Record Details

NHER Number:5640
Type of record:Monument
Name:Grimes Graves Neolithic flint mine and Grimshoe Mound

Summary

Grimes Graves is the only Neolithic flint mine in the country to be open to the public, and one of only six surviving in the country. The site is set on a heath above a dry river course, and the area is pock-marked by the filled in mouths of mine shafts. These shafts reach some 10 to 12m below the surface down to the lowest level of flint, where numerous galleries link the shafts just above the flint bed.

Mining is thought to have taken place on this site since the Palaeolithic period, but reached its hieght in quantity and complexity during the Neolithic period. Mining took place using antler picks, and whole nodules were lifted from the flint bed. These were broken down into small pieces on the site, but production of finished tools appears to have taken place off site.

The area is also thought to have been occupied during the Middle Bronze Age period, and a number of round barrows are situated within the area of Grimes Graves and in the surrounding landscape. Over 8000 pottery fragments have been found here, together with metal working debris and flint pieces, making this the largest group of artefacts from the Middle Bronze Age in the UK.

In comparison Iron Age activity is limited to a small number of burials, and little activity occurred until the Late Saxon period, when Grimshoe Mound was the meeting place for the Hundred. In the medieval period the area was used as a rabbit warren, and in the late post medieval period the area was a managed woodland. Today the site has been returned to heath, and is managed by English Heritage.

Images

  • Grimes Graves, Weeting.  © Courtesy of Norfolk County Council Library and Information Service.

Documents/files/web pages

Location

Grid Reference:TL 8169 8986
Map Sheet:TL88NW
Parish:WEETING WITH BROOMHILL, BRECKLAND, NORFOLK

Full description

Neolithic flint mines with later occupation.
Includes Grimshoe, possible tumulus or dump of debris, later hundred court.
Former scheduled monument 70 now included within scheduled area 66.

1852. Excavation revealed animal bones.
1868-70. Excavation of one shaft and Grimshoe.
1914-1939. 25 years continuing excavation of flint mines and Grimshoe. (S23).
1950s. Surface finds Neolithic flint.
1971-5. Excavation of mine shafts. (S1)
1976. Excavation of a mine shaft.
1977. Casual find Neolithic axe.
1983. Observation of cutting of pipe trench (S24, S25 and S26).
1984. Excavation round top of a shaft.
Before 1989. Bronze Age/Iron Age sherd found.
Detailed reports, photographs, press cuttings, extensive bibliography in file.

EVIDENCE FOR EARLIER PREHISTORIC ACTIVITY
Although the bulk of the material recovered at Grimes Graves is of Neolithic date, a small number of earlier finds have also been found. These include two Palaeolithic handaxes listed by (S11) as being held by the Cambridge University Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology (CUMAA). These finds are also mentioned in (S12). According to (S11) there is also much extant material of doubtful age that has been claimed as Palaeolithic but most likely relates to later flint mining activities. Wymer (S19) also listed a number of Palaeolithic handaxes in various museums that appear to have been found close to Grimes Graves. There is however no evidence that these objects were found in the immediate vicinity of the flint mines, it being more likely that they were recovered in or near the Botany Bay clay pit (see NHER 5643 for further details of these finds). Another handaxe was however recovered at Grimes Graves during the 1972-1976 British Museum excavation, this object being found within the deposits associated with the silting up of Shaft X (S19). This handaxe is of a cordate form that is particularly associated with the Middle Palaeolithic. It falls within the range of variation exhibited by the Middle Palaeolithic handaxes found recently at nearby Lynford Quarry and it is possible that the Grimes Grave handaxe originated at this site, perhaps having been picked up as a curiousity during the Late Neolithic. A number of the Palaeolithic finds from this site are noted in (S29) and (S30).

Although it is clear that sustained activity did not begin on the site until the Neolithic there is now limited evidence for at least a degree of activity during the preceeding Late Upper Palaeolithic and Mesolithic periods. Late Upper Palaeolithic flints have now been identified in several museum collections that are recorded as being from Grimes Graves, including a blade in the Diss Museum (T.820) and another blade in the British Museum's Armstong Collection. These objects are described in (S27) and are amongst the four blades listed in (S28) as being from Weeting or Lynford. The Cambridge University Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology also holds an earlier prehistoric core from Grimes Graves (Z.15457). This piece is listed in (S22) and recorded as Upper Palaeolithic in (S27). The British Museum's Sturge Collection also includes a Late Upper Palaeolithic flint blade that is recorded as having been found near Grimes Graves (see NHER 5590).

