Record Details

NHER Number:5640
Type of record:Monument
Name:Grimes Graves Neolithic flint mine and Grimshoe Mound

Summary

Grimes Graves is the only Neolithic flint mine in the country to be open to the public, and one of only six surviving in the country. The site is set on a heath above a dry river course, and the area is pock-marked by the filled in mouths of mine shafts. These shafts reach some 10 to 12m below the surface down to the lowest level of flint, where numerous galleries link the shafts just above the flint bed.

Mining is thought to have taken place on this site since the Palaeolithic period, but reached its height in quantity and complexity during the Neolithic period. Mining took place using antler picks, and whole nodules were lifted from the flint bed. These were broken down into small pieces on the site, but production of finished tools appears to have taken place off site.

The area is also thought to have been occupied during the Middle Bronze Age period, and a number of round barrows are situated in the surrounding landscape. Over 8000 pottery fragments have been found here, together with metal working debris and flint pieces, making this the largest group of artefacts from the Middle Bronze Age in the UK.

In comparison Iron Age activity is limited to a small number of burials, and little activity occurred until the Late Saxon period, when Grimshoe Mound was the meeting place for the Hundred. In the medieval period the area was used as a rabbit warren, and in the late post medieval period the area was a managed woodland. Today the site has been returned to heath, and is managed by English Heritage.

Images

  • Grimes Graves, Weeting.  © Courtesy of Norfolk County Council Library and Information Service.

Location

Grid Reference:TL 8169 8986
Map Sheet:TL88NW
Parish:WEETING WITH BROOMHILL, BRECKLAND, NORFOLK

Full description

Neolithic flint mines with later occupation.
Includes Grimshoe, possible tumulus or dump of debris, later hundred court.
Former scheduled monument 70 now included within scheduled area 66.

1852. Excavation revealed animal bones.
1868-70. Excavation of one shaft and Grimshoe.
1914-1939. 25 years continuing excavation of flint mines and Grimshoe. (S23).
1950s. Surface finds Neolithic flint.
1971-5. Excavation of mine shafts. (S1)
1976. Excavation of a mine shaft.
1977. Casual find Neolithic axe.
1983. Observation of cutting of pipe trench (S24, S25 and S26).
1984. Excavation round top of a shaft.
Before 1989. Bronze Age/Iron Age sherd found.
Detailed reports, photographs, press cuttings, extensive bibliography in file.

EVIDENCE FOR EARLIER PREHISTORIC ACTIVITY

Palaeolithic finds:

Although the bulk of the material recovered at Grimes Graves is of Neolithic date, a small number of earlier finds have also been found. These include 2 Palaeolithic handaxes listed by (S11) as being held by the Cambridge University Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology (CUMAA). These are probably two objects listed in the museum's current records as '?Palaeolithic handaxes', both of which are recorded as being from "Weeting, Grimes Graves" (1926.941; Z 29515). One of these objects is described in (S30) as a "…very genuine-looking handaxe in the Acheulian manner…". The CUMAA also holds an object recorded as a large Lower Palaeolithic "disc" that had been recovered at Grimes Graves by Rev. W. Gray (1924.1038/Record 2). According to (S11) there is also much extant material of doubtful age that has been claimed as Palaeolithic but most likely relates to later flint mining activities.

A handaxe from Grimes Graves is also described and figured in (S12). It would appear that this implement was a large bout coupé - a form of handaxe typically associated with Late Middle Palaeolithic activity. This handaxe is listed as potentially Middle Palaeolithic in (S30) and (S31). Although it is noted in (S31) that it appears to be a genuine bout coupé it was felt that there were some lingering doubts over the age of the object (given that Neolithic "celts" are also discussed in the same article). The present location of this implement is unknown.

