins may have been part of a hoard.
See list in file.
H. Hamilton (NLA), 25 September 2008.

1967. Casual Find.
Human remains and Late Saxon pottery sherds were found in the garden of 27 Nelson Crescent [3].
See file for further details.
H. Hamilton (NLA), 25 September 2008.

1981.
A complete Thetford Ware pot was donated to the Norwich Castle Museum [4]. The pot is believed to be from the 1948-1949 excavations by G. Knocker (see above), but the provenance remains uncertain.
See (S31, BZJ frame 9) and file for further details.
H. Hamilton (NLA), 25 September 2008.

May 1990. Casual Find.
A Roman pottery sherd was found in a garden in Saxon Place. The sherd has been identified as a pedestal base of a greyware beaker with a drilled hole, likely Nar Valley ware and dated to the 3rd to 4th century [5].
A Late Saxon sherd of Thetford type ware was also found along with other sherds which were not identified [6].
See list in file.
H. Hamilton (NLA), 25 September 2008.

June - July 1994. Evaluation. Contexts 2001-2133.
Four evaluation trenches were excavated prior to redevelopment of Saxon Place.
In the southeast, the earliest features encountered were a group of post and stake holes and a chalk and flint surface. The surface has been interpreted as a possible floor, likely associated with a structure represented by the post holes. These features appear to have been in use during the Late Saxon period, as two of the post holes and the soil sealing both the floor and the post holes contained sherds of Late Saxon pottery. A second phase of activity is represented by two additional post holes and a third phase is represented by a pit and a possible post hole which also contained Late Saxon pottery. Also during this period, a wide trench ran northwest-southeast across the excavation area. The base of the trench contained compacted chalk and flint which has been interpreted as the base of a wall, possibly a support for a timber framed structure. An irregular, gravel-filled hollow was recorded to the southeast of this. These features were overlain by a layer of soil containing material post-dating the Late Saxon occupation. This was cut by a single pit containing modern china and iron debris.
A very large pit was observed within the northeastern trench, excavated to a depth of 0.9m and augured a further 0.4m. The lowest fill contained charcoal and material indicating an organic, possibly cessy despoit. This was overlain by a series of natural sands and gravels as well as further possible organic layers representing deposition of organic rubbish. The pit also contained relatively large quantities of animal bone and Late Saxon pottery fragments.
In the northwest, the earliest feature identified was an area of soil in the northwest corner which was likely the fill of an unidentified feature. This was cut by a heavily truncated pit which contained Late Saxon pottery. This was cut by a second pit excavated to a depth of 0.75m and augured a further 1.3m. The southeast side of this pit appeared to be lined by a dark, silty deposit and a chalk deposit. Late Saxon pottery was recovered from the fill, and patches of charcoal and ash were observed in the top of the pit. This was cut by another feature which was likely a large pit, but extended beyond the excavated area. Its lowest fill also contained Late Saxon pottery. This in turn was cut by another feature which remains undefined as it extended beyond the excavated area. A stoney layer was seen in section in the northwest of the excavated area.
In the southwest, the earliest activity was represented by a layer of soil in the southwest corner which contained frequent patches of charcoal and organic lenses and a lighter soil layer in the north which were likely both part of a general occupation layer. These were cut by a ditch running south to north, terminating near the northern edge of the excavated area, and a small pit only partially exposed. The ditch contained Late Saxon pottery and was cut by a pit and a possible ditch. The pit could not be fully excavated but was filled with a series of deposits containing various quantities of small and medium flints. Both the pit and the ditch contained Late Saxon pottery, and the lowest fill of the ditch had a high organic content. These features were sealed by a build-up of soil. Possible plough marks were observed in the surface of this layer as well as four small pits. Three of the pits contaiend small mammal skeletons believed to be modern pet burials and therefore not retained.
Pre-Saxon material was limited to a small quantity of residual Roman sherds. With the exception of one sherd of modern china, none of the remaining pottery sherds could be dated later than the 12th century. Other finds included several pieces of fired clay, two of which had wattle impressions, 15 fragments of iron smelting waste and three fragments of furnace lining, three rough flint flakes, eight fragments of lava quern, oyster and mussel shells, one cockle shell, and 9 iron objects including a handle, two possible knife blades, and a pin. Animal bone was recovered from 33 contexts (40% from the pit in Area B) and has been identified as cattle, sheep/goat, horse, pig, dog, and red deer. Goose, domestic fowl, and one human bone were also recovered.
See (S32) and (S36) for further details.
H. Hamilton (NLA), 25 September 2008.