A small number of Mesolithic flints were found during the 1971-2 excavations, including two micro-cores and two microliths (S21). The microliths are noted in (S22) and were found on an old land surface, in association with a Late Neolithic flint industry. As noted by (S21) the presence of these distinctive Mesolithic pieces raises the possibility that other, less diagnostic pieces in the collection were also of this date. Further evidence for Mesolithic activity was uncovered during the British Museum's 1972-1976 excavations in the West Field. Two small features, both of which contained hearth debris, produced radiocarbon results that pointed towards activity on the site during the seventh or eight millenium BC (S18). The first was a small hearth (Cutting 880/910 F1 6640-6250 calibrated years BC at 95% probabability) and the second was a small pit (Cutting 900/970 F5 8300-6600 calibrated years BC at 95% probabability). It should however be noted that these results were obtained over 30 years ago and it is possible that the accuracy of these dates was overestimated. See (S18) for full details.
P. Watkins (HES) 29 May 2013.

1992. Field Observation.
E. Rose

1994. Geophysical Survey by AML.

2002. Detailed laser scan of interior of Greenwell's Pit undertaken.
A 3D laser scan of the underground workings of Greenwell's Pit commissioned.
See (S3) for further information.
D. Holburn (HES), 7 October 2011.

For material held by Shropshire, Lapworth, Birmingham, Worcester and Stoke on Trent Museums (S2).
J. Allen (NLA), 4 July 2003

2003. Laser scanning.
A second laser scan project has begun in Greenwell's Pit, using different technology to that used in 2002, and designed to increase the levels of accuracy and detail recorded three-dimensionally.
See (S4) for further information.
D. Holburn (HES), 7 October 2011.

2004. Laser scanning.
The underground shaft and network of tunnels known as Greenwell's Pit - part of the Neolithic flint workings - have been laser scanned to record them in high resolution three-dimensional detail, in a world's first application of this technology (work continued from 2003).
See (S5).
D. Holburn (HES), 28 September 2011.

2005. Laser scanning of underground workings at Greenwell's Pit.
A final season has completed the coverage of the underground workings at Greenwell's Pit to create what may be the world's first 3D virtual reality model of a flint mine. The captured data comprises 835 million measurements. Once fully processed, the new data will form part of a virtual reality 'flyover' of the surface of the site which then proceeds down into the galleries of Greenwell's Pit.
See (S5).
D. Holburn (HES), 26 September 2011.

October 2006.
Scheduled monument consent granted concerning the taking of samples of flint from shaft fifteen of the flint mine for trave element analysis.
See (S6) for further details.
H. White (NLA), 6 April 2009.

March 2007. Geophysical Survey.
An electrical resistivity survey was carried out over two areas of the site, one to the north and one to the west of the known extent of archaeological features. Preliminary results have noted several roughly circular conductive features in the northeast of the northern area that may represent additional flint shafts. In the western area, two additional circular resistive features were identified. These are located near a known shaft and may represent additional features.
Information from (S7).
H. Hamilton (NLA), 23 January 2008.
See also (S8).
D. Gurney (NLA), 1 April 2010.

2010. Grimes Graves Environs Project Update.
Tree felling approximately 500m to the south-west of Grimes Graves revealed deposits that had been sealed by wind-blown sand containing large quantities of flint tools such as arrowheads, knives and an unfinished axehead and waste flakes from tool production all dating to the Late Neolithic period (between 3000 and 2500 BC). The assemblage is similar to those already recovered from the flint mine shafts and represent the initial preparation of large flint nodules for tool manufacture.
See (S9).
S. Howard (NLA), 8 September 2010.

January 2010. Site visit.
The trees from a field located c.500m south-west of the scheduled mines, which was felled in November 2009 providing an opportunity to investigate the area. The field itself is covered in tree felling debris and little can be seen on the surface, but there are two tree-throw hollows which expose the underlying sediments, and I dug a small section (0.5mX0.4m) through a flint scatter that was exposed in a wheel rut on the edge of the field. The section through the wheel ruts is located at TL81161/89414 and the two tree throw hollows at TL 81130/89390 and TL 81207/89344. They have all exposed layers of flint knapping debris that is similar to the material collected from the working floors surrounding the mines and include an axe and discoidal knife roughouts plus a lot of large-sized debitage from decorticating and dressing cores. This material appears in-situ and consists of layers comprising almost entirely of horizontally-laid struck flint with little or no sediment in-between, sealed by 30-40cm of relatively sterile sand that looks wind-blown. These certainly seem to represent very similar types of activities as were going on around the mines and, unless they brought very large and undressed nodules all the way from there, would imply that flint-extraction is occurring there too. It is situated within the same contours and not far from visible hollows that still survive in the woods but remain undated.
S. Howard (HES), 3 May 2011.