Another potentially Middle Palaeolithic handaxe was recovered at Grimes Graves during the 1972-1976 British Museum excavation; this object being found within the deposits associated with the silting up of Shaft X (S19). This handaxe is also of a cordate form usually associated with the Middle Palaeolithic. It falls within the range of variation exhibited by the Middle Palaeolithic handaxes found recently at nearby Lynford Quarry (NHER 37095) and it is possible that the Grimes Grave handaxe originated at this site, perhaps having been picked up as a curiousity during the Late Neolithic (S19).

Other potentially Palaeolithic finds from this site include a ovate implement made form a Levallois flake. This object was identified in the British Museum's Sturge Collection by J. J. Wymer and is noted on (S29) (although it was not included in S19)). The British Museum's records also suggest it holds several other Palaeolithic objects from Grimes Graves, although whether these objects would still be regarded as such is unclear. These flints include 2 cores that were previously held by the Geological Museum (1989,0301,1199-1200) and a possible handaxe (2011,8050.7).

In (S19) Wymer also lists a number of Palaeolithic handaxes in various museums that appear to have been found close to Grimes Graves. There is however no evidence that these objects were found in the immediate vicinity of the flint mines; it being more likely that they were recovered in or near the Botany Bay clay pit (see NHER 5643 for further details).

A number of the Palaeolithic finds from this site are noted in (S32) and (S33).

Evidence for Upper Palaeolithic and Mesolithic activity:

Although it is clear that sustained activity did not begin on the site until the Neolithic there is now limited evidence for at least a degree of activity during the preceeding Late Upper Palaeolithic and Mesolithic periods. Late Upper Palaeolithic flints have now been identified in several museum collections that are recorded as being from Grimes Graves, including a blade in the Diss Museum (T.820) and another blade in the British Museum's Armstong Collection. These objects are described in (S27) and are amongst the four blades listed in (S28) as being from Weeting or Lynford. The Cambridge University Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology also holds an earlier prehistoric core from Grimes Graves (Z.15457). This piece is listed in (S22) and recorded as Upper Palaeolithic in (S27). The British Museum's Sturge Collection also includes a Late Upper Palaeolithic flint blade that is recorded as having been found near Grimes Graves (see NHER 5590).

A small number of Mesolithic flints were found during the 1971-2 excavations, including two micro-cores and two microliths (S21). The microliths are noted in (S22) and were found on an old land surface, in association with a Late Neolithic flint industry. As noted by (S21) the presence of these distinctive Mesolithic pieces raises the possibility that other, less diagnostic pieces in the collection were also of this date. Further evidence for Mesolithic activity was uncovered during the British Museum's 1972-1976 excavations in the West Field. Two small features, both of which contained hearth debris, produced radiocarbon results that pointed towards activity on the site during the seventh or eight millenium BC (S18). The first was a small hearth (Cutting 880/910 F1 6640-6250 calibrated years BC at 95% probabability) and the second was a small pit (Cutting 900/970 F5 8300-6600 calibrated years BC at 95% probabability). It should however be noted that these results were obtained over 30 years ago and it is possible that the accuracy of these dates was overestimated. See (S18) for full details.
P. Watkins (HES) 29 May 2013.1992. Field Observation.
E. Rose

1992. Geophysical Survey.
Magnetometer survey of area of proposed extension to the Grimes Graves car park.
Although the conditions for survey proved not to be ideal the results suggested that major features are probably not present.
See report (S40) for further details.
P. Watkins (HES), 8 March 2017.

1995. Analytical Earthwork Survey.
Survey by Royal Commission as part of a national project investigating Neolithic flint mines.
A total of 433 possible shafts were recorded, nearly 70 more than had been identified previously. Many of the additions were relatively shallow, suggesting that at least some may have been working platforms rather than true shafts.
See publication (S41) for further details. The results of this survey are also noted in (S42).
P. Watkins (HES), 20 March 2017.

2002. Laser scan.
Detailed 3D laser scan of interior of Greenwell's Pit undertaken.
This survey is noted in (S3).
D. Holburn (HES), 7 October 2011.