July 1994. Borehole Survey.
A soil survey was conducted in order to advise on substructure methodologies and implications on services and roads construction for the proposed development. Although variable, the maximum depth of archaeological horizons below the present ground surface was found to be 4.2m. The archaeological fills overlay glacial sands of varying thickness which rest on Upper Chalk.
See (S33) for further details.
H. Hamilton (NLA), 25 September 2008.

August 1995-July 1996. Watching Brief. Contexts 2-856.
Groundworks for the redevelopment of the Saxon Place housing estate were monitored. Archaeological features were encountered within the footprints of three of the houses, in an area of levels reduction in the southwest corner of the site, and within service trenches for drains, electricity cables, and water pipes. Evidence for Prehistoric activity at the site was limited to an assemblage of 78 fragments of residual worked flint, including four Mesolithic flakes and Late Neolithic/Early Bronze Age cores, scrapers, and a piercer. Four Late Roman (about 330 AD - 375 AD) coins were recovered during metal detecting, but only a small quantity of Roman pottery and tile was recovered from later contexts.
The majority of the features encountered during the watching brief were dated to the Late Saxon period. While these largely remained unexcavated, finds from the surface of the features and stratigraphy revealed within the selected excavated areas indicated that the majority of the activity likely took place from the 10th to the mid-11th century, the site apparently abandoned by the end of the 11th century or the beginning of the 12th century. Inspection of service trenches following machine excavation provided several sections across the site and these have indicated that the Late Saxon occupation was quite dense and relatively evenly spread throughout the site. Features included 117 pits or probable pits, 46 post holes and probable post holes, one probable ditch, clay floors and cobble surfaces.
Occupation appeared to be most dense in the southwest of the development area, within two of the house footprints and the surrounding area. In much of this area a complex sequence of pits, layers, and a probable ditch was recorded. No clear patterns could be discerned within the clusters of post holes, but finds of daub with wattle impressions in the fill of unexcavated pits indicate that structures existed in the area. In the extreme southwest, a well defined ashy layer associated with areas of intensely burnt ground interpreted as two hearths or furnace sites was recorded. These features were associated with significant quantities of iron tap slag and fragments of furnace liner, indicating that iron smelting was likely carried out here. To the west of this industrial activity, a cobble floor incorporating 10th to 11th century pottery and several associated post holes may represent associated structures. These structures and industrial activity appear to be a continuation of the occupation recorded by G. Knocker at Sites 2 North and South (see above).
In the northwest of the site, a series of clay floors was identified within a manhole. The latest of these floors may have been associated with several post holes and may therefore represent a sunken featured building. A similar floor was observed in an electricity trench to the north, possibly representing a continuation of this surface. Further possible floor surfaces were recorded in a service trench across the centre of the site.
Human bone was exposed in a narrow service trench towards the northeastern edge of Saxon Place. At least four poorly defined cuts representing probable inhumations were identified within the trench sections. No dating evidence was recovered, but the features were sealed below the medieval ploughsoil. The partially exposed bones were left in situ.
In the southeast of the development area, two large, irregular sandy deposits containing 10th to 11th century pottery and a series of smaller pits were recorded within the footprint of a house. Excavation of a small area recorded a cobbled surface which appeared to have slumped into an earlier pit fill. This surface, which incorporated 11th century pottery, could be traced for over 5m and appeared to continue beyond the excavated area. It has been interpreted as a possible road, and appears to be in line with a further cobbled surface recorded in a drainage trench to the north and with the surface within Knocker's Site 4 further north. However, the lack of distortion within the sloped surface indicates that it may have been constructed on an angle and therefore may have served a different purpose, possibly forming part of a sunken floored feature.
Small finds indicate that lead working (represented by significant lead casting waste and lead strips), small scale bronze working, stone working, and leather working was carried out, but only very limited bone working which contasts with Knocker's finds. Several objects associated with weighing were recovered, including a balance fragment, three scale pans, and several lead pan weights. Large numbers of lead weights, possibly fishing weights, were also recorded as well as horse gear and horseshoes. A single silver coin of Stephen (AD 1136-1145) was also recovered from the ploughsoil. Domestic activity is represented by a large assemblage of animal bone consisting primarily of cattle and sheep/goat but also including some pig. Analysis of this assemblage indicates that these were both processed and eaten at the site. Oyster and mussel shelld were also recovered and fragments of lava quernstones indicate that cereal processing was carried out.
The Saxon features were sealed by a ploughsoil layer which contained 12th to 14th century pottery and metalwork, and it appears that medieval ploughing may have removed some of the Late Saxon occupation layers. In the southwest of the area two pits containing 12th century and residual Late Saxon pottery were recorded as well as several modern pet burials.
See (S35) and (S37) for further details.
H. Hamilton (NLA), 30 September 2008.

