Record Details

NHER Number:1600
Type of record:Monument
Name:Roman enclosure, prehistoric to post-medieval finds

Summary

In 1965 an Iron Age torc, missing one terminal, was recovered. A Mesolithic flint tranchet axehead was found here around the same time. Fieldwalking and metal-detecting by Sedgeford Historical and Archaeological Research Project in 2000 and 2004 recovered finds dating from the Neolithic to the post-medieval period, including the missing terminal of the Iron Age torc previously recovered. In 2005, excavations on part of the field recorded ditches and a cobbled surface that can be divided into two main phases of Roman activity: the 1st and 2nd century AD and the 3rd to 4th century AD. Subsequent metal-detecting between 2007 and 2016 recovered a Mesolithic/Neolithic flint scraper; Roman, Late Saxon, medieval and post-medieval coins; medieval and post-medieval jettons; a post-medieval token and metal objects dating to the Late Iron/Roman, Roman, Late Saxon, medieval and post-medieval periods. The metal finds include a Late Iron Age/Roman brooch; Roman brooches, a finger ring and miniature votive axe; a remarkable Early Saxon openwork brooch in the form of a running deer; a Late Saxon cheek piece; medieval and post-medieval dress accessories; medieval harness mounts; a seal matrix, unusual lozengiform brooch and key and post-medieval spur fragments and a tap fragment.

Images

  • Medieval seal matrix from NHER 1600  © Norfolk County Council
  • Medieval strap end from NHER 1600  © Norfolk County Council
  • Post-medieval cloth seal from NHER 1600  © Norfolk County Council
  • Early Saxon sleeve clasp from NHER 1600  © Norfolk County Council
  • Late Saxon harness fitting from NHER 1600  © Norfolk County Council
  • Medieval harness pendant from NHER 1600  © Norfolk County Council
  • Medieval harness pendant from NHER 1600  © Norfolk County Council
  • Roman miniature object from NHER 1600  © Norfolk County Council
  • Romano-British brooch from NHER 1600  © Norfolk County Council
  • Early Saxon brooch from NHER 1600  © Norfolk County Council
  • Medieval buckle Romano-British brooch from NHER 1600  © Norfolk County Council

Location

Grid Reference:Not displayed
Map Sheet:TF73NW
Parish:SEDGEFORD, WEST NORFOLK, NORFOLK

Full description

May 1965.
Gold alloy ring terminal torc (multi strand).
Declared Treasure Trove at inquest 29 December 1966.
E.B. Green (NCM).

14 May 1965. Stray Find.
Found by [1]:
1 Mesolithic fragmentary flint tranchet axe (cutting end) of Mesolithic flint tranchet axe found by [1]. This find is listed in (S1) and described in (S2).
Previously recorded under NHER 1594.

An undated note on a King's Lynn Museum record map (S3) notes that this area was "covered in flakes and scrapers".
Information from (S4). Previously recorded under NHER 1594.
P. Watkins (HES), 22 December 2013.

1993. Proposed gradiometer and metal-detecting survey. British Museum.
J. D. Hill (British Museum) can find no records of this survey ever being completed.
M. Dennis (NLA), 14 March 2007.

April 2000. Sedgeford Historical and Archaeological Research Project. Fieldwalking.
Fieldwalking 20 m by 20 m grids.
Worked flint.
Burnt flint.
Prehistoric pot.
Neolithic pot.
Bronze Age pot.
Iron Age pot.
Roman pot.
Roman tile.
Saxon pot.
Medieval pot.
Post-medieval pot.
Ceramic building material.
Slag.
Iron objects.
Oyster.
Possible quern?
Broken copper alloy hoop.
Two horseshoes.
One penny.
Information from (S5).
M. Dennis (NLA), 21 August 2006.

Summer 2000. Sedgeford Historical and Archaeological Research Project. Fieldwalking.
20 m by 20 m grids.
Burnt flints.
Worked flints.
Prehistoric pot.
Roman tile.
Ceramic building material.
Metal objects.
Slag.
Iron Age pot.
Roman tessera.
Information from (S5).
M. Dennis (NLA), 15 March 2007.

April 2004. Sedgeford Historical and Archaeological Research Project. Fieldwalking and metal-detecting.
Iron Age gold ring terminal from torc [2]. See drawing (S6).
Reported as Treasure. See (S7) and (S8).
Also:
Late Bronze Age pot.
Iron Age pot.
Roman pot, including Samian.
Middle Saxon pot.
Late Saxon pot.
Medieval pot.
Post-medieval pot.
Ceramic building material.
Worked flints including a retouched flake.
Clay pipe.
Window glass.
Glass.
Nails.
Shell.
Gun flint.
Bone.
Information from (S5).
E. Darch (NLA), 4 November 2004 and 25 April 2006 and M. Dennis (NLA), 21 August 2006.

2005. 'Boudicca's Treasures'. Channel 5 TV financed excavation.
No details received.

2005. Sedgeford Historical and Archaeological Research Project. Excavation. Roman Project.
Two main phases. An early phase, 1st and 2nd centuries AD and later phase 3rd to 4th century AD. Early phase represented by a southwest to northeast ditch that may form the entrance to an enclosure. Pottery and bone suggests this was close to a settlement area. The later phase was represented by two large ditches at right angles to each other (north to south and east to west), a deliberate change of orientation from the earlier possible enclosure. These later ditches enclosed an area of cobbled yard surface. Finds from the late phase include a coin of Carausius dated to 286 to 293 AD.
See (S9).
M. Dennis (NLA), 21 August 2006.

April-May 2007. Metal-detecting.
Romano-British brooch, medieval coin and post-medieval buckle.
See lists in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 7 June 2007.

April-May 2008. Metal-detecting.
Medieval brooch of atypical form and post-medieval belt mount.
See list in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 2 June 2008.

April-May 2009. Metal-detecting.
Middle Saxon/Late Saxon strap end, medieval strap loop and two post-medieval coins.
A. Rogerson, (NLA), 5 June 2009.

February-March 2010. Metal-detecting.
Early Saxon, medieval and post-medieval metal objects; and post-medieval coin.
See lists in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 26 March 2010.

May-June 2010. Metal-detecting.
1 ?Mesolithic/Neolithic flint end scraper.
3 Roman coins.
1 medieval copper alloy seal matrix.
Flint identified by P. Robins (NCM), coins by A. Marsden (NCM) and seal matrix by S. Ashley (NLA). See list and descriptions in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 8 July 2010. Amended by P. Watkins (HES), 22 December 2013.

April-May 2011. Metal-detecting.
4 Roman and 1 medieval coin, Romano-British (S10), Late Saxon, medieval and post-medieval metal objects.
See lists in file.
A. Rogerson (HES), 10 June 2011.

March-April 2012. Metal-detecting.
Two Late Neolithic/Early Bronze Age flint scrapers, two Roman, one Late Saxon, three medieval and one post-medieval coin, medieval and post-medieval jetton, remarkable Continental Early Saxon zoomorphic brooch (S11), Roman, medieval and post-medieval metal objects.
See lists in file.
S. Ashley (HES), 1 May 2012.

March-April 2013. Metal-detecting. [3].
Roman Hod Hill brooch.
1 medieval coin.
1 post-medieval token.
Information from PAS import.
P. Watkins (HES), 4 June 2013.

April-May 2013. Metal-detecting. [4].
Late Iron Age/Early Roman Colchester type one-piece brooch.
1 post-medieval coin.
Information from PAS import.
P. Watkins (HES), 4 July 2013.

September-October 2016. Metal-detecting. [5].
6 Roman coins and a brooch.
2 medieval coins and a strap loop.
3 post-medieval coins, 1 jetton and a buckle.
Information from PAS import.
A. Beckham (HES), 4 November 2016.