For material held by Shropshire, Lapworth, Birmingham, Worcester and Stoke on Trent Museums (S2).
J. Allen (NLA), 4 July 2003

2003. Laser scanning.
A second laser scan project has begun in Greenwell's Pit, using different technology to that used in 2002, and designed to increase the levels of accuracy and detail recorded three-dimensionally.
Information from brief summary in (S4).
D. Holburn (HES), 7 October 2011.

2004. Laser scanning.
The underground shaft and network of tunnels known as Greenwell's Pit - part of the Neolithic flint workings - have been laser scanned to record them in high resolution three-dimensional detail, in a world's first application of this technology (work continued from 2003).
Information from brief summary in (S5).
D. Holburn (HES), 28 September 2011.

2005. Laser scanning of underground workings at Greenwell's Pit.
A final season has completed the coverage of the underground workings at Greenwell's Pit to create what may be the world's first 3D virtual reality model of a flint mine. The captured data comprises 835 million measurements. Once fully processed, the new data will form part of a virtual reality 'flyover' of the surface of the site which then proceeds down into the galleries of Greenwell's Pit.
Information from brief summary in (S43).
D. Holburn (HES), 26 September 2011.

October 2006.
Scheduled monument consent granted concerning the taking of samples of flint from shaft fifteen of the flint mine for trave element analysis.
See (S6) for further details.
H. White (NLA), 6 April 2009.

March 2007. Geophysical Survey.
An electrical resistivity survey was carried out over two areas of the site, one to the north and one to the west of the known extent of archaeological features. Preliminary results have noted several roughly circular conductive features in the northeast of the northern area that may represent additional flint shafts. In the western area, two additional circular resistive features were identified. These are located near a known shaft and may represent additional features.
Information from (S7). See also (S8).
H. Hamilton (NLA), 23 January 2008. Updated D. Gurney (NLA), 1 April 2010.

2009-2010.
Grimes Graves Environs Project.
Work undertaken as part of this project included documentary research, analysis of finds held by museums, a finds distribution survey and the start of a ground penetrating radar survey.
See NHER 55660 for details of remains observed following tree felling to the south-west of the main site.
Information from brief summary in (S44).
P. Watkins (HES), 23 March 2017.

January 2010. Site visit.
The site visit previously recorded under this number is now recorded under NHER 55660.
H. Hamilton (HES), 01 December 2016.

2011. Residue analysis of chalk 'lamps'.
45 small cup-shaped chalk objects were recovered from previous excavations and were originally interpreted as lamps. Due to the lack of evidence for burning or soot stains this interpretation was controversial, particularly because of the question of whether lamps would have been necessary to illuminate the galleries due to light reflecting off the main shaft. A re-analysis of the cups could not reproduce earlier results, which had lent support to the lamp interpretation. The experimental results indicated that if animal fats had been used that these would have been absorbed into the chalk cups, but this chemical signature was not present in the analysis of the archaeological cups.
See (S10).
S. Howard (HES), 1 November 2011.

February 2017. 'Brecks from Above' and Breckland National Mapping Programme.
The Neolithic flint mines of Grimes Graves, together with related features such as Grimshoe mound, are visible as earthworks on aerial photographs (such as S34-S36), and lidar imagery from a survey flown in 2015 (S37-S38). The pits and depressions in the main area of earthworks have been mapped approximately from the lidar; with the exception of Grimshoe mound, the banks/mounds have not been mapped. Therefore, existing ground surveys should be referred to for detail (the RCHME Survey Report, S39, for example). A number of the outlying pits, most of which were subject to excavation prior to the Second World War, show signs of recent disturbance on 1940s aerial photographs (S34, for example), suggesting that they may have been used as military positions during the war (see NHER 61549). A trapezoidal mound or platform, clearly visible on the aerial photographs taken in February 1946 (S35), and on the lidar survey (S38), at TL 8157 8977, had previously been identified as a modern feature (see Sieveking, et al., 1973, S40). It has been recorded as part of this site, as it is probably a spoil heap from the pre-war excavations (see too S39, p16). Cropmarks noted by Sieveking's survey (S40), and a parchmark of a ring ditch recorded by the RCHME survey (S39, p16), were not identified on the consulted sources. Boundaries and cultivation marks recorded across the site, all of which are presumed to be later than the Neolithic flint mines, have been recorded as NHER 61550. As mentioned above, features relating to Second World War activity have been recorded as NHER 61549.
S. Tremlett (Norfolk Historic Environment Service), 20 February 2017.