Monument Types

  • INHUMATION (Unknown date)
  • FINDSPOT (Palaeolithic - 500000 BC to 10001 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Mesolithic - 10000 BC to 4001 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Late Neolithic to Early Bronze Age - 3000 BC to 1501 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • BEAM SLOT? (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • CESS PIT? (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • COBBLED ROAD? (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • DITCH (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • FEATURE (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • FLOOR (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • FURNACE (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • GRUBENHAUS? (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • HEARTH (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • HOUSE (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • INHUMATION (Late Saxon - 851 AD? to 1065 AD?)
  • IRON WORKING SITE (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • PIT (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • POST BUILT STRUCTURE? (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • POST HOLE (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • POTTERY KILN (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • ROAD (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • TIMBER FRAMED BUILDING? (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • TOWN (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • TRACKWAY (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • UPDRAUGHT KILN (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • WALL (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • WELL? (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • INHUMATION (Medieval - 1066 AD? to 1539 AD?)
  • FINDSPOT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)

Associated Finds

  • UNIDENTIFIED OBJECT (Undated)
  • BURNT FLINT (Prehistoric - 500000 BC? to 42 AD?)
  • HANDAXE (Lower Palaeolithic to Middle Palaeolithic - 500000 BC to 40001 BC)
  • RETOUCHED FLAKE (Palaeolithic - 500000 BC? to 10001 BC?)
  • BLADE CORE? (Upper Palaeolithic - 40000 BC to 10001 BC)
  • FLAKE (Mesolithic - 10000 BC to 4001 BC)
  • AXEHEAD (Late Neolithic to Early Bronze Age - 3000 BC to 1501 BC)
  • AXEHEAD (Late Neolithic to Early Bronze Age - 3000 BC to 1501 BC)
  • BLADE (Late Neolithic to Early Bronze Age - 3000 BC to 1501 BC)
  • BORER (Late Neolithic to Early Bronze Age - 3000 BC to 1501 BC)
  • CORE (Late Neolithic to Early Bronze Age - 3000 BC to 1501 BC)
  • END SCRAPER (Late Neolithic to Early Bronze Age - 3000 BC to 1501 BC)
  • FLAKE (Late Neolithic to Early Bronze Age - 3000 BC to 1501 BC)
  • FLAKE (Late Neolithic to Early Bronze Age - 3000 BC to 1501 BC)
  • HAMMERSTONE (Late Neolithic to Early Bronze Age - 3000 BC to 1501 BC)
  • RETOUCHED FLAKE (Late Neolithic to Early Bronze Age - 3000 BC to 1501 BC)
  • SCRAPER (TOOL) (Late Neolithic to Early Bronze Age - 3000 BC to 1501 BC)
  • SCRAPER (TOOL) (Late Neolithic to Early Bronze Age - 3000 BC to 1501 BC)
  • COIN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • COIN HOARD (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • POT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • TILE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • COIN (Roman - 300 AD to 375 AD)
  • POT (Middle Saxon - 651 AD? to 850 AD?)
  • SPOON (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • ANIMAL REMAINS (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • ARCHITECTURAL FRAGMENT (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • ARROWHEAD (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • AWL (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • AXEHEAD (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • BALANCE (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • BELL (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • BRIQUETAGE (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • BROOCH (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • BROOCH (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • BROOCH (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • BUCKLE (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • COIN (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • COMB (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • COMB (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • CRUCIBLE (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • DISC (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • DRESS COMPONENT (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • FERRULE (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • FINGER RING (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • HAMMER (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • HANDLE (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • HARNESS (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • HARNESS (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • HORSESHOE (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • HUMAN REMAINS (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • ICE SKATE (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • KEY (LOCKING) (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • KNIFE (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • LOCKING MECHANISM (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • METAL WORKING DEBRIS (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • METAL WORKING DEBRIS (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • METAL WORKING DEBRIS (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • MOLLUSCA REMAINS (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • MOULD (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • MOULD (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • MUSICAL INSTRUMENT (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • NAIL (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • NET SINKER (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • OYSTER SHELL (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • PERFORATED OBJECT (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • PERSONAL ORNAMENT (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • PIN (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • PIN (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • PIN (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • POLISHER (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • POT (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • POTTERS STAMP (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • PUNCH (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • PURSE (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • QUERN (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • QUERN (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • RING (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • SAW (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • SLAG (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • SPADE (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • SPINDLE WHORL (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • SPOON (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • SPOON (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • SPUR (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • SWORD (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • TAG (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • TEXTILE EQUIPMENT (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • UNIDENTIFIED OBJECT (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • UNIDENTIFIED OBJECT (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • UNIDENTIFIED OBJECT (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • VESSEL (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • WEIGHT (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • WHETSTONE (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • BROOCH (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • COIN (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • COIN (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • JETTON (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • KEY (LOCKING) (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • PERSONAL ORNAMENT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • POT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • STRAP FITTING (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • STRAP FITTING (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • TOKEN (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • VESSEL (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • WORKED OBJECT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • FURNITURE FITTING (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • JETTON (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • MUSKET BALL (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • POT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • ROOF TILE (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • TOKEN (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • TOY (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)