2011. Residue analysis of chalk 'lamps'.
45 small cup-shaped chalk objects were recovered from previous excavations and were originally interpreted as lamps. Due to the lack of evidence for burning or soot stains this interpretation was controversial, particularly because of the question of whether lamps would have been necessary to illuminate the galleries due to light reflecting off the main shaft. A re-analysis of the cups could not reproduce earlier results, which had lent support to the lamp interpretation. The experimental results indicated that if animal fats had been used that these would have been absorbed into the chalk cups, but this chemical signature was not present in the analysis of the archaeological cups.
See (S10).
S. Howard (HES), 1 November 2011.

Monument Types

  • FINDSPOT (Lower Palaeolithic to Middle Palaeolithic - 500000 BC to 40001 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Upper Palaeolithic - 40000 BC to 10001 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Mesolithic - 10000 BC to 4001 BC)
  • HEARTH (Mesolithic - 10000 BC? to 4001 BC?) + Sci.Date
  • PIT (Mesolithic - 10000 BC? to 4001 BC?) + Sci.Date
  • FINDSPOT (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • FLINT MINE (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • HEARTH (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • LITHIC WORKING SITE (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • SUNDIAL (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Late Neolithic - 3000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • HEARTH (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • HOUSE (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • METAL WORKING SITE (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • ROUND BARROW (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Beaker - 2300 BC to 1700 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • MOOT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)

Associated Finds

  • ANIMAL REMAINS (Undated)
  • BEAD (Undated)
  • AWL (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • HANDAXE (Lower Palaeolithic to Middle Palaeolithic - 500000 BC to 40001 BC)
  • HANDAXE (Middle Palaeolithic - 150000 BC to 40001 BC)
  • BLADE (Upper Palaeolithic - 40000 BC to 10001 BC)
  • CRESTED BLADE (Upper Palaeolithic - 40000 BC to 10001 BC)
  • BLADE CORE (Mesolithic - 10000 BC to 4001 BC)
  • CORE (Mesolithic - 10000 BC to 4001 BC)
  • MICROLITH (Mesolithic - 10000 BC to 4001 BC)
  • CARVING (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • CEREMONIAL OBJECT (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • DISC (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • DISCOIDAL KNIFE (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • FIGURINE (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • FLAKED AXEHEAD (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • INSCRIBED OBJECT (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • KNIFE (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • LAMP (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • LEVALLOIS FLAKE (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • LITHIC IMPLEMENT (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • LITHIC IMPLEMENT (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • PICK (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • POLISHED AXEHEAD (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • POT (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • POT (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • TRANSVERSE ARROWHEAD (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • VESSEL (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • ARROWHEAD (Late Neolithic - 3000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • AXEHEAD ROUGHOUT (Late Neolithic - 3000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • KNIFE (Late Neolithic - 3000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • AWL (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • BALL (RITUAL) (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • BRACELET (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • CARVING (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • CRUCIBLE (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • KNIFE (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • LITHIC IMPLEMENT (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • LITHIC IMPLEMENT (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • METAL WORKING DEBRIS (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • MOLLUSCA REMAINS (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • MOULD (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • PIN (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • PLANT REMAINS (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • POT (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • POT (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • POT BOILER (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • RAZOR (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • RING (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • SAW (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • SKEWER (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • SOCKETED AXEHEAD (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • SPEAR (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • SPEAR (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • SPEAR (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • TWEEZERS (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • UNIDENTIFIED OBJECT (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • WORKED OBJECT (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • WORKED OBJECT (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • WORKED OBJECT (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • BARBED AND TANGED ARROWHEAD (Beaker - 2300 BC to 1700 BC)
  • POT (Beaker - 2300 BC to 1700 BC)
  • POT (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • RING (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • BROOCH (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • POT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • CHESS PIECE (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)

