Record Details

NHER Number:5292
Type of record:Monument
Name:Large Palaeolithic handaxe assemblage and ?Upper Palaeolithic, ?Mesolithic and later prehistoric finds

Summary

During the late 19th century quarry pits near Shrub Hill farm produced a large number of handaxes and other Palaeolithic worked flints. The farm occupies a low clay island that rises slightly above the level of the surrounding land, with the Palaeolithic material recovered from a thick gravel deposit that caps the clay. Shrub Hill was one of several sites along the Little Ouse Valley that produced considerable numbers of Palaeolithic artefacts around this time, the recovery of which was undertaken and encouraged by John Wickham Flower and other antiquarian collectors. The first artefacts were discovered in 1865, making them amongst the earlier recognised Palaeolithic discoveries in Norfolk. Although no detailed records were made it is clear that the site subsequently produced several hundred handaxes, making it one of the counties most productive sites. A significant proportion of the assemblage survives in various museum collections, including at least 230 handaxes.

A number of later prehistoric finds were also recovered in the vicinity of Shrub Hill farm, suggesting that this slightly raised island may well have been a focus for activity during this time. These obects include a bifacial implement that was initially identified as an Early Upper Palaeolithic leaf point (but may well be Neolithic), a small number of potentially Mesolithic flints; Neolitic flint and stone axeheads and a Late Neolithic/Early Bronze Age barbed and tanged flint arrowhead.

Images - none

Location

Grid Reference:TL 660 880
Map Sheet:TL68NE
Parish:FELTWELL, WEST NORFOLK, NORFOLK

Full description

During the late 19th century a large number of Palaeolithic handaxes and other worked flints were recovered during aggregate extraction at Shrub Hill Farm, Feltwell.

SITE LOCATION AND CIRCUMSTANCES OF DISCOVERY

The discoveries at Shrub Hill were first reported by H. Prigg (the same individual as the H. Brigg and H. Trigg occasionally referred to by subsequent authors) at a meeting of the British Association in Nottingham in 1866 (S1). The site was subsequently described in a paper given to the Geological Society by J. W. Flower in 1869 (S2) and was also mentioned in a paper published by Brigg in the same year (S3). It appears that the first discoveries were made around 1865, when flakes were first brought to Prigg. Prigg reported that the implementiferous deposit was a “coarse, subangular flint gravel in a sandy matrix" (S3). Flower (S2) described the implements as occurring "…in, or rather beneath, a patch of coarse flint-gravel and sand, which is apparently completely isolated…", the gravel being "…spread over an area of more than twenty acres…[and lying]…immediately upon the surface of the gault [clay]". This gravel deposit, which contained some quartzite, was being "extensively worked" and lay beneath a "great bed of peat". It was 12ft [3.7m] thick, but at the surface "…only 6ft [1.8m] above the river". The implements themselves occurred "…in considerable numbers" and were found at the base of the gravel. Flower also reports having recovered deer horns and the teeth of deer and horse at Shrub Hill. The evidence presented by Prigg and Flower was later summarised in (S4), (S5) and (S6). Evans reported the discovery of mammoth bones at the site, although as noted in (S5) this is almost certainly a misreading of (S2). The various subsequent sources to mention this site such as (S7) and (S8) all appear to have drawn their information from the late 19th century publications.

PALAEOLITHIC FINDS IN MUSEUM COLLECTIONS

Roe (S9) recorded the surviving Shrub Hill assemblage as comprising 239 handaxes, 2 unfinished/roughout handaxes, 13 retouched flakes/flake implements, 8 unretouched flakes and 1 Levallois flake. These objects were dispersed amongst the Birmingham Museum, the Brighton Museum, the British Museum (including the Natural History collections), the Cambridge University Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, the Sedgwick Museum (Cambridge), the Exeter Museum, the Hunterian Museum (Glasgow), the Ipswich Museum, the Norwich Castle Museum, the Ashmolean Museum (Oxford), the Pitt Rivers Museum (Oxford), the Plymouth Museum and the Salisbury Museum.