Protected Status - none

Sources and further reading

---Archive: NAU Staff. 1974-1988. Norfolk Archaeological Index Primary Record Card.
---Article in Serial: Gurney, D. (ed.). 1996. Excavations and Surveys in Norfolk 1995. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XLII Pt III pp 397-412. p 409.
---Article in Serial: Gurney, D. and Penn, K. (eds). 1997. Excavations and Surveys in Norfolk 1996. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XLII Pt IV pp 547-564. p 560.
---Article in Serial:
---Article in Serial: Gurney, D. (ed.). 1995. Excavations and Surveys in Norfolk 1994. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XLII Pt II pp 230-239. p 238.
---Archive: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Roman. Thetford [2].
---Archive: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Late Saxon. Thetford [6].
---Archive: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Medieval. Thetford [2].
---Secondary File: Secondary file.
---Slide: Various. Slide.
---Fiche: Exists.
<S1>Archive: Bolingbroke Collection.
<S2>Unpublished Document: 1948?. Cambridge Archaeology and Ethnography Museum Annual Report 1947-8..
<S3>Article in Serial: Clarke, R. R. 1952. Notes on Recent Archaeological Discoveries in Norfolk (1943-8). Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XXX pp 156-159. pp 158-9.
<S4>Monograph: Rogerson, A. and Dallas, C. 1984. Excavations in Thetford 1948-59 and 1973-80. East Anglian Archaeology. No 22. pp 4-41, 43-7.
<S5>Article in Serial: 1948. The Archaeological Newsletter. June, p 12. June, p 12.
<S6>Article in Serial: 1948. The Archaeological Newsletter. December. December.
<S7>Article in Serial: 1949. The Archaeological Newsletter. January, pp 14-5. January, pp 14-5.
<S8>Article in Serial: 1949. The Archaeological Newsletter. February, p 4. February, p 4.
<S9>Article in Serial: 1949. The Archaeological Newsletter. April. April.
<S10>Article in Serial: Dunning, G. 1951. Report of the Summer Meeting of the Institute at Norwich, 1949. Part I. Prehistoric, Roman, and Anglo-Saxon: The Saxon Town of Thetford. The Archaeological Journal. Vol CVI pp 72-73. vol 106, pp 72-3.
<S11>Article in Serial: Knocker, G. & Hughes, R. 1950. Anglo-Saxon Thetford. The Archaeological Newsletter. Vol 2, No 8, pp 117-122.
<S12>Article in Serial: Knocker, G. & Hughes, R. 1950. Anglo-Saxon Thetford Part II. The Archaeological Newsletter. Vol 3 No 3 pp 41-46.
<S13>Article in Serial: Lethbridge, T.C.. 1950. Proceedings of the Cambridge Antiquarian Society. Vol XLIII, Part I, pp 2-6. vol XLIII, part I, pp 2-6.
<S14>Article in Serial: 1950. Proceedings of the Suffolk Institute of Archaeology. Vol XXV. vol XXV.
<S15>Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 1948. Eastern Daily Press. 5 March. 5 March.