Monument Types

  • FINDSPOT (Lower Palaeolithic to Middle Palaeolithic - 1000000 BC to 40001 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Middle Palaeolithic - 150000 BC? to 40001 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Upper Palaeolithic - 40000 BC to 10001 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Mesolithic - 10000 BC to 4001 BC)
  • HEARTH (Mesolithic - 10000 BC? to 4001 BC?) + Sci.Date
  • PIT (Mesolithic - 10000 BC? to 4001 BC?) + Sci.Date
  • FINDSPOT (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • FLINT MINE (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • HEARTH (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • LITHIC WORKING SITE (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • SUNDIAL (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Late Neolithic - 3000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • HEARTH (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • HOUSE (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • METAL WORKING SITE (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • ROUND BARROW (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Beaker - 2300 BC to 1700 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • MOOT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • SPOIL HEAP (Early 20th Century to 21st Century - 1901 AD to 2100 AD)
  • PIT (World War Two - 1939 AD to 1945 AD)

Associated Finds

  • ANIMAL REMAINS (Undated)
  • BEAD (Undated)
  • AWL (Lower Palaeolithic to Late Iron Age - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • CORE? (Lower Palaeolithic to Upper Palaeolithic - 500000 BC? to 10001 BC?)
  • HANDAXE (Lower Palaeolithic to Middle Palaeolithic - 500000 BC to 40001 BC)
  • HANDAXE (Lower Palaeolithic to Middle Palaeolithic - 500000 BC to 40001 BC)
  • HANDAXE? (Lower Palaeolithic to Upper Palaeolithic - 500000 BC? to 10001 BC?)
  • LITHIC IMPLEMENT (Lower Palaeolithic to Middle Palaeolithic - 500000 BC? to 40001 BC?)
  • HANDAXE (Middle Palaeolithic - 150000 BC to 40001 BC)
  • HANDAXE? (Middle Palaeolithic - 150000 BC? to 40001 BC)
  • LITHIC IMPLEMENT (Middle Palaeolithic - 150000 BC? to 40001 BC?)
  • BLADE (Upper Palaeolithic - 40000 BC to 10001 BC)
  • CRESTED BLADE (Upper Palaeolithic - 40000 BC to 10001 BC)
  • BLADE CORE (Mesolithic - 10000 BC to 4001 BC)
  • CORE (Mesolithic - 10000 BC to 4001 BC)
  • MICROLITH (Mesolithic - 10000 BC to 4001 BC)
  • CARVING (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • CEREMONIAL OBJECT (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • DISC (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • DISCOIDAL KNIFE (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • FIGURINE (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • FLAKED AXEHEAD (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • INSCRIBED OBJECT (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • KNIFE (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • LAMP (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • LEVALLOIS FLAKE (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • LITHIC IMPLEMENT (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • LITHIC IMPLEMENT (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • PICK (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • POLISHED AXEHEAD (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • POT (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • POT (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • TRANSVERSE ARROWHEAD (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • VESSEL (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • ARROWHEAD (Late Neolithic - 3000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • AXEHEAD ROUGHOUT (Late Neolithic - 3000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • KNIFE (Late Neolithic - 3000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • AWL (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • BALL (RITUAL) (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • BRACELET (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • CARVING (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • CRUCIBLE (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • KNIFE (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • LITHIC IMPLEMENT (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • LITHIC IMPLEMENT (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • METAL WORKING DEBRIS (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • MOLLUSCA REMAINS (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • MOULD (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • PIN (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • PLANT REMAINS (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • POT (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • POT (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • POT BOILER (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • RAZOR (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • RING (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • SAW (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • SKEWER (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • SOCKETED AXEHEAD (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • SPEAR (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • SPEAR (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • SPEAR (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • TWEEZERS (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • UNIDENTIFIED OBJECT (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • WORKED OBJECT (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • WORKED OBJECT (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • WORKED OBJECT (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • BARBED AND TANGED ARROWHEAD (Beaker - 2300 BC to 1700 BC)
  • POT (Beaker - 2300 BC to 1700 BC)
  • POT (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • RING (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • BROOCH (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • POT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • CHESS PIECE (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)

Protected Status

  • Scheduled Monument
  • Higher Level Stewardship
  • SHINE

Sources and further reading

---Aerial Photograph: TL8189 A-J, P-Y,Z-AH,AJ-AL.
---Article in Serial: Clarke, W. G. 1908. The Antiquity of Grimes' Graves. The Antiquary. Vol XLIV pp 137-139.
---Article in Monograph: Lawson, A. J. 1980. The evidence for Later Bronze Age settlement and burial in Norfolk. Settlement and Society in the British Late Bronze Age. Barrett, J. and Bradley, R. BAR British Series 83 pp 271-293. No 28.
---Designation: [unknown]. Ancient Monuments Form. SAM Record. DNF496 and DNF502.
---Serial: Blomefield, F.. 1805. An Essay Towards a Topographical History of the County of Norfolk.. Vol II. pp 148, 173.
---Serial: Blomefield, F. 1805. An Essay Towards a Topographical History of the County of Norfolk. Vol I. p 469.
---Publication: Clarke, D. L. 1970. Beaker Pottery of Great Britain and Ireland. Vol 2. No 625.
---Record Card: Ordnance Survey Staff. 1933-1979?. Ordnance Survey Record Cards. TL 88 NW 4 [4].
---Record Card: NAU Staff. 1974-1988. Norfolk Archaeological Index Primary Record Card.
---Article in Serial: Healy, F. 1984. Recent Finds of Neolithic Bowl Pottery in Norfolk. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XXXIX Pt I pp 65-82.
---Monograph: Gough, R.. 1806. Britannia.. Vol II. Translated by R. Gough from the 1789 edition.. p 203.
---Serial: 1819. Excursions through Norfolk. pp 141-142.
---Publication: Longworth, I. H. 1984. Collared Urns: Of the Bronze Age in Great Britain and Ireland. Nos 974, 975.
---Publication: 1695. Camden's Brittania. p 402. p 402.
---Serial: Armstrong, M. J.. 1781. The History and Antiquities of the County of Norfolk.. Vol VI, Grimshoe Hundred. pp 3, 124.
---Article in Serial: Manning, C. R. 1872. Grimes Graves, Weeting. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol VII pp 169-177.
---Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 2010. New display adds spark to history of flint mines. 31 March.
---Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 2009. A few days to discover some of the secrets of Norfolk's heritage. 7 September.
---Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 2010. A great environment, naturally. 2 February.
---Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 2010. Unique to Norfolk. 16 March.
---Monograph: Pevsner, N and Wilson, W. 1999. Norfolk 2: North-West and South. The Buildings of England. 2nd Edition. pp 756-757.
---Thesis: Hillier, A.P.. 2004. Grimes Graves - The source of stone age tools of a ritual site?.
---Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 2011. It's a lot easier than digging with antlers. 26 August.
---Article in Serial: Armstrong, A. L. 1934. Grime's Graves, Norfolk. Report on the Excavation of Pit 12. The Percy Sladen Trust Excavations. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society of East Anglia. Vol VII Pt III pp 382-394.
---Article in Serial: Ashbee, P. 1980. Grimes Graves. The Archaeological Journal. Vol 137 pp 355-356.
---Record Card: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Palaeolithic.
---Record Card: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Mesolithic.
---Record Card: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Neolithic. Weeting [61].
---Record Card: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Bronze Age. Weeting [14].
---Record Card: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Iron Age. Weeting.
---Record Card: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Roman. Weeting with Broomhill.
---Record Card: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Medieval. Weeting.