Various sources give additional information on the nature of the individual museum collections. Although all objects with the provenance “Shrub Hill” are almost certainly from this site, only a few are associated with additional details regarding their date and circumstances of discovery. It does however appear that most were recovered during the 1860s and 1870s, and probably almost all before the end of the 19th century. It is likely that many of these objects passed through multiple hands before they were acquired by their respective museums, although most can be traced back to the principal collectors of the time, including J. W. Flower, W.A. Sturge, H. Christy, A. H. L. F. Pitt Rivers and J. Evans.

Birmingham Museums:
The Birmingham University Lapworth Museum holds a flake implement (Lap D67) from Shrub Hill. Information from (S10).
Previously recorded as NHER 39472.

The Birmingham Museum hold a sub-cordate handaxe (Bir 1991A88) from Shrub Hill marked "1927". Information from (S10).
Previously recorded as NHER 39487.

Brighton Museum:
Although listed by Roe it is unclear what material this museum holds. Wymer (S11) makes no reference to any objects in the Sedgwick Museum.

British Museum:
Wymer’s typology chart (S11) included 83 handaxes that are in the British Museum (41 in the Natural History collections). The museum’s records do however suggest that it holds more material than this, listing the following:
122 handaxes, 3 “flake tools” and 6 flake; Sturge Collection (2011,8109.745-763). According to (S12) this collection includes “74 Palaeos” that were acquired when the Rosehill Collection was sold in 1924. The finds in the Sturge collection are summarised in (S13), in which a number of handaxes are illustrated.
13 handaxes; ex H. Christy (2011,8059.89; unregistered).
1 handaxe; ex Payne (1883,1213.15). Found by Joseph Prestwich (a friend of J. W. Flower and J. Evans).
1 handaxe; ex Trechmann (1964,1206.1055).
1 handaxe; ex J. W. Flower (2011,8069.1).
8 worked flint (handaxes and flakes); ex Salisbury Museum (1975,0306.75-82). Potentially the Salisbury Museum material noted by Roe (S9). This collection probably also includes a flake marked "Feltwell Fen" that was listed by Roe as being in the Salisbury Museum, but recorded by Wymer (S11) as being in the British Museum (see NHER 5291). Shrub Hill lies within the area known as Feltwell Fen and as noted by Wymer it is likely that this flake was also found here.
1 flake; ex Sieveking (1970,0103.73).
1 flake; ex W. G. Smith (2011,8107.115).

Cambridge University Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology (CUMAA):
This museum appears to hold 8 handaxes (Z 29346; 1902.53; 1922.1571-1574; 1976.352; 1976.446). Only 6 are listed by Wymer (S11), suggesting he probably recorded this collection before 1976, when the last two handaxes were accessioned.

Sedgwick Museum (Cambridge):
Although listed by Roe it is unclear what material this museum holds. Wymer (S11) makes no reference to any objects in the Sedgwick Museum.

Exeter Museum:
Although listed by Roe it is unclear what material this museum holds. Wymer (S11) makes no reference to any objects in the Exeter Museum.

Hunterian Museum (Glasgow):
This museum holds a single handaxe from Shrub Hill (B.1951.2418). This implement is included in Wymer’s typological chart (S11).

Ipswich Museum:
Wymer’s typology chart (S11) includes 11 handaxes in the Ipswich Museum.

Maidstone Museum:
Although listed by Roe it is unclear what material this museum holds. Wymer (S11) makes no reference to any objects in the Maidstone Museum.

Norwich Castle Museum:
Wymer (S11) lists the NCM as holding 7 handaxes from Shrub Hill. These are:
2 handaxes; Fitch Collection (NWHCM : 1894.76.973-974).
2 handaxes; ex F. C. J. Spurrel (NWHCM : 1904.54.8).
2 handaxe; ex E. M. Beloe (NWHCM : 1908.22.69).
1 handaxe; from Worthing Museum and Art Gallery (NWHCM : 1962.53).

