Record Details

NHER Number:1002
Type of record:Monument
Name:Brancaster Roman vicus

Summary

This Romano-British civilian settlement grew up to the west and south west of the Roman fort of Branodunum (NHER 1001) and is probably part of the same settlement as NHER 1003 and NHER 1004. The site is represented by cropmarks and finds, and areas now below housing developments have been excavated. Excavations revealed that besides Roman occupation, the site showed evidence of activity during the Neolithic, Beaker, Bronze Age and Iron Age periods.

Images - none

Location

Grid Reference:TF 78046 43884
Map Sheet:TF74SE
Parish:BRANCASTER, WEST NORFOLK, NORFOLK

Full description

1949.
Roman sherds found.

1973.
Beaker pottery found. See drawing (S6).

April 1973. Geophysical Survey.
Magnetometer survey of easternmost part of field to west of Cross Lane.
This survey revealed evidence for a range of probable archaeological features including a system of ditches and several small features.
See report (S11) for further details.
P. Watkins (HES), 8 March 2017.

1974.
Cropmarks of Roman vicus. Pottery, coins and metalwork found.
These discoveries are noted in (S10).

1977. Excavation.
Excavation by Central Excavation Unit of Roman vicus and kilns, Iron Age enclosure, Neolithic, Beaker and Bronze Age occupation.
The pottery recovered includes part of a tall-necked pitcher that is probably a Middle Saxon Black Ware import, with Tating Ware being the closest parallel for its unusual form.
Published in (S8). The prehistoric pits are also discussed in (S9).

1979.
Roman coin found.

1980. Metal detecting.
Roman metalwork (S7).

1982.
Pottery found.

1994. Trial Trenching.
Negative evaluation.
See report (S1). The results of this work are also noted in (S2).

1998. Found in the garden of 15 Roman Way.
Front part of bone military sword scabbard.
See description in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 31 March 2005.

February 1999. Watching Brief.
Archaeological Watching Brief during erection of garage/boathouse and other groundwork. No archaeologically significant features or deposits identified and no finds recovered.
See report (S12) for further details.
The archive associated with this work has been deposited with the Norwich Castle Museum (NWHCM : 2018.203).
E. Rose (NLA), 31 March 1999.

March 2001. Norfolk NMP.
Various linear features are visible as cropmarks on 1976 aerial photographs (S3) around TF 7795 4383. Two parallel ditches may represent some kind road or trackway, presumably associated with Roman activity in this area. Further linear features are visible on a 1974 aerial photography (S4), around TF 7823 4385. These would appear to be part of the vicus, known to be situated to the south of the fort. Two or three possible pits can also be seen in this area.
A. Hunt (NMP), 21 March 2001.

April 2002. Norfolk NMP.
'Additional Roman period rectilinear enclosures and linear features are visible as cropmarks to the south-west of the Roman fort (NHER 1001) on 1974 NLA oblique images.' There are the fragmentary remains of at least two rectangular enclosures or fields at TF 7801 4375. (S5). The features are aligned with their long axis in a north to south direction and each encloses an area measuring approximately 30m x 15m. These features are almost certainly a further part of the previously recorded Roman period activity within NHER 1002.
M. Brennand (NMP), 18 April 2002.

January 2004.
Inhumation found by H. Paterson (A&E) during a watching brief on a service trench. Tibia has been sent to Ancient Monuments Laboratory for radiocarbon dating. Two ditched features were found in close proximity with Roman pot in them. See field notes in file. More information to follow.
A. Hutcheson (NLA), 25 May 2004.
[Additional note: the tibia in question shows signs of pathology, so dating has been deferred pending full examination and recording of the bone prior to sampling. D. Gurney (NLA), 7 August 2008].
[Additional note: the bone submitted for sampling proved to be an animal bone, but it is still thought that the bone assemblage was a mixture of human and animal bone. Inf. A. Hutcheson, NAUA. D. Gurney (NLA), 28 August 2008.]

Before 28 April 2006. Metal detecting. [1].
Nineteen Roman coins.
Roman, medieval and post medieval metal objects.
See lists in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 1 July 2006.

Monument Types

  • FINDSPOT (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD?)
  • LITHIC SCATTER (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD?)
  • FINDSPOT (Late Prehistoric - 4000 BC to 42 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • PIT (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • POST HOLE (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • PIT (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Beaker - 2300 BC to 1700 BC)
  • PIT (Beaker - 2300 BC to 1700 BC)
  • ENCLOSURE (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • INHUMATION (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • PIT (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • CORN DRYING KILN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • DITCH (Roman - 43 AD? to 409 AD?)
  • FINDSPOT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FORT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • HEARTH (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • INHUMATION (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • INHUMATION (Roman - 43 AD? to 409 AD?)
  • KILN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • RECTILINEAR ENCLOSURE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • ROAD (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • SAXON SHORE FORT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • VICUS (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • DITCH (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • HOLLOW WAY (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)