---Article in Serial: Wells, C. 1963. Revised dating of the Neolithic period in East Anglia. Norfolk Research Committee Bulletin. Series 1 No 14 (for 1961 and 1962) pp 10-11.
---Article in Serial: Armstrong, A. L. 1927. The Grime's Graves Problem in the Light of Recent Researches. Presidential Address. London, Nov. 1926. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society of East Anglia. Vol V Pt II (for 1926) pp 91-136.
---Article in Serial: Armstong, A. L. 1922. Further Discoveries of Engraved Flint-crust and Associated Implements at Grimes' Graves. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society of East Anglia. Vol III Pt IV (for 1921-22) pp 548-558.
---Secondary File: Secondary File.
---Slide: Various. Slide.
---Article in Serial: Leask, H. G et al. 1938. Notes on Excavations in Eire, England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales, during 1938. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society. Vol IV Pt 2 pp 314-325. p 317.
---Article in Serial: Armstrong, A. L. 1921. The Discovery of Engravings upon Flint Crust at Grime's Graves, Norfolk. Antiquaries Journal. Vol I No 2 pp 81-86.
---Photograph: CXR 28-9, HP 23, CXA 1, CMW-CMZ.
---Newspaper Article: Norfolk Chronicle. 1870. The examination of Grimes' Graves. 9 April.
---Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 1935. Pre-historic flint mines - Evolution of Grime's Graves. 7 September.
---Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 1939. [Articles on the Goddess of fertility statue found at Grime's Graves].
---Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 1947. The story of Grime's Graves - Norwich talk by archaeologist. 24 March.
---Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 1950. First visit in eighty years. 4 August.
---Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 1955. Grime's Graves: Minister willing for more excavation. 20 July.
---Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 1963. [Article and letters to the editor about the removal of the trees at Grime's Graves].
---Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 1971. Skeletons in Grimes Graves. 17 June.
---Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 1975. Stone Age hunt comes to Norfolk. 31 January.
---Newspaper Article: Eastern Evening News. 1974. Grimes Graves in limelight. 21 December.
---Newspaper Article: 1928. [Photograph of the excavation work undertaken in 1920s at Grimes Graves]. 2 September.
---Newspaper Article: The Field. 1940. Survivals from a prehistoric armoury. 17 February. pp 254-255.
---Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 1975. [Articles on the finding of a Bronze Age occupation of Grimes Graves].
---Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 1978. Tough early man. 10 October.
---Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 1979. Grimes Graves shutdown - Mines unsafe but tourists still pour in. 10 July.
---Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 1934. Grime's Graves - The recent discoveries. 27 October.
---Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 1983. Grave concern. 6 August.
---Article in Monograph: Sainty, J. E. 1935. Sectional Transactions. Section H - Anthropology. Friday, September 6. Evolution of flint mining at Grime's Graves, Norfolk. Report of the Annual Meeting, 1935. Norwich, September 4-11. British Association for the Advancement of Science. p 423.
---Article in Serial: [Unknown]. 1961. Field Notes No. 4: Grime's Graves. Rocket Review. Vol 3 No 3 pp 4, 7.
---Article in Serial: Greenwell, W. 1870. On the Opening of Grime's Graves in Norfolk. Journal of the Ethnological Society of London. Vol II No 4 pp 419-439.
