Record Details

NHER Number:21840
Type of record:Monument
Name:Cropmarks of field system and trackway


Cropmarks of a trackway and rectilinear field system of possible Iron Age to Roman or medieval date are visible on aerial photographs.

Images - none


Grid Reference:TG 4540 1191
Map Sheet:TG41SE

Full description

3 July 1976. At approximate grid reference.
'Cropmarks' noted on Cambridge University Committee for Aerial Photographs list of aerial photographs.
E. Rose (NAU) 22 October 1985.

At corrected grid reference.
Complex of old field boundaries crossed by wide droveway extending into Stokesby parish.
D. Edwards (NAU) 10 December 1985 and E. Rose (NAU) 7 September 1987.

October 2005. Norfolk NMP.
Cropmarks of a trackway and rectilinear field system of possible Iron Age to Roman or medieval date are visible on aerial photographs (S1) to (S2). The central grid reference for this group of cropmarks has been adjusted from TG 4565 1205 to TG 4540 1190 to reflect the full area now recorded. The densest area of the cropmarks lies in the northern part of the group. Up to five broadly parallel ditches extending on a curving alignment for a distance of 500m between TG 4516 1189 and TG 4568 1212. These intermittent ditches form a broad corridor up to 45m and appear to define several phases of a trackway along this route.

The trackway forms the axis of a field system that is visible to its north and south. To the north are a group of incomplete rectilinear fields centred on TG 4548 1222. These appear to be arranged end on to the trackway and lie on a roughly north to south axis. They are of various sizes, including 80m by 71m, 71m by 42m and 62m by at least 69m. A group of small rectangular fields appear to be present along the south side of this group. However, it is likely that this is a result of an overlap between different phases of the field system and trackway rather than a row of small rectangular fields alongside the trackway. A rectangular enclosure or field is present adjacent to the most northerly trackway ditch at TG 4562 1214. This enclosure measures 27m by 18m and would appear to be contemporary with both the trackway ditch and the adjacent field boundary ditch. It and the trackway ditch appear to overlie a possible oval enclosure. The enclosure measures 25m by 14m and has an antenna type entrance on its southwest side. It is not clear whether this is a precursor to the rectangular enclosure that seems to overlie it, or whether it is of an earlier date. A further undated oval enclosure (NHER 39066) and a ring ditch of a probable Bronze Age round barrow (NHER 27716) are also located in the southern part of this group of fields. The relationship of the Bronze Age round barrow to the trackway and field boundary cropmarks suggests that it was possibly still a prominent earthwork when they were laid out.

The field system continues to the south of the trackway, where cropmarks of more than one phase of its development appear to be present. One of these is represented by five fields located in the eastern part of the group of cropmarks around TG 4556 1198. Adjacent to the trackway is a large trapezoidal field measuring 250m by 128m. To its southeast are two roughly rectangular fields measuring 100m by 108m and 81m by 96m. A further rectangular field measuring 81m by 33m is centred on TG 4565 1205. The boundary on the southwest side of this group of fields overlaps a field boundary belong to another phase of this field system. At least two roughly rectangular fields are arranged end on to the trackway and are located at TG 4536 1191. These appear to measure between 61m and 70m wide and at least 170m long, although it is not clear whether they were further sub-divided. A small roughly square enclosure is located adjacent to one of these field boundaries and the trackway ditch at TG 4533 1195. This enclosure measures 21m by 18m and has a possible entrance on its west side. It occupies a similar position, in relation to the field system and trackway, to the other small enclosure to the northeast.

In the south of this group of cropmarks, to the south of Stokesby Road at TG 4563 1153, are cropmarks of three or four more partial fields. Only one of these, measuring 72m by 65m, is complete enough to allow its dimensions to be determined. Fragmentary ditch cropmarks suggest that this group of fields form part of the main field system giving it an overall extent of at least 930m by 770m The trackway and field system seem to cross the Mautby and Stokesby parish boundary suggesting a relatively early date. Artefacts of Iron Age and Roman date have been found within the area of these field system cropmarks (NHER 40769, 33542) and it is possible that they are of the same date. However, the trackway appears to lead towards Manor Farm and this could be part of a medieval field system.
J. Albone (NMP), 10 October 2005

May 2007. Norfolk NMP.
A few additional linear cropmarks may be visible on the western side of this site on the aerial photographs (S3)-(S4), but they are fragmentary and non-extensive, and their archaeological origin is uncertain. Even if they are archaeological in nature, they do not add to the interpretation of the site, and consequently they have not been mapped by the NMP.
S. Tremlett (NMP), 26 May 2007.

Monument Types

  • FIELD (Unknown date)
  • FIELD SYSTEM (Unknown date)
  • SQUARE ENCLOSURE (Unknown date)
  • TRACKWAY (Unknown date)
  • FIELD (Late Bronze Age to Roman - 800 BC to 409 AD)
  • FIELD SYSTEM (Late Bronze Age to Roman - 800 BC to 409 AD)
  • RECTILINEAR ENCLOSURE (Late Bronze Age to Roman - 800 BC to 409 AD)
  • SQUARE ENCLOSURE (Late Bronze Age to Roman - 800 BC to 409 AD)
  • TRACKWAY (Late Bronze Age to Roman - 800 BC to 409 AD)
  • FIELD (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • FIELD SYSTEM (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • RECTILINEAR ENCLOSURE (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • SQUARE ENCLOSURE (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • TRACKWAY (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)

Associated Finds - none

Protected Status


Sources and further reading

<S1>Oblique Aerial Photograph: CUCAP. 1976. NHER TG 4512B-C (CUCAP BYY88-9) 03-JUL-1976.
<S2>Vertical Aerial Photograph: Ordnance Survey. 1971. OS/71044 278-9 11-APR-1971.
<S3>Vertical Aerial Photograph: RAF. 1964. RAF 58/6522 (F21) 0034-5 01-OCT-1964 (NMR).
<S4>Vertical Aerial Photograph: Ordnance Survey. 1982. OS/82080 033-4 05-MAY-1982 (NMR).

Related records - none

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