Monument Types

  • FINDSPOT (Unknown date)
  • FINDSPOT (Prehistoric - 1000000 BC to 42 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Early Mesolithic to Late Neolithic - 10000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Mesolithic - 10000 BC to 4001 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • DITCH (Roman - 43 AD to 199 AD)
  • ENCLOSURE? (Roman - 43 AD to 199 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • DITCH (Roman - 200 AD to 399 AD)
  • YARD (Roman - 200 AD to 399 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Early Saxon - 410 AD to 650 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Saxon - 410 AD to 1065 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Middle Saxon to Late Saxon - 651 AD to 1065 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Medieval to 19th Century - 1066 AD to 1900 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)

Associated Finds

  • ANIMAL REMAINS (Unknown date)
  • ANIMAL REMAINS (Unknown date)
  • BUILDING MATERIAL (Unknown date)
  • COIN (Unknown date)
  • HORSESHOE? (Unknown date)
  • NAIL (Unknown date)
  • QUERN? (Unknown date)
  • SLAG (Unknown date)
  • UNIDENTIFIED OBJECT (Unknown date)
  • UNIDENTIFIED OBJECT? (Unknown date)
  • VESSEL (Unknown date)
  • WINDOW GLASS (Unknown date)
  • BURNT FLINT (Lower Palaeolithic to Late Iron Age - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • LITHIC IMPLEMENT (Lower Palaeolithic to Late Iron Age - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • POT (Lower Palaeolithic to Late Iron Age - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • RETOUCHED FLAKE (Lower Palaeolithic to Late Iron Age - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • END SCRAPER (Early Mesolithic to Late Neolithic - 10000 BC? to 2351 BC)
  • TRANCHET AXEHEAD (Mesolithic - 10000 BC to 4001 BC)
  • POT (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • SCRAPER (TOOL) (Late Neolithic to Early Bronze Age - 3000 BC to 1501 BC)
  • POT (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • POT (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • TORC (Middle Iron Age to Late Iron Age - 200 BC to 1 AD)
  • TORC (Middle Iron Age to Late Iron Age - 200 BC to 1 AD)
  • BROOCH (Late Iron Age to Roman - 20 AD to 75 AD)
  • BROOCH (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BROOCH (Roman - 43 AD to 70 AD)
  • COIN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • COIN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • COIN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FINGER RING (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FINGER RING (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • LANGTON DOWN BROOCH (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • MINIATURE OBJECT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • POT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • TESSERA (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • TILE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • VOTIVE MODEL (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • COIN (Roman - 69 AD to 79 AD)
  • BROOCH (Roman - 100 AD to 200 AD)
  • COIN (Roman - 134 AD to 138 AD)
  • COIN (Roman - 143 AD to 144 AD)
  • COIN (Roman - 269 AD to 271 AD)
  • COIN (Roman - 310 AD to 313 AD)
  • COIN (Roman - 317 AD to 317 AD)
  • COIN (Roman - 323 AD to 324 AD)
  • COIN (Roman - 330 AD to 335 AD)
  • COIN (Roman - 335 AD to 341 AD)
  • COIN (Roman - 335 AD to 341 AD)
  • COIN (Roman - 335 AD to 348 AD)
  • POT (Saxon - 410 AD to 1065 AD)
  • BROOCH (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • SLEEVE CLASP (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • STRAP END (Middle Saxon to Late Saxon - 651 AD to 1065 AD)
  • BRIDLE BIT (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • COIN (Late Saxon - 1059 AD to 1062 AD)
  • BROOCH (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • BUCKLE (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • COIN (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • HARNESS MOUNT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • HARNESS PENDANT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • KEY (LOCKING) (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • POT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • SEAL MATRIX (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • STRAP END (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • STRAP FITTING (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • TOBACCO PIPE (Medieval to 19th Century - 1066 AD to 1900 AD)
  • COIN (13th Century - 1205 AD to 1207 AD)
  • COIN (13th Century - 1248 AD to 1250 AD)
  • COIN (13th Century - 1248 AD to 1250 AD)
  • COIN (13th Century - 1248 AD to 1250 AD)
  • STRAP FITTING (13th Century to 14th Century - 1250 AD to 1400 AD)
  • JETTON (13th Century to 14th Century - 1280 AD to 1343 AD)
  • COIN (14th Century - 1310 AD to 1314 AD)
  • COIN (14th Century - 1335 AD to 1343 AD)
  • BUCKLE (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • CLOTH SEAL (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • COIN (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • GUNFLINT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • HARNESS MOUNT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • HOOKED TAG (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • POT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • ROWEL SPUR (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • SPUR (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • STRAP FITTING (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • TAP (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • COIN (16th Century - 1560 AD to 1561 AD)
  • COIN (16th Century to 17th Century - 1561 AD to 1602 AD)
  • JETTON (16th Century to 17th Century - 1586 AD to 1635 AD)
  • COIN (17th Century - 1604 AD to 1619 AD)
  • JETTON (17th Century - 1612 AD to 1651 AD)
  • COIN (17th Century - 1634 AD to 1636 AD)
  • COIN (17th Century - 1636 AD to 1643 AD)
  • BUCKLE (17th Century to 18th Century - 1660 AD to 1720 AD)
  • TOKEN (17th Century - 1669 AD to 1669 AD)

