Record Details

NHER Number:28000
Type of record:Monument
Name:Cropmarks of Roman enclosure and associated remains

Summary

A large rectangular enclosure with at least one internal division and possible remains of internal buildings was identified as cropmarks on aerial photographs taken in 1976. A programme of archaeological evaluation undertaken at this site between 2012 and 2014 demonstrated that these remains were associated with a Roman settlement and industrial site - see NHER 3364 for further details.

Images - none

Location

Grid Reference:TF 63623 17553
Map Sheet:TF61NW
Parish:NORTH RUNCTON, WEST NORFOLK, NORFOLK

Full description

June 2003. NMP.
These cropmarks overlie a findspot of iron working slag and Roman period pottery, recorded under NHER 3364. A rectangular enclosure is visible, with its long axis aligned in a north-west to south-east direction, with a length of 199m and a width of 94m (S1). The enclosure is largely defined by a single ditch, although there is the possibility of a double ditch or narrow annexe at the south-western end. There is a single ditch dividing the interior of the enclosure in half, with two visible breaks in its line. The western half of the enclosure overlies a former river course or roddon, which may afford a little extra height above the surrounding area. The north-western corner of the enclosure is not visible, but this is most likely due to crop conditions. There is a possible break in the centre of the north-eastern side, which is a more plausible entrance. Within the centre of the is a potential embanked sub-rectangular enclosure visible, with its long axis aligned in a north to south direction, and with a length of 26m and a width of 17m. This feature is extremely ephemeral and indistinct, and may not be archaeological at all. Its alignment might suggest it is not contemporary with the larger ditched enclosure. There are also a series of short linear positive and negative cropmarks centred on TF 6361 1755 which may be the remains of structures associated with the larger enclosure. There is an external ditch running parallel with the north-eastern side and a further ditch running off this one at a right-angle, towards the north-east. The alignment of these features suggests that they are contemporary with the enclosure.
The finds of pottery, tile and metal-working debris were allegedly found in a spread measuring 50m east to west and 10m north to south. The grid reference provided places this on the line of the northern ditch of the larger enclosure, to the west of the possible entrance, and it seems plausible that this material has been ploughed out of the top of the ditch, close to the terminal. While it cannot be absolutely certain this would certainly suggest that the enclosure is contemporary with those finds, and dates from the Late Iron Age or early Roman period. The material may have originated from activities and structures within the enclosure, especially within the environs of the entrance.
M. Brennand (NMP) 18 June 2003.

October-November 2012. Geophysical Survey.
Magnetometer survey of proposed development area.
This survey revealed linear anomalies that corresponded with virtually all of the cropmark features, as well as many previously unidentified remains both within and outside the main enclosure.
See report (S2)/(S3) and NHER 3364 for further details.
P. Watkins (HES), 3 November 2016.

August-October 2014. Trial Trenching.
Further evaluation of proposed development area.
This work saw the investigation of many of the previously identified cropmarks and geophysical anomalies, confirming that most, if not all, were indeed associated with a significant Roman site. There was also conclusive evidence for a Roman iron-working industry, with a reasonably large assemblage of iron smelting slag recovered from the Roman features. The presence of briquetage demonstrated that salt production had also been taking place at or near the site.
See report (S4) and NHER 3364 for further details.
P. Watkins (HES), 3 November 2016.

Monument Types

  • ENCLOSURE (Unknown date)
  • LINEAR FEATURE (Unknown date)
  • STRUCTURE? (Unknown date)
  • BUILDING? (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • ENCLOSURE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • RECTILINEAR ENCLOSURE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • STRUCTURE? (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)

Associated Finds - none

Protected Status

  • SHINE

Sources and further reading

---Secondary File: Secondary File.
<S1>Aerial Photograph: Meridian Airmaps Limited. 1976. MAL 76044 007 16-JUN-1976.
<S2>Unpublished Contractor Report: Marsh, B. and Cooper, A. 2012. Geophysical Survey Report. King’s Lynn, Norfolk [draft]. Stratascan. J3202.
<S3>Unpublished Contractor Report: Marsh, B. and Smalley, R. 2013. Geophysical Survey Report. King’s Lynn, Norfolk. Stratascan. J3202.
<S4>Unpublished Contractor Report: Orzechowski, K., Thompson, P. and Mustchin, A. 2015. South-East King’s Lynn Expansion, Norfolk. Archaeological Evaluation. Archaeological Solutions. 4673.

Related records

3364Part of: Roman settlement and industrial site (Monument)

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