Record Details

NHER Number:7239
Type of record:Monument
Name:Prehistoric and Roman activity on and around Longham Mound

Summary

The site of a natural mound (known as the Longham mound) that attracted prehistoric and Roman activity. In 1951 the mound was interpreted as a ploughed out Bronze Age barrow, but excavation in 1985 in advance of gravel extraction revealed it to be a pingo. Despite its natural origin, Beaker pots, Iron Age pottery, Iron Age metalworking debris and later Roman pottery were buried within the mound. A number of Neolithic, Beaker and Iron Age pits were also discovered in the area immediately around the mound, as were Mesolithic flints. The site has been destroyed by gravel quarrying.

Images - none

Location

Grid Reference:TF 9318 1719
Map Sheet:TF91NW
Parish:LONGHAM, BRECKLAND, NORFOLK

Full description

October 1951.
Spread mound like ploughed-out barrow.
R. R. Clarke (NCM).

September 1978. Visit.
30m diameter, 1m high in field of young crop.
Dimensions and accurate grid reference supplied by A.J. Lawson (NAU), 7 September 1978.
See (S1) for further information.

November 1983.
Artificial but much degraded mound, on the crest of a gentle rise to the north. From the south it has an apparent height of 0.8m, but only 0.2m from the north. The material is spread rather more east to west than north to south (which is also the present direction of ploughing, but field boundaries have recently changed). It is difficult to assess the original diameter, but it was probably 30m to 40m. Now ploughed over but not since the previous crop was lifted. Grassy tufts on gravelly soil, with coarser gravel to north of field. No flint flakes or sherds were visible. The mound's situation and size confirm it as a barrow. This should be excavated if threatened destruction is allowed.
J.J. Wymer (NAU), 18 November 1983.

10 June to 16 July 1985. Excavation.
Excavation carried out in advance of threat of gravel extraction.
The mound was shown to be a pingo. Its sandy soil was disturbed by rabbits and roots.
A pit was excavated and was found to contain debris from Iron Age industrial activity. The pit contained several large flint cobbles which had been crudely but systematically broken up to produce 34 flint cores and seventy flakes. Also present were two lumps of slag and 21 Iron Age pottery sherds.
The mound seems to have attracted attention in the late Neolithic, for close to its centre a complete Beaker had been inserted and the remains of two others were found nearby. No trace of associated inhumations or cremations discerned either visually or by chemical analysis.
Some Roman pottery sherds were found in the eastern part of the body of the mound, within shallow traces of what appeared to have been a wide shallow pit.
The removal of topsoil from an area of nearly 2 hectares adjacent to the mound exposed six features. One was a subcircular pit containing Earlier Neolithic pottery, flint debitage (much of which was burnt) and further burnt flint. Another pit appeared to be a natural, perhaps periglacial, formation. It contained Middle Style Beaker pottery, struck flint and burnt flint. The four remaining pits all contained Iron Age material.
See (S2) and (S3) for further information.
J.J. Wymer (NAU), February 1986 and A. Cattermole (NLA), 13 December 2007.

Monument Types

  • MOUND (Unknown date)
  • FINDSPOT (Lower Palaeolithic to Roman - 500000 BC to 409 AD)
  • PIT (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • (Former Type) ROUND BARROW (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • PIT (Beaker - 2300 BC to 1700 BC)
  • LITHIC WORKING SITE (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • PIT (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)

Associated Finds

  • BURNT FLINT (Unknown date)
  • CEREMONIAL OBJECT (Undated)
  • NAIL (Undated)
  • BURNT FLINT (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • CORE (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • FLAKE (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • LITHIC IMPLEMENT (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • SCRAPER (TOOL) (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • POT (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • KNIFE (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • POT (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • KNIFE (Beaker - 2300 BC to 1700 BC)
  • LITHIC IMPLEMENT (Beaker - 2300 BC to 1700 BC)
  • POT (Beaker - 2300 BC to 1700 BC)
  • FLAKE (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • LITHIC IMPLEMENT (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • LITHIC IMPLEMENT (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • LOOMWEIGHT (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • MANUFACTURING DEBRIS (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • METAL WORKING DEBRIS (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • POT (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • POT (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • QUERN (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • POT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)

Protected Status - none

Sources and further reading

---Archive: NAU Staff. 1974-1988. Norfolk Archaeological Index Primary Record Card.
---Archive: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Bronze Age. Longham.
---Slide: Various. Slide.
---Fiche: Exists.
---Photograph: CXC, CXD, CYM 4, CXX 9-10.
<S1>Monograph: Lawson, A. J., Martin, E., Priddy, D. and Taylor, A. 1981. The Barrows of East Anglia. East Anglian Archaeology. No 12. p 34.
<S2>Article in monograph: Wymer, J. J. and Healy, F. 1996. Neolithic and Bronze Age Activity and Settlement at Longham and Beeston with Bittering. Barrow Excavations in Norfolk, 1984-88. East Anglian Archaeology. Wymer, J. J. No 77 pp 28-53. pp 30-37.
<S3>Article in serial: Ashwin, T. 1999. The Launditch and its Setting: Excavations at the Launditch, Beeston with Bittering, and Iron Age features and finds from it vicinity. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XLIII Pt II pp 217-256.

Related records - none

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