Protected Status - none

Sources and further reading

---Photograph: NLA. Finds Photograph.
---Photograph: I & RS. Digital finds image.
---Record Card: Ordnance Survey Staff. 1933-1979?. Ordnance Survey Record Cards. TF 73 NW 16.
---Unpublished Document: La Niece, S. and Simpson, A.. 2004. Report for the Coroner on the analysis of a torc terminal from Sedgeford, Norfolk. Item of potential treasure 2004/T157..
---Archive: Sedgeford Historical and Archaeological Research Project Folder.
---Correspondence: Stead, I.M.. 1993. Letter. Sedgeford torc survey.. 30 July.
---Newspaper Article: Lynn News. 1998. Gold torc unearthed by hoe. 24 February.
---Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 1966. Sedgeford torc treasure trove. 30 December.
---Newspaper Article: The Independent. 2004. Amateur treasure-hunter unearths missing piece from 'Boudicca's necklace'. 21 April.
---Newspaper Article: Daily Mail. 2004. The missing link. 21 April.
---Record Card: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Iron Age. Sedgeford.
---Secondary File: Secondary File.
---Article in Serial: Sealey, P. R. 1979. The Later History of Icenian Electrum Torcs. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society. Vol 45 pp 165-178.
---Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 2004. [Articles on the torc terminal found in 2004].
<S1>Monograph: Wymer, J. J. and Bonsall, C. J. (eds). 1977. Gazetteer of Mesolithic Sites in England and Wales with a Gazetteer of Upper Palaeolithic Sites in England and Wales. Council for British Archaeology Research Report. No. 20. p 212.
<S2>Archive: R. Jacobi. -. Jacobi Archive. 10343.
<S3>Map: King's Lynn Museum. KLM 6 inch Record Map.
<S4>Record Card: NAU Staff. 1974-1988. Norfolk Archaeological Index Primary Record Card. NHERs 1594 and 1600.
<S5>Archive: Sedgeford Historical and Archaeological Research Project Archive.
<S6>Illustration: White, S. 2004. Drawing of an Iron Age gold torc terminal. Film. 1:1 and 2:1.
<S7>Unpublished Document: Hill, J.D.. 2004. Report to H.M. Coroner on a find of potential Treasure: Sedgeford, Norfolk. Treasure Case 2004 T157.
<S8>Article in Serial: Treasure Hunting. 2006. Ends reunited. May.
<S9>Unpublished Document: Dodd, M. and Halifax, K. (eds.). 2006. Sedgeford Historical and Archaeological Research Project Annual Report 2005..
<S10>Illustration: Gibbons, J. 2011. Drawing of a Roman lead miniature votive axe. Film. 2:1.
<S11>Illustration: Gibbons, J. 2012. Drawing of an Early Saxon copper alloy zoomorphic brooch. Film. 2:1.

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