The NCM now also holds 3 handaxes that were transferred from the Northampton Museum and Art Gallery in 2000 (NWHCM : 2000.69.1-3). These had originally been donated by Dr S. J. W. Sanders, Headmaster of Northampton Grammar in 1887-88. Also in the NCM's collections is an unregistered handaxe marked "Shrub Hill, Norfolk" and "90/1921 42", which is not an NCM number.

Thetford Museum:
The Thetford Museum holds at least one handaxe that is probably from Shrub Hill (THEHM : 1979.66). Although part of a collection marked “Kennet” this object has a label reading “Shrub Hill”. Information from museum records.

The Ashmolean Museum (Oxford):
The Ashmolean hold 34 objects from Shrub Hill, 32 of which are included in Wymer’s typological chart (S11). These include:
2 handaxes; ex Rev P. Wyatt (AN1885.10-11).
2 handaxes (AN1959.15-16).
28 handaxes, 1 Levallois flake and 1 flake; ex J. Evans (AN1928.146.a-y; AN1928.147.a; AN1928.147.c; 1928.250). This last collection may well include the pieces described and illustrated in (S6). Includes an unusually large handaxe described and illustrated by Wymer (S11).
Information from museum records and file notes.

Pitt Rivers Museum (Oxford):
Wymer (S11) lists the Pitt Rivers as holding 55 handaxes from Shrub Hill. The museum’s records list the following potentially Palaeolithic objects:
29 handaxes; 5 ?handaxes, 2 scrapers, 2 ?scrapers, 1 ?retouched flake, 1 flake and 5 ?implements; ex A. H. L. F. Pitt Rivers (1884.122).
23 handaxes and 1 scraper; ex J. W. Flower collection (1892.67).
1 (or possibly more) handaxe; ex J. Evans (1928.68.491).
See the full finds records for individual accession numbers. The Pitt Rivers Museum’s Shrub Hill collection is also summarised in (S14).

Plymouth Museum:
Although listed by Roe it is unclear what material this museum holds. Wymer (S11) makes no reference to any objects in the Plymouth Museum.

National Museum of Wales (Cardiff):
3 handaxes listed by Wymer (S11) and included in Shrub Hill typological chart.

Bedford Museum:
6 handaxes listed by Wymer (S11) and included in Shrub Hill typological chart. Bedford Museum is now part of the Higgins Art Gallery and Museum.

Other museums:
According to an NCM record card (S12) single implements (presumably handaxes) were held by the Warwick and Hull museums (information apparently from notes made previously by R. R. Clarke). It is unclear whether these museums still hold these objects. It is also noted that at least one object from the site was held by the Great Yarmouth Museum, though it would appear that this is now incorrect.

The Yorkshire Museum holds two handaxes that are recorded as being from Shrub Hill, Lakenheath. It is likely that these are in fact from Feltwell as there appears to be no such site at Lakenheath.

In 1950 a handaxe from the Pitt Rivers collections (1892.67.149, ex J. W. Flower collection) was exchanged with the Australian Museum (Syndey). Information from Pitt Rivers Museum records.

The John Wymer Collection held by Royal Holloway (University of London) also holds a handaxe from Shrub Hill that was had been in the possession of his father, B. O. Wymer (W2807). It is not recorded whether this was an object that he had found at the site himself. Information from (S15).

PALAEOLITHIC FINDS IN OTHER COLLECTIONS

A record card completed by J. J. Wymer (British Museum Wymer Archive) records that a large ficron handaxe and a "massive core" from Shrub Hill were in the possession of [1]. This information had been received from A. J. Lawson (NAU) in July 1980. It is noted that the core may be a confusion with a handaxe roughout that was actually from Hockwold (NHER 5579).

THE PALAEOLITHIC ASSEMBLAGE

Brigg (S3) noted that the Shrub Hill assemblage was similar to those found at other sites in the Little Ouse valley around this time, with “spearhead” form predominating and many showing “much attrition and water-wear” (S1). Flower (S2) also noted that the implements from the site were “usually much worn and rolled”. Evans figured four handaxes from Shrub Hill in (S6) and noted that the composition of the assemblage was similar to that recovered elsewhere at the Red Hill (Thetford; NHER 5795) and Broomhill pit (NHER 5642). J. Reid Moir later drew attention to what he believed were “Early Palaeolithic” side choppers that in the Shrub Hill material held by the British Museum (S16) (S17). It should be noted that many of Moir’s identification are now considered to be suspect. A number of the handaxes in the British Museum’s Sturge Collection are illustrated in (S13), which notes that they are mainly of pointed “Thames Valley types”.

A significant proportion of the surviving Shrub Hill assemblage was examined by Wymer (S11) who notes the preponderance of pointed forms and the possibility that the assemblage therefore belongs to a single tradition. He also emphasises the generally rolled or very rolled nature of the assemblage, whilst noting the possible significance of a small group of sharp or only slightly rolled cordate handaxes. Wymer notes that the single Levallois flake (Ashmolean) is in sharp condition and therefore unlikely to have been associated with the bulk of the handaxes. This object is illustrated in (S11); see copy of original held by HES (S18). Although clearly a derived assemblage Wymer suggests that its rolled and damaged condition was probably the results of “rapid, tumultuous forces”, rather than long-term forces which would be expected to have dispersed this pronounced concentration of material. A similar argument had been made by Roe (S19), who suggested that the Shrub Hill assemblage was potentially a redeposited archaic “Early Acheulian” industry.

One handaxe in the Ashmolean is of particular note due to its considerable size (28.5cm long). This implement was first noted by Flower (S2) who reported that it was found on the surface of the clay and at the time the large handaxe to have been found in either England or France. This handaxe was described and figured by Wymer (S11) and has been mentioned in several subsequent discussions of ‘giant’ handaxes, which appear to have been too unwieldy for use - see for example (S20)

The Shrub Hill assemblage is also summarised in (S21) and (S22).

?UPPER PALAEOLITHIC AND LATER FINDS

A number of later finds are known as having been found at Shrub Hill during the late 19th century or early 20th century. Although these have long been recorded under NHER 5292 it should be noted that it is highly unlikely that all were found within or near these particular quarry pits.

Upper Palaeolithic/Mesolithic:
In 1893 J. A. Brown published an article discussing flint implements he believed represented "…weapons and tools which appear to be of transition or 'Mesolithic' forms, between the [Palaeolithic and those] which are of distinctly Neolithic age" (S23). Amongst the examples he gave were implements from Shrub Hill in the Pitt River’ Collection at Oxford. Brown's claims were subsequently denied by Dawkins (S24) and as noted by Macalister (S25) much of the material identified by Brown as Mesolithic was probably Neolithic. Information from (S26).

In 1912 W. A. Sturge described and figured an object from the "neighbourhood of Shrub Hill" that he believed to be ‘Solutrean’ (S27). Information from (S28). This potentially Upper Palaeolithic bifacially worked ovate implement is described as 4 ¼ inches long, 2 inches wide, and about ½ inch thick, with a fine lustrous creamy white patina. It is possible that this object would now be viewed as Neolithic rather than Upper Palaeolithic. This discovery was subsequently noted in (S29).

In 1974 E. Rose (NAU) identified “blade tools of Meso type…marked “Shrub Hill” in the British Museum’s Sturge Collection. Information from file notes. Three objects in the Sturge Collection are currently part in the BM’s Upper Palaeolithic/Mesolithic collections; 1 pick, 1 blade and 1 flake (2011,8109.1443). It should be noted that none of these pieces are listed in (S30) or any other relevant source.

Neolithic/Bronze Age

The Ashmolean Museum holds a Neolithic greenstone axehead that was found at Shrub Hill during 19th century (AN1927.3509). This implement was formerly in the possession of J. Evans and is described in (S6) as a “greenstone celt with the sides sharp and nearly parallel, 7 ½ inches long and nearly 3 inches broad, with a semi-circular edge partly ground”. Information from (S31). See photographs by F. Healy (S32), on the reverse of which the object is identified as a "?Group VI roughout".

