Record Details

NHER Number:37413
Type of record:Monument
Name:Roman aisled building, possible bath house, corn drying ovens and pottery kilns at Fosters End Drove, Blackborough End

Summary

Evidence for activity dating from the Middle Iron Age to the post-medieval period has been revealed by strip, map and sample excavations in advance of mineral extraction at Fosters End Drove, Blackborough. A Middle Iron Age deliberately deposited near-complete pot within a pit is the earliest indicator of activity. The earliest Roman activity was the construction of a possible droveway, the establishment of an enclosure and the erection of a timber framed aisled building within this enclosure. In the second phase of Roman activity the droveway was re-modelled, a second timber framed building was created along with a small masonry structure with an apse (possibly a bath house) and a well within the original enclosure. Five kilns and two corn driers were also built. Metal working areas may have been located close to the area excavated and metal working waste was deposited within rubbish pits at the site. The complex is interpreted as part of a well-organised estate laid out in the late 2nd and 3rd centuries, with a drove road and a network of fields. After the Roman period no further activity took place on the site until a field system was created in the 18th century. In November 2009 further excavation revealed a continuation of the Roman drove road and three Roman pits containing residual Middle Iron Age pottery and also slