Record Details

NHER Number:9836
Type of record:Monument
Name:Multi-period finds to the south of Venta Icenorum

Summary

Many Roman finds have been made in the area, on the ploughed surface and with metal detectors, including a gold earring in the shape of a pomegranate and part of an auxiliary diploma .This diploma listed the soldiers that were given Roman citizenship. The diploma was issued between AD 91 and 105 and there are only three other examples in Britain that were made before 105. The presence of a probable Roman amphitheatre and various other Roman buildings, roads and ditches located outside the walls of nearby Venta Icenorum Roman town (NHER 9786) in this area have been revealed by aerial photographs and geophysics. The cropmarks are now under separate numbers. The extramural settlement (NHER 52211), the amphitheatre (NHER 52206), the temple (NHER 52209) and the ring ditch (NHER 52207). Other sites recorded within this area are under NHER 52208, 52210, 52212-4.

Images - none

Location

Grid Reference:TG 23 03
Map Sheet:TG20SW
Parish:CAISTOR ST EDMUND, SOUTH NORFOLK, NORFOLK

Full description

Some finds from this site are under NHER 29994. The cropmarks are now under separate numbers. The extramural settlement (NHER 52211), the amphitheatre (NHER 52206), the temple (NHER 52209) and the ring ditch (NHER 52207). Other sites recorded within this area are under NHER 52208, 52210, 52212-4.

1956 to 1957. Cambridge University Committee for Aerial Photography air photography.
Roman road and buildings.

1963.
Roman sherds found.

1977. Aerial photograph.
Amphitheatre (dubious) and temple.
See (S1)

1977. Metal detecting.
Roman coin.

1978.
Neolithic scraper found.

1979 to 1981.
Roman pottery found.

1980. NAU air photography.
Ring ditch cropmark.

1984 to 1985.Metal detecting.
Roman coins and metalwork, Early Saxon metalwork.

1986. Metal detecting.
Roman and Middle Saxon metalwork.

1987. Metal detecting.
Iron Age coin, Roman and medieval metalwork, (S8).

1988.
Roman and medieval metalwork.

1989. Metal detecting.
Part of a Roman animal figurine, Roman, Middle Saxon, and medieval coins, (S9).

1990. Metal detecting.
Roman coins.

September 1995. Infra red photogrpahy.
Circular enclosure and linear features noted.
See (S2).

1995. Geophysical survey
Resistivity survey.
See (S3).

1997. Geophysical survey.
Resistivity survey.
See (S4).

1999. Geophysical survey.
Magnetometer survey.
See (S5).
E. Rose (NLA), 5 October 1999.

15 October 1993. NLA air photograph.
Site can be seen but cropmarks not visible.
H. Clare (NLA), 21 February 2001.

1999.
A magnetic gradiometer survey over a 240m x 140m area in the field south of the walled town of Venta Icenorum showed a clear image of the early defensive ditches and a faint image over the supposed amphitheatre. A 100m x 100m trial within the walled town provided an excellent image with a lot of detail over the forum and adjacent buildings.
See (S7).
D. Holburn (HES), 14 November 2011.

2002.
Geophysics plots reanalysed and published.
See (S6).

November 2002. Metal detecting.
Early Neolithic flaked axehead found on surface at approx.TG 2303 0302.
See description in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 11 December 2002.

February / March 2010. Metal detecting.
Neolithic retouched flake.
See description in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 1 April 2010.

March 2009. Norfolk NMP.
This number now only relates to the multi-period finds. As part of the NMP mapping and recording process this complex area of cropmarks has been recorded under separate numbers. The overall number for the cropmarks for the extramural settlement to the south of the town is NHER 52211. The amphitheatre is NHER 52206, the temple is NHER 52209 and the ring ditch in NHER 52207. Other sites recorded within this area are under NHER 52208, 52210, 52212-4
S. Horlock (NMP), 24 March 2009.