---Collection: Norfolk Historic Environment Record Staff. 1975-[2000]. HER Record Notes. Norfolk Historic Environment Service.
---Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 2017. Dark pit offers a rare glimpse of an ancient life underground. 7 March.
---Designation: English Heritage. 1990-2013. English Heritage Scheduling Notification. Notification. DNF496.
---Record Card: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Miscellaneous. Weeting.
---Article in Serial: Healy, F. et al. 2018. When and Why? The Chronology and context of flint mining at Grime's Graves, Norfolk, England. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society.
<S1>Publication: Mercer, R.. 1981. Grimes Graves, Norfolk Excavations 1971-72. Vol I.
<S2>Article in Serial: Watson, P. J. et al. 1999. Antiquities from Norfolk in West Midlands Museums. Norfolk Archaeology. vol XLIII Pt II pp 332-338.
<S3>Article in Serial: Gurney, D. and Penn, K. (eds). 2003. Excavations and Surveys in Norfolk, 2002. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XLIV Pt II pp 368-384. p 384.
<S4>Article in Serial: Gurney, D. and Penn, K. 2004. Excavations and Surveys in Norfolk 2003. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XLIV Pt III pp 573-588. p 588.
<S5>Article in Serial: Gurney, D. and Penn, K. 2005. Excavations and Surveys in Norfolk in 2004. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XLIV Pt IV pp 751-763. p 762.
<S6>Designation: DCMS. [?]-2016. Scheduled Monument Consent. SAM Consent. DNF496.
<S7>Unpublished Contractor Report: Favard, A. and Dabas, M. 2007. Grimes Graves, Norfolk. Report on geophysical surveys, March 2007. English Heritage.
<S8>Monograph: Linford, N. T., Martin, L. and Holmes, J. 2009. Grimes Graves, Norfolk. Report on Geophysical Survey, October 2007. English Heritage Research Department Report Series. 64-2009.
<S10>Article in Monograph: Tanimoto, S., Stacey, R., Varndell, G. & Sweek, T.. 2011. Grimes Graves revisited: a new light on chalk 'lamps'.. The British Museum Technical Research Bulletin.. Vol 5, pp 39-48.
<S11>Monograph: Roe, D. A. 1968. A Gazetteer of British Lower and Middle Palaeolithic Sites. CBA Research Report. No 8. p 242.
<S12>Article in Serial: Smith, R. A. 1916. Origin of the Neolithic Celt. Archaeologia. Vol 67 (Second Series) pp 27-48. pp 35-36.
<S13>Monograph: Clutton-Brock, J. 1984. Neolithic Antler Picks from Grimes Graves, Norfolk, and Durrington Walls, Wiltshire: a biometrical analysis. Excavations at Grimes Graves Norfolk 1972-1976. Fascicule 1.
<S14>Monograph: Longworth, I., Ellison, A. and Rigby, V. 1988. The Neolithic, Bronze Age and Later Pottery. Excavations at Grimes Graves Norfolk 1972-1976. Fascicule 2.
<S15>Monograph: Longworth, I., Herne, A., Varndell, G. and Needham, S. 1991. Shaft X: Bronze Age Flint, Chalk and Metal Working. Excavations at Grimes Graves Norfolk 1972-1976. Fascicule 3.
<S16>Monograph: Legge, A. J. 1992. Animals Environment and the Bronze Age Economy. Excavations at Grimes Graves Norfolk 1972-1976. Fascicule 4.
<S17>Monograph: Longworth, I. and Varndell, G. 1996. Mining in the Deeper Mines. Excavations at Grimes Graves Norfolk 1972-1976. Fascicule 5.
<S18>Monograph: Longworth, I., Varndell, G. and Lech, J. 2012. Exploration and Excavation Beyond the Deep Mines. Excavations at Grimes Graves Norfolk 1972-1976. Fascicule 6.
<S19>Publication: Wymer, J. J. 1985. Palaeolithic Sites of East Anglia. p 106.
<S20>Article in Monograph: Ashton, N. 2012. The handaxe. Exploration and Excavation Beyond the Deep Mines. Excavations at Grimes Graves Norfolk 1972-1976. Longworth, I., Varndell, G. and Lech, J. Fascicule 6 p 185.