Protected Status

  • Scheduled Monument
  • Higher Level Stewardship

Sources and further reading

---Aerial Photograph: TL8189 A-J, P-Y,Z-AH,AJ-AL.
---Article in Serial: Clarke, W. G. 1908. The Antiquity of Grimes' Graves. The Antiquary. Vol XLIV pp 137-139.
---Serial: Blomefield, F.. 1805. An Essay Towards a Topographical History of the County of Norfolk.. Vol II. pp 148, 173.
---Serial: Blomefield, F.. 1805. An Essay Towards a Topographical History of the County of Norfolk.. Vol I. p 469.
---Archive: NAU Staff. 1974-1988. Norfolk Archaeological Index Primary Record Card.
---Article in Serial: Healy, F. 1984. Recent Finds of Neolithic Bowl Pottery in Norfolk. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XXXIX Pt I pp 65-82.
---Monograph: Gough, R.. 1806. Britannia.. Vol II. Translated by R. Gough from the 1789 edition.. p 203.
---Serial: 1819. Excursions through Norfolk.. pp 141-2.
---Publication: 1695. Camden's Brittania. p 402. p 402.
---Serial: Armstrong, M. J.. 1781. The History and Antiquities of the County of Norfolk.. Vol VI, Grimshoe Hundred. pp 3, 124.
---Article in Serial: Manning, C. R. 1872. Grimes Graves, Weeting. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol VII pp 169-177.
---Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 2010. New display adds spark to history of flint mines. 31 March 2010.
---Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 2010. A great environment, naturally. 2 February.
---Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 2010. Unique to Norfolk. 16 March.
---Thesis: Hillier, A.P.. 2004. Grimes Graves - The source of stone age tools of a ritual site?.
---Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 2011. It's a lot easier than digging with antlers.. 26 August.
---Article in Serial: Gurney, D & Hoggett, R.. 2010. Excavations and Surveys in Norfolk in 2009. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XLVI, pt I, pp 135-147. p 146.
---Article in Serial: Gurney, D. and Penn, K. 2006. Excavations and Surveys in Norfolk in 2005. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XLV Pt I pp 124-136. p 135.
---Article in Serial: Armstrong, A. L. 1934. Grime's Graves, Norfolk. Report on the Excavation of Pit 12. The Percy Sladen Trust Excavations. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society of East Anglia. Vol VII Pt III pp 382-394.
---Article in Serial: Ashbee, P. 1980. Grimes Graves. Archaeological Journal. Vol 137 pp 355-356.
---Article in Serial: Gurney, D. and Penn, K. (eds). 1997. Addenda to Excavations and Surveys in Norfolk 1995. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XLII Pt IV p 564.
---Archive: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Palaeolithic.
---Archive: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Mesolithic.
---Archive: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Neolithic. Weeting [61].
---Archive: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Bronze Age. Weeting [14].
---Archive: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Iron Age. Weeting.
---Archive: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Roman. Weeting with Broomhill.
---Archive: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Medieval. Wetting.
---Article in Serial: Wells, C. 1963. Revised dating of the Neolithic period in East Anglia. Norfolk Research Committee Bulletin. Series 1 No 14 (for 1961 and 1962) pp 10-11.
---Article in Serial: Armstrong, A. L. 1927. The Grime's Graves Problem in the Light of Recent Researches. Presidential Address. London, Nov. 1926. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society of East Anglia. Vol V Pt II (for 1926) pp 91-136.
---Article in Serial: Armstong, A. L. 1922. Further Discoveries of Engraved Flint-crust and Associated Implements at Grimes' Graves. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society of East Anglia. Vol III Pt IV (for 1921-22) pp 548-558.
---Secondary File: Secondary file.
---Slide: Various. Slide.
---Article in Serial: Leask, H. G et al. 1938. Notes on Excavations in Eire, England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales, during 1938. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society. Vol IV Pt 2 pp 314-325. p 317.
---Article in Serial: Armstrong, A. L. 1921. The Discovery of Engravings upon Flint Crust at Grime's Graves, Norfolk. Antiquaries Journal. Vol I No 2 pp 81-86.
---Photograph: CXR 28-9, HP 23, CXA 1, CMW-CMZ.