<S16>Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 1948. Eastern Daily Press. 23 April. 23 April.
<S17>Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 1948. Eastern Daily Press. 14 May. 14 May.
<S18>Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 1948. Eastern Daily Press. 21 May. 21 May.
<S19>Newspaper Article: The Daily Mail. 1948. 24 May. 24 May.
<S20>Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 1948. Eastern Daily Press. 24 July. 24 July.
<S21>Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 1948. Eastern Daily Press. 13 August. 13 August.
<S22>Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 1948. Eastern Daily Press. 18 August. 18 August.
<S23>Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 1948. Eastern Daily Press. 8 October. 8 October.
<S24>Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 1948. Eastern Daily Press. 15 October. 15 October.
<S25>Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 1948. Eastern Daily Press. 26 November. 26 November.
<S26>Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 1949. Eastern Daily Press. 15 June. 15 June.
<S27>Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 1949. Eastern Daily Press. 22 July. 22 July.
<S28>Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 1949. Eastern Daily Press. 19 August. 19 August.
<S29>Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 1949. Eastern Daily Press. 2 December. 2 December.
<S30>Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 1950. Discovery of First Complete Late Saxon Kiln Described IN Eastern Daily Press. 6 March. 6 March.
<S31>Photograph: BVG24-5, BZJ, HAP.
<S32>Unpublished Document: Bates, S.. 1994. NAU Report No. 97. Report on Archaeological Evaluation at Saxon Place, Thetford..
<S33>Unpublished Document: Cushion, S. and Rossi, S.. 1994. Site Investigation. Saxon Place, Thetford.
<S34>Photograph: Feacham, R. ?. 1947. Medieval stone coffin excavated on new housing estate, Bury Road, Thetford.. Print, b&w.
<S35>Unpublished Document: RPS Clouston. 1997. RPS Clouston. Saxon Place, Thetford. An Archaeological Watching Brief..
<S36>Article in Serial: Nenk, B. S., Margeson, S. and Hurley, M. 1995. Medieval Britain and Ireland in 1994. Medieval Archaeology. Vol XXXIX pp 180-293. p 234.
<S37>Article in Serial: Nenk, B. S., Margeson, S. and Hurley, M. 1996. Medieval Britain and Ireland in 1995. Medieval Archaeology. Vol XL pp 234-318. p 274.
<S38>Unpublished Document: Wessex Archaeology. 1996. The English Rivers Palaeolithic Project. Regions 9 (Great Ouse) and 12 (Yorkshire and the Lincolnshire Wolds). LLO-2, No. 7.
<S39>Website: TERPS online database. Site 22678.

Related records

5929Parent of: Late Saxon road (Monument)

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