<S21>Publication: Mercer, R. 1981. Grimes Graves, Norfolk Excavations 1971-72. Vol II The Flint Assemblage.
<S22>Monograph: Wymer, J. J. and Bonsall, C. J. (eds). 1977. Gazetteer of Mesolithic Sites in England and Wales with a Gazetteer of Upper Palaeolithic Sites in England and Wales. Council for British Archaeology Research Report. No. 20. p 214.
<S23>Illustration: Unknown. 1914. Drawing of a Late Bronze Age pottery fragment.. Film. 2:3.
<S24>Illustration: Unknown. 1982. Drawing of a Red Deer antler pick.. Film.
<S25>Illustration: Spalding, H. 1983. Drawing of a Neolithic struck flint.. Card. Unknown.
<S26>Illustration: Healey, F.. 1983. Drawing of a Bronze Age pot.. Paper. 1:1.
<S27>Archive: R. Jacobi. -. Jacobi Archive. 209; 232; 3753; 10258.
<S28>Article in Serial: Robins, P. and Wymer, J. 2006. Late Upper Palaeolithic (Long Blade) Industries in Norfolk. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XLV Pt I pp 86-95. p 95.
<S29>Record Card: Wymer, J. J. Wymer Index Card - Palaeolithic. Grimes Graves.
<S30>Publication: Roe, D. A. 1981. The Lower and Middle Palaeolithic Periods in Britain. p 263.
<S31>Monograph: Tyldesley, J. A. 1987. The bout coupé Handaxe: a typological problem. British Archaeological Report. No 170. p 37.
<S32>Unpublished Contractor Report: 1996. The English Rivers Palaeolithic Project. Regions 9 (Great Ouse) and 12 (Yorkshire and the Lincolnshire Wolds). Wessex Archaeology. LLO-3, No.9.
<S33>Website: TERPS online database. Site 22767.
<S34>Vertical Aerial Photograph: Various. Vertical Aerial Photograph. RAF/106G/UK/369 RS 4003-4004 08-JUN-1945 (HEA Original Print).
<S35>Vertical Aerial Photograph: Various. Vertical Aerial Photograph.
<S36>Vertical Aerial Photograph: Various. Vertical Aerial Photograph. MAL/83025 V 145-146 23-OCT-1983 (HEA Original Print).
<S37>LIDAR Airborne Survey: Various. LIDAR Airborne Survey. LIDAR Lynford Forest Research 0.5m DTM 15-JUN-2015 (BNG Project, FC England, Fugro Geospatial).
<S38>LIDAR Airborne Survey: Various. LIDAR Airborne Survey. LIDAR Santon Forest Research 0.5m DTM 15-JUL-2015 (BNG Project, FC England, Fugro Geospatial).
<S39>Article in Serial: Sieveking, G. de G., Longworth, I.H., Hughes, M.J., Clark, A.J. and Millett, A. 1973. A New Survey of Grime's Graves - First Report. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society. Vol 39 pp 182-218. p 200; Fig 11.
<S39>Unpublished Report: Barber, M., Field, D. and Topping, P.. 2000. RCHME Survey Report. Grime's Graves. RCHME Survey Report.
<S40>Unpublished Contractor Report: Payne, A. 1993. Grimes Graves Neolithic Flint Mines, Norfolk. Report on Geophysical Survey, November 1992. Ancient Monuments Laboratory. 122/93.
<S41>Publication: Barber, M., Field, D. and Topping, P. 1999. The Neolithic Flint Mines of England. Fig 4.12.
<S42>Article in Serial: Gurney, D. and Penn, K. (eds). 1997. Addenda to Excavations and Surveys in Norfolk 1995. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XLII Pt IV p 564.
<S43>Article in Serial: Gurney, D. and Penn, K. 2006. Excavations and Surveys in Norfolk in 2005. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XLV Pt I pp 124-136. p 135.
<S44>Article in Serial: Gurney, D. and Hoggett, R. 2010. Excavations and Surveys in Norfolk in 2009. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XLVI Pt I pp 135-147. p 146.

Related records

55660Parent of: Neolithic flint-working site (Monument)
61523Related to: Possible Neolithic flint mine (Monument)
61522Related to: Site of possible Neolithic flint mine (Monument)

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