Record Details

NHER Number:9288
Type of record:Monument
Name:Roman cemetery and prehistoric finds

Summary

Roman inhumation and cremation cemetery excavated in 1947 and 1971. These excavations found at least fourteen cremations and several inhumations dating to the 1st to 2nd century AD. One of the cremations was contained in a wooden box. Prehistoric finds at the site include worked flints and Middle Neolithic and Early Bronze Age pottery.

Images - none

Location

Grid Reference:TG 155 092
Map Sheet:TG10NE
Parish:BAWBURGH, SOUTH NORFOLK, NORFOLK

Full description

1947. Excavation.
Roman cremation cemetery identified in field east of Hill Farm. Initially found by [1] who did slight digging. Excavation continued by [2] for Norfolk Research Committee (NRC) in October-November. Fourteen cremations were found, at least one in a wooden box. Finds included pottery of mainly 2nd-century date and a Sestertius Antonius Pius. Information from (S1) and file notes. See copy of unpublished reported by [2] for further details (S2). Brief reports on this work also appeared in (S3) and (S4).

According to (S5) the excavation also produced an "…extensive Early Bronze Age surface industry". The exact nature of the flints recovered is not recorded.

The pottery sherds recovered by [1] were donated to the Norwich Castle Museum (NWHCM : 1947.180). The NCM also holds finds from the NRC excavation, including a selection of the worked flints (NWHCM : 1948.41). The museum's records list the worked flints as Mesolithic, suggesting there is a degree of uncertainty regarding the date of this assemblage.
Amended by P. Watkins (HES), 24 March 2014.

1971. Excavation.
Further excavation of Roman cremation cemetery by [3]. This work revealed inhumations and cremations of 1st-early 2nd century date. Evidence of wooden coffins secured with iron nails, one in aa large box-like structure with an iron knife and a small jar. One of the cremations contained a handmade urn of Iron Age type repaired with lead rivets (S6). See (S7) for discussion of the Roman burials from this site.

This work also recovered a number of prehistoric finds. These were examined by F. Healy and listed as comprising:
53 worked flints, including 1 flaked flint axehead, 12 blades, 39 flakes, 1 ?notched blade, 1 ?saw fragment and 1 'chunk'. No dates are suggested for these flints (although the number of blades suggests an Early Neolithic or earlier component).
Scattered Middle Neolithic Peterborough Ware pottery sherds. These sherds are illustrated and described in detail in (S8). Originals of the drawings are held by HES (S9)-(S16). See also fabric descriptions in file.
1 Early Bronze Age complete bipartite vase Food vessel. Found in, and to one side of an ovoid pit. This find is also noted in (S17).

According to Healy the excavation also revealed two vertical-sided shaft, similar to those that had been excavated on Eaton Heath (NHER 9544). One was clay-lined and 1.30m in diameter and excavated to a depth of 4.70m (but not bottomed). Neither produced any finds. It is possible that these 'shafts' were naturally formed solution feature - an interpretation that Healy subsequently suggested for the features on Eaton Heath.
E. Rose (NAU), 26 January 1982. Amended and expanded by P. Watkins (HES), 24 March 2014.

Monument Types

  • RITUAL SHAFT (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Mesolithic - 10000 BC? to 4001 BC?)
  • FINDSPOT (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • PIT (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Early Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 1501 BC)
  • PIT (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • CREMATION (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • CEMETERY (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • CREMATION (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • CREMATION (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • CREMATION CEMETERY (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • DITCH (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • INHUMATION (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • INHUMATION CEMETERY (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • POST HOLE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • TRACKWAY (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)

Associated Finds

  • BLADE (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • DEBITAGE? (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • FLAKE (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • LITHIC IMPLEMENT (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • NOTCHED BLADE? (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • SERRATED IMPLEMENT? (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • LITHIC IMPLEMENT (Early Mesolithic to Early Bronze Age - 10000 BC? to 1501 BC?)
  • FLAKED AXEHEAD (Neolithic - 4000 BC? to 2351 BC?)
  • POT (Middle Neolithic - 3500 BC to 2701 BC)
  • POT (Early Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 1501 BC)
  • HUMAN REMAINS (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • POT (Early Iron Age to Roman - 800 BC to 409 AD)
  • BOX (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • COFFIN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • COIN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • GOAD (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • HUMAN REMAINS (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • KNIFE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • LOOMWEIGHT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • NAIL (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • POT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • POT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • RIVET (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • UNIDENTIFIED OBJECT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)

Protected Status - none

Sources and further reading

---Archive: Ordnance Survey Staff. 1933-1979?. Ordnance Survey Record Cards. TG 10 NE 5 [2].
---Archive: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Bronze Age. Bawburgh.
---Archive: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Iron Age. Bawburgh.
---Secondary File: Secondary file.
<S1>Archive: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Roman. Bawburgh.
<S2>Unpublished document: Larwood, G. 1948. Romano-British Cemetery; Bawburgh near Norwich.
<S3>Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 1947. -. 22 March.
<S4>Article in serial: -. 1948. Roman Britain in 1947. Journal of Roman Studies. Vol XXXVIII pp 81-104. p 91.
<S5>Archive: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Neolithic.
<S6>Illustration: Milligan, W. 1972. Drawing of a Late Iron Age/Roman handmade urn repaired with lead rivets. Card. 1:1.
<S7>Monograph: Gurney, D.. 1998. Romano-British Burials in Norfolk.. East Anglian Archaeology. Occ Paper 4. p 9.
<S8>Thesis: Healy, F.. 1978. The Neolithic in Norfolk. pp 336-341.
<S9>Illustration: Healy, F. Drawing of a Middle Neolithic Peterborough Ware pottery vessel (Mortlake style bowl).
<S10>Illustration: Healy, F. Drawing of a Middle Neolithic Peterborough Ware pottery sherd (Mortlake rim).
<S11>Illustration: Healy, F. Drawing of a Middle Neolithic Peterborough Ware pottery sherd.
<S12>Illustration: Healy, F. Drawing of a Middle Neolithic Peterborough Ware pottery sherd.
<S13>Illustration: Healy, F. Drawing of a Middle Neolithic Peterborough Ware pottery sherd.
<S14>Illustration: Healy, F. Drawing of a Middle Neolithic Peterborough Ware pottery sherd.
<S15>Illustration: Healy, F. Drawing of a Middle Neolithic Peterborough Ware pottery sherd.
<S16>Illustration: Healy, F. Drawing of a Middle Neolithic Peterborough Ware pottery sherd.
<S17>Thesis: Garrow, D.. 2006. Pits, Settlement and Deposition during the Neolithic and Early Bronze Age in East Anglia. during the Neolithic and Early Pits, Settlement and Deposition during the Neolithic and Early Bronze Age in East Anglia.

Related records - none

Find out more...

Norfolk County Council logo Heritage Lottery Fund logo

Powered by HBSMR-web and the HBSMR Gateway from exeGesIS SDM Ltd, and mojoPortal CMS
© 2007 - 2019 Norfolk Historic Environment Service