It is noted in (S6) that a barbed and tanged arrowhead from Shrub Hill that was in the possession of Sir John Lubbock. This is described as having a "…square-ended stem, and barbs separated from it by a very narrow notch". Information from (S31).

The CUMAA holds a Neolithic polished axehead from “Shrub Hill, ?Suffolk” that may well be from this site (Z 24460). Information from (S31).

The British Museum Sturge Collection also includes a Neolithic flaked and polished flint axehead from Shrub Hill (Sturge 1172). Information from (S31).

The Pitt Rivers holds a polished Neolithic axehead from Shrub Hill which was formerly part of the J. W. Flower collection (1892.67.321). Information from (S31).

The Warwickshire Museum holds several later prehistoric worked flints from Shrub Hill. These include:
1 discoidal scraper (War A528).
1 point/fabricator with triangular section (War 531).
1 core (War 532).
1 flake (War 688).
Information from (S10).
Previously recorded as NHER 39473.

RECENT EVENTS

1 May 1973. Field Visit.
Site of quarry visited by J. J. Wymer. A large pond and a number of overgrown wet depression were the only trace of the former gravel workings. The gravels had been exposed in a number of recently dug pits but no artefacts were visible.
Information from (S33).
P. Watkins (HES), 7 November 2013.

1996/1997. Within reservoir investigation area.
Proposed development of reservoir would remove stratigraphic and palaeoecological record for the construction area including buried archaeological sites on the pre Flandrian surface.
See (S34).
Reports and borehole logs to follow.
D. Gurney (NLA) 23 May 1997.

ADDENDUM
The brick kilns formerly recorded under this number are now recorded as NHER 59588.

Monument Types

  • FINDSPOT (Lower Palaeolithic to Middle Palaeolithic - 500000 BC to 40001 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Upper Palaeolithic - 40000 BC? to 10001 BC?)
  • FINDSPOT (Mesolithic - 10000 BC? to 4001 BC?)
  • FINDSPOT (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Late Neolithic to Early Bronze Age - 3000 BC to 1501 BC)

Associated Finds

  • CORE (Lower Palaeolithic to Middle Palaeolithic - 500000 BC to 40001 BC)
  • FLAKE (Lower Palaeolithic to Middle Palaeolithic - 500000 BC to 40001 BC)
  • FLAKE (Lower Palaeolithic to Middle Palaeolithic - 500000 BC to 40001 BC)
  • FLAKE (Lower Palaeolithic to Middle Palaeolithic - 500000 BC to 40001 BC)
  • FLAKE (Lower Palaeolithic to Middle Palaeolithic - 500000 BC to 40001 BC)
  • FLAKE (Lower Palaeolithic to Middle Palaeolithic - 500000 BC to 40001 BC)
  • FLAKE (Lower Palaeolithic to Middle Palaeolithic - 500000 BC to 40001 BC)
  • HANDAXE (Lower Palaeolithic to Middle Palaeolithic - 500000 BC to 40001 BC)
  • HANDAXE (Lower Palaeolithic to Middle Palaeolithic - 500000 BC to 40001 BC)
  • HANDAXE (Lower Palaeolithic to Middle Palaeolithic - 500000 BC to 40001 BC)
  • HANDAXE (Lower Palaeolithic to Middle Palaeolithic - 500000 BC to 40001 BC)
  • HANDAXE (Lower Palaeolithic to Middle Palaeolithic - 500000 BC to 40001 BC)
  • HANDAXE (Lower Palaeolithic to Middle Palaeolithic - 500000 BC to 40001 BC)
  • HANDAXE (Lower Palaeolithic to Middle Palaeolithic - 500000 BC to 40001 BC)
  • HANDAXE (Lower Palaeolithic to Middle Palaeolithic - 500000 BC to 40001 BC)
  • HANDAXE (Lower Palaeolithic to Middle Palaeolithic - 500000 BC to 40001 BC)
  • HANDAXE (Lower Palaeolithic to Middle Palaeolithic - 500000 BC to 40001 BC)
  • HANDAXE (Lower Palaeolithic to Middle Palaeolithic - 500000 BC to 40001 BC)
  • HANDAXE (Lower Palaeolithic to Middle Palaeolithic - 500000 BC to 40001 BC)
  • HANDAXE (Lower Palaeolithic to Middle Palaeolithic - 500000 BC to 40001 BC)
  • HANDAXE (Lower Palaeolithic to Middle Palaeolithic - 500000 BC to 40001 BC)
  • HANDAXE (Lower Palaeolithic to Middle Palaeolithic - 500000 BC to 40001 BC)
  • HANDAXE (Lower Palaeolithic to Middle Palaeolithic - 500000 BC to 40001 BC)
  • HANDAXE (Lower Palaeolithic to Middle Palaeolithic - 500000 BC to 40001 BC)
  • HANDAXE (Lower Palaeolithic to Middle Palaeolithic - 500000 BC to 40001 BC)
  • HANDAXE (Lower Palaeolithic to Middle Palaeolithic - 500000 BC to 40001 BC)
  • HANDAXE (Lower Palaeolithic to Middle Palaeolithic - 500000 BC to 40001 BC)
  • HANDAXE (Lower Palaeolithic to Middle Palaeolithic - 500000 BC to 40001 BC)
  • HANDAXE (Lower Palaeolithic to Middle Palaeolithic - 500000 BC to 40001 BC)
  • HANDAXE (Lower Palaeolithic to Middle Palaeolithic - 500000 BC to 40001 BC)
  • HANDAXE (Lower Palaeolithic to Middle Palaeolithic - 500000 BC to 40001 BC)
  • HANDAXE (Lower Palaeolithic to Middle Palaeolithic - 500000 BC to 40001 BC)
  • HANDAXE (Lower Palaeolithic to Middle Palaeolithic - 500000 BC to 40001 BC)
  • HANDAXE (Lower Palaeolithic to Middle Palaeolithic - 500000 BC to 40001 BC)
  • HANDAXE (Lower Palaeolithic to Middle Palaeolithic - 500000 BC to 40001 BC)
  • HANDAXE (Lower Palaeolithic to Middle Palaeolithic - 500000 BC to 40001 BC)
  • HANDAXE (Lower Palaeolithic to Middle Palaeolithic - 500000 BC to 40001 BC)