---Article in Serial: Greenwell, W. 1870. On the Opening of Grime's Graves in Norfolk. Journal of the Ethnological Society of London. Vol II No 4 pp 419-439.
<S1>Publication: Mercer, R.. 1981. Grimes Graves, Norfolk Excavations 1971-72. Vol I.
<S2>Article in Serial: Watson, P. J. et al. 1999. Antiquities from Norfolk in West Midlands Museums. Norfolk Archaeology. vol XLIII Pt II pp 332-338.
<S3>Article in Serial: Gurney, D. and Penn, K. (eds). 2003. Excavations and Surveys in Norfolk, 2002. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XLIV Pt II pp 368-384. p 384.
<S4>Article in Serial: Gurney, D. and Penn, K. 2004. Excavations and Surveys in Norfolk 2003. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XLIV Pt III pp 573-588. p 588.
<S5>Article in Serial: Gurney, D. and Penn, K. 2005. Excavations and Surveys in Norfolk in 2004. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XLIV Pt IV pp 751-763. p 762.
<S6>Scheduling Record: DCMS. 2006. Scheduled monument consent.
<S7>Unpublished Report: Favard, A. and Dabas, M. 2007. Grimes Graves, Norfolk. Report on geophysical surveys, March 2007.
<S8>Monograph: Linford, N. T., Martin, L. and Holmes, J. 2009. Grimes Graves, Norfolk. Report on Geophysical Survey, October 2007. English Heritage Research Department Report Series. 64-2009.
<S9>Unpublished Document: Bishop, B.. 2010. Update report on the Grimes Graves Environs Project. Report to the FC Annual Archaeology Liaison Meeting.. 26 April.
<S10>Article in Monograph: Tanimoto, S., Stacey, R., Varndell, G. & Sweek, T.. 2011. Grimes Graves revisited: a new light on chalk 'lamps'.. The British Museum Technical Research Bulletin.. Vol 5, pp 39-48.
<S11>Monograph: Roe, D. A. 1968. A Gazetteer of British Lower and Middle Palaeolithic Sites. CBA Research Report. No 8. p 242.
<S12>Article in Serial: Smith, R. A. 1916. Origin of the Neolithic Celt. Archaeologia. Vol 67 (Second Series) pp 27-48. p 35.
<S13>Monograph: Clutton-Brock, J. 1984. Neolithic Antler Picks from Grimes Graves, Norfolk, and Durrington Walls, Wiltshire: a biometrical analysis. Excavations at Grimes Graves Norfolk 1972-1976. Fascicule 1.
<S14>Monograph: Longworth, I., Ellison, A. and Rigby, V. 1988. The Neolithic, Bronze Age and Later Pottery. Excavations at Grimes Graves Norfolk 1972-1976. Fascicule 2.
<S15>Monograph: Longworth, I., Herne, A., Varndell, G. and Needham, S. 1991. Shaft X: Bronze Age Flint, Chalk and Metal Working. Excavations at Grimes Graves Norfolk 1972-1976. Fascicule 3.
<S16>Monograph: Legge, A. J. 1992. Animals Environment and the Bronze Age Economy. Excavations at Grimes Graves Norfolk 1972-1976. Fascicule 4.
<S17>Monograph: Longworth, I. and Varndell, G. 1996. Mining in the Deeper Mines. Excavations at Grimes Graves Norfolk 1972-1976. Fascicule 5.
<S18>Monograph: Longworth, I., Varndell, G. and Lech, J. 2012. Exploration and Excavation Beyond the Deep Mines. Excavations at Grimes Graves Norfolk 1972-1976. Fascicule 6.
<S19>Publication: Wymer, J. J. 1985. Palaeolithic Sites of East Anglia. p 106.
<S20>Article in Monograph: Ashton, N. 2012. The handaxe. Exploration and Excavation Beyond the Deep Mines. Excavations at Grimes Graves Norfolk 1972-1976. Longworth, I., Varndell, G. and Lech, J. Fascicule 6 p 185.
<S21>Publication: Mercer, R. 1981. Grimes Graves, Norfolk Excavations 1971-72. Vol II The Flint Assemblage.
<S22>Monograph: Wymer, J. J. and Bonsall, C. J. (eds). 1977. Gazetteer of Mesolithic Sites in England and Wales with a Gazetteer of Upper Palaeolithic Sites in England and Wales. Council for British Archaeology Research Report. No. 20. p 214.
<S23>Illustration: Unknown. 1914. Drawing of a Late Bronze Age pottery fragment.. Film. 2:3.
<S24>Illustration: Unknown. 1982. Drawing of a Red Deer antler pick.. Film.
<S25>Illustration: Spalding, H. 1983. Drawing of a Neolithic struck flint.. Card. Unknown.
<S26>Illustration: Healey, F.. 1983. Drawing of a Bronze Age pot.. Paper. 1:1.
<S27>Archive: R. Jacobi. -. Jacobi Archive. 209; 232; 3753; 10258.
<S28>Article in Serial: Robins, P. and Wymer, J. 2006. Late Upper Palaeolithic (Long Blade) Industries in Norfolk. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XLV Pt I pp 86-95. p 95.
<S29>Unpublished Document: Wessex Archaeology. 1996. The English Rivers Palaeolithic Project. Regions 9 (Great Ouse) and 12 (Yorkshire and the Lincolnshire Wolds). LLO-3, No.9.
<S30>Website: TERPS online database. Site 22767.

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