Monument Types

  • LINEAR FEATURE (Unknown date)
  • TRACKWAY (Unknown date)
  • FINDSPOT (Early Neolithic - 4000 BC to 3001 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • AMPHITHEATRE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BUILDING (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • ROAD (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)

Associated Finds

  • PERSONAL ORNAMENT (Undated)
  • FLAKED AXEHEAD (Early Neolithic - 4000 BC to 3001 BC)
  • LITHIC IMPLEMENT (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • RETOUCHED FLAKE (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • TRANCHET AXEHEAD (Early Neolithic - 4000 BC to 3001 BC)
  • COIN (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • ARCHITECTURAL FRAGMENT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BRACELET (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BROOCH (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BUCKLE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • COIN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • COIN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • COIN HOARD (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • EAR RING (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FIGURINE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FINGER RING (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FLUE TILE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • GEMSTONE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • HARNESS (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • INSCRIBED OBJECT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • KEY (LOCKING) (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • PENDANT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • PIN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • POT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • ROOF TILE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • SKILLET (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • STRAP FITTING (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • STRAP FITTING (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • STUD (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • TESSERA (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • TILE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • TOILET ARTICLE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • TWEEZERS (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • VESSEL (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BROOCH (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • COIN (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • PIN (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • STRAP FITTING (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • BOX (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • BUCKLE (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • HARNESS (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • PENDANT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • SCABBARD (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • SPINDLE (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • STRAP FITTING (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • TOKEN (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • BUCKET (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • VESSEL (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)

Protected Status - none

Sources and further reading

---Aerial Photograph: Edwards, D.A. (NLA). 1993. TG 2303APF - APR; TG 2303AND - ANH; TG 2203AEN - AES.
---Unpublished document: Robins, P.A.. Lithic Report.
---Map: Finder's Map..
---Monograph: Ashley, S.. 2002. Medieval Armorial Horse Furniture in Norfolk.. East Anglian Archaeology. Vol 101.
---Article in serial: Gurney, D. (ed.). 1996. Excavations and Surveys in Norfolk 1995. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XLII Pt III pp 397-412. p 399.
---Unpublished document: Cott, P.. 1997. Geophysical Surveys 1996.
---Article in serial: Gurney, D. and Penn, K. (eds). 1997. Excavations and Surveys in Norfolk 1996. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XLII Pt IV pp 547-564. p 549.
---Photograph: Wicks, D.. 1983. HES Film EAA. Caister St Edmunds Small Finds.. Print and negatives. Frames 7-18, 20-22.
---Photograph: EAV.
---Article in serial: Gurney, D. and Penn, K. (eds). 1998. Excavations and Surveys in Norfolk 1997. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XLIII Pt I pp 193-210. p 195.
---Secondary File: Secondary file.
---Photograph: CVL1-4,CRE29-36,CZG16-36,CZZ23-30,FNC28-31,FHN37-8,FTH(ii)33-6,FTK17-21.
<S1>Article in serial: Horne, E.. 1977. Aerial Archaeology. Vol I, pp 18-19. p 19.
<S2>Aerial Photograph: TG2303 A-ABZ, ACU onwards, ALU-ALZ, TG2203 ACC,ADF-ADH,ADP-ADQ, TG 2303/ANL-ANP.
<S3>Unpublished document: Cott, P. J.. 1995. Resistivity Survey on Caistor Roman Town. 24 November.
<S4>Unpublished document: Cott, P. J.. 1998. Geophysics Survey Report South Field Caistor Roman Town, Norfolk. 9 January.
<S5>Unpublished document: Mahoney, A., Chroston, N. and Hounslow, M. (UEA). 1999. FM-36 Survey of Part of Caistor Roman Town 11-30 July 1999 Short Report.
<S6>Unpublished document: Cott, P.R.. 2002. Archaeological Prospection. pp 9, 157-161.
<S7>Article in serial: Gurney, D. and Penn, K. (eds). 2000. Excavations and Surveys in Norfolk 1999. Norfolk Archaeology. XLIII Pt III pp 521-543. p 524.
<S8>Illustration: White, S.. 1987. Drawing of a Roman copper alloy boss.. Card. 2:1.
<S9>Illustration: Penn, K.. 1989. Drawing of two joining Roman fragments of a copper alloy tabella I.. Film. 2:1.

Related records

29994Part of: Roman settlement around walled town (Monument)

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