  • HANDAXE (Lower Palaeolithic to Middle Palaeolithic - 500000 BC to 40001 BC)
  • HANDAXE (Lower Palaeolithic to Middle Palaeolithic - 500000 BC to 40001 BC)
  • HANDAXE (Lower Palaeolithic to Middle Palaeolithic - 500000 BC to 40001 BC)
  • HANDAXE (Lower Palaeolithic to Middle Palaeolithic - 500000 BC to 40001 BC)
  • HANDAXE (Lower Palaeolithic to Middle Palaeolithic - 500000 BC to 40001 BC)
  • HANDAXE (Lower Palaeolithic to Middle Palaeolithic - 500000 BC to 40001 BC)
  • HANDAXE (Lower Palaeolithic to Middle Palaeolithic - 500000 BC to 40001 BC)
  • HANDAXE (Lower Palaeolithic to Middle Palaeolithic - 500000 BC to 40001 BC)
  • HANDAXE (Lower Palaeolithic to Middle Palaeolithic - 500000 BC to 40001 BC)
  • HANDAXE (Lower Palaeolithic to Middle Palaeolithic - 500000 BC to 40001 BC)
  • HANDAXE (Lower Palaeolithic to Middle Palaeolithic - 500000 BC to 40001 BC)
  • HANDAXE (Lower Palaeolithic to Middle Palaeolithic - 500000 BC to 40001 BC)
  • HANDAXE? (Lower Palaeolithic to Middle Palaeolithic - 500000 BC to 40001 BC)
  • LEVALLOIS FLAKE (Lower Palaeolithic to Middle Palaeolithic - 500000 BC to 40001 BC)
  • LITHIC IMPLEMENT (Lower Palaeolithic to Middle Palaeolithic - 500000 BC to 40001 BC)
  • LITHIC IMPLEMENT (Lower Palaeolithic to Middle Palaeolithic - 500000 BC to 40001 BC)
  • LITHIC IMPLEMENT (Lower Palaeolithic to Middle Palaeolithic - 500000 BC to 40001 BC)
  • LITHIC IMPLEMENT (Lower Palaeolithic to Middle Palaeolithic - 500000 BC to 40001 BC)
  • LITHIC IMPLEMENT? (Lower Palaeolithic to Middle Palaeolithic - 500000 BC to 40001 BC)
  • RETOUCHED FLAKE (Lower Palaeolithic to Middle Palaeolithic - 500000 BC to 40001 BC)
  • RETOUCHED FLAKE (Lower Palaeolithic to Middle Palaeolithic - 500000 BC to 40001 BC)
  • RETOUCHED FLAKE? (Lower Palaeolithic to Middle Palaeolithic - 500000 BC to 40001 BC)
  • SCRAPER (TOOL) (Lower Palaeolithic to Middle Palaeolithic - 500000 BC to 40001 BC)
  • SCRAPER (TOOL) (Lower Palaeolithic to Middle Palaeolithic - 500000 BC to 40001 BC)
  • SCRAPER (TOOL)? (Lower Palaeolithic to Middle Palaeolithic - 500000 BC to 40001 BC)
  • POINT? (Upper Palaeolithic - 40000 BC? to 10001 BC?)
  • BLADE (Mesolithic - 10000 BC? to 4001 BC?)
  • FLAKE (Mesolithic - 10000 BC? to 4001 BC?)
  • PICK (Mesolithic - 10000 BC? to 4001 BC?)
  • CORE (Late Prehistoric - 4000 BC to 42 AD)
  • FABRICATOR (Late Prehistoric - 4000 BC to 42 AD)
  • FLAKE (Late Prehistoric - 4000 BC to 42 AD)
  • POLISHED AXEHEAD (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • POLISHED AXEHEAD (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • POLISHED AXEHEAD (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • POLISHED AXEHEAD (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • SIDE AND END SCRAPER (Late Prehistoric - 4000 BC to 42 AD)
  • BARBED AND TANGED ARROWHEAD (Late Neolithic to Early Bronze Age - 3000 BC to 1501 BC)