Associated Finds

  • UNIDENTIFIED OBJECT (Undated)
  • UNIDENTIFIED OBJECT (Undated)
  • BACKED BLADE (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD?)
  • LITHIC IMPLEMENT (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD?)
  • SCRAPER (TOOL) (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD?)
  • FLAKE (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • POT (Late Prehistoric - 4000 BC to 42 AD)
  • POT (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • POT (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • POT (Beaker - 2300 BC to 1700 BC)
  • POT (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • ARCHITECTURAL FRAGMENT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BRICK (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BROOCH (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • COIN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • COIN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • COSMETIC MORTAR (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FINGER RING (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • HARNESS MOUNT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • HUMAN REMAINS (Roman to Late Saxon - 43 AD? to 1065 AD?)
  • KEY (LOCKING) (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • KNIFE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • PLAQUE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • POT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • RING (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • SCABBARD (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • STEELYARD (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • STRAP END (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • STUD (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • TILE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • VESSEL (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • COMB (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • POT (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • BUCKLE (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • POT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • VESSEL (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • BUTTON (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • COIN (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • DOOR FITTING (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • DRESS FASTENER (DRESS) (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)

Protected Status

  • Scheduled Monument

Sources and further reading

---Photograph: JF,JG,JH,MN,MP.
---Aerial Photograph: TF7843 AS-AU,AZ-ABM; TF7844 A-,ANR-APA.
---Aerial Photograph: Edwards, D.A. (NLA). 1994. TF 7743B - C.
---Photograph: I & RS. Digital finds image.
---Drawing: Unknown. Sketch plan of finds site. Film.
---Photograph: NCC Find Identification and Recording Service. c. 1975-2000. HES Find Polaroid Collection. HES Find Polaroid Collection. polaroid. black and white.
---Record Card: Ordnance Survey Staff. 1933-1979?. Ordnance Survey Record Cards. TF 74 SE 10.
---Record Card: NAU Staff. 1974-1988. Norfolk Archaeological Index Primary Record Card.
---Record Card: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Neolithic. Brancaster.
---Record Card: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Roman. Brancaster [4].
---Record Card: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Medieval. Brancaster.
---Secondary File: Secondary File.
---Slide: Various. Slide.
---Fiche: Exists.
---Collection: Norfolk Historic Environment Record Staff. 1975-[2000]. HER Record Notes. Norfolk Historic Environment Service.
---Illustration: [Unknown]. [Unknown]. The Shore fort and settlement areas at Brancaster - the evidence of aerial photography and excavation. Film.
---Illustration: [Unknown]. [Unknown]. Plan of the excavations of 1974 and 1977. Film.
<S1>Unpublished Contractor Report: Crowson, A. 1994. Evaluation Report on Hall Farm, Brancaster. Norfolk Archaeological Unit. 96.
<S2>Article in Serial: Gurney, D. (ed.). 1995. Excavations and Surveys in Norfolk 1994. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XLII Pt II pp 230-239. p 231.
<S3>Aerial Photograph: Edwards, D.A. (NLA). 1976. (NMR) 7483/23 NLA 9904/TF 7843AE 24-JUN-1976..
<S4>Aerial Photograph: Edwards, D.A. (NLA). 1974. (NMR) TF7844/267 NLA 1488/14 10-JUL-1974.
<S5>Aerial Photograph: Edwards, D.A. (NLA). 1974. SMR TF 7843Q (NLA 7/ABW2) 25-JUN-1974.
<S6>Illustration: [Unknown]. 1981. Drawing of largely complete Late Neolithic/Early Bronze Age pottery Beaker vessel and possible Breaker pottery sherd. Paper. 1:1.
<S7>Illustration: [Norwich Castle Museum staff]. 1980. Drawing of a Roman copper alloy plate brooch. Card. 1:1.
<S8>Monograph: Hinchliffe, J. and Sparey Green, C. 1985. Excavations at Brancaster 1974 and 1977. East Anglian Archaeology. No 23.
<S9>Thesis: Garrow, D.. 2006. Pits, Settlement and Deposition during the Neolithic and Early Bronze Age in East Anglia. during the Neolithic and Early Pits, Settlement and Deposition during the Neolithic and Early Bronze Age in East Anglia.
<S10>Serial: 1974. Council for British Archaeology Group 7 Bulletin of Archaeological Discoveries for 1974. No 21. p 2.
<S11>Unpublished Contractor Report: Bartlett, A. D. H. 1973. Magnetometer Survey at Brancaster, Norfolk. Ancient Monuments Laboratory.
<S12>Unpublished Contractor Report: Phillips, C. 1999. Report on an Archaeological Watching Brief at No.1 Corner Lodge, Brancaster Staithe, Norfolk. Norfolk Archaeological Unit. 394.

Related records

1001Part of: Branodunum Roman 'Saxon Shore' fort (Monument)
1003Related to: Brancaster Roman vicus (Monument)
1004Related to: Roman vicus and possible early Roman fort (Monument)

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