Protected Status - none

Sources and further reading

---Archive: Ordnance Survey Staff. 1933-1979?. Ordnance Survey Record Cards.
---Archive: NAU Staff. 1974-1988. Norfolk Archaeological Index Primary Record Card.
---Secondary File: Secondary file.
<S1>Article in Monograph: Prigg, H. 1867. On the Occurrence of Flint Implements in the Gravel of the Little Ouse Valley at Thetford and elsewhere. Report of the Thirty-Sixth Meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science; held at Nottingham in August 1866. pp 50-51.
<S2>Article in Serial: Flower, J. W. 1869. On some recent Discoveries of Flint Implements in the Drift in Norfolk and Suffolk, with observations on the Theories accounting for their Distribution. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London. Vol 25 pp 449-460. p 451.
<S3>Article in Serial: Prigg, H. 1869. The discovery of associated works of Man, and the remains of the Elephant, &c, in the gravel near Thetford. Quarterly Journal of the Suffolk Institute of Archaeology and Natural History. Vol 1 pp 3-5.
<S4>Publication: Miller, S. H. and Skertchley, S. B. J. 1878. The Fenland Past and Present. p 17.
<S5>Monograph: Whitaker, W., Skertchly, S. B. J. and Jukes-Brown, A. J. 1893. The Geology of south-western Norfolk and northern Cambridgeshire. Memoirs of the British Geological Survey of England and Wales. pp 96-97.
<S6>Publication: Evans, J. 1897. The Ancient Stone Implements, Weapons and Ornaments of Great Britain. 2nd Edition. pp 96, 550, 568-569, 571.
<S7>Monograph: 1901. The Victoria History of Norfolk. The Victoria History of the Counties of England. Vol 1. p 276.
<S8>Publication: Smith, R. A. 1926. A Guide to the Antiquities of the Stone Age. pp 16, 21.
<S9>Monograph: Roe, D. A. 1968. A Gazetteer of British Lower and Middle Palaeolithic Sites. CBA Research Report. No 8. p 231.
<S10>Article in Serial: Watson, P. J. et al. 1999. Antiquities from Norfolk in West Midlands Museums. Norfolk Archaeology. vol XLIII Pt II pp 332-338. p 333.
<S11>Publication: Wymer, J. J. 1985. Palaeolithic Sites of East Anglia. pp 79-81, 385.
<S12>Archive: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Palaeolithic.
<S13>Publication: Smith, R. A. 1931. The Sturge Collection: an illustrated selection of flints from Britain bequeathed in 1919 by William Allen Sturge.
<S14>Article in Monograph: Roberts, A. 2013. Palaeolithic Britain. World Archaeology at the Pitt Rivers Museum. Hicks, D. and A. Stevenson (eds). pp 169-215. p 190.
<S15>Unpublished Document: Wymer, J. J. Journal. Vol 4. p 16.
<S16>Article in Serial: Moir, J. Reid. 1916. On the Evolution of the Earliest Palaeoliths from the Rostro-Carinate Implements. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland. Vol XLVI pp 197-220 XLVI Vol XLVI pp 197-220. pp 211-212.
<S17>Publication: Moir, J. Reid. 1919. Pre-Palaeolithic Man. p 41.
<S18>Illustration: Wymer, J. J. Drawings of a Palaeolithic flint Levallois flake from Feltwell (Norfolk) and handaxes and side scraper from Suffolk sites. Card. 1:1.
<S19>Publication: Roe, D. A. 1981. The Lower and Middle Palaeolithic Periods in Britain. p 114.
<S20>Article in Serial: Kohn, M. and Mithen, S. 1999. Handaxes: Products of sexual selection?. Antiquity. Vol 73 No 281 pp 518-526. p 518.
<S21>Unpublished Document: Wessex Archaeology. 1996. The English Rivers Palaeolithic Project. Regions 9 (Great Ouse) and 12 (Yorkshire and the Lincolnshire Wolds). LLO-4, No. 33.
<S22>Website: TERPS online database. Site 23044.
<S23>Article in Serial: Brown, A. 1893. On the Continuity of the Palaeolithic and Neolithic Periods. Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland. Vol XXII pp 65-98. p 74.
<S24>Article in Serial: Dawkins, B. 1894. On the Relation of the Palaeolithic to the Neolithic Period. Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland. Vol XXIII pp 242-251. p 74.
<S25>Publication: Macalister, R. A. S. 1921. A Text-book of European Archaeology. Vol 1. p 554.
<S26>Archive: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Mesolithic.
<S27>Article in Serial: Sturge, W. A. 1912. Implements of the Later Palaeolithic "Cave" Periods in East Anglia. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society of East Anglia. Vol I Pt II (for 1910-1911 and 1911-1912) pp 210-232. pp 229-232.
<S28>Archive: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Upper Palaeolithic.
<S29>Publication: Moir, J. Reid. 1927. The Antiquity of Man in East Anglia. p 114.
<S30>Monograph: Wymer, J. J. and Bonsall, C. J. (eds). 1977. Gazetteer of Mesolithic Sites in England and Wales with a Gazetteer of Upper Palaeolithic Sites in England and Wales. Council for British Archaeology Research Report. No. 20.
<S31>Archive: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Neolithic. Feltwell.
<S32>Photograph: Healy, F. 1974. Photographs of a Neolithic greenstone axehead from Shrub Hill, Feltwell.
<S33>Unpublished Document: Wymer, J. J. Journal. Vol 6. p 71.
<S34>Unpublished Document: Murphy, P. (UEA). 1997. Fenland Reservoir: appraisal of palaeoenvironmental implications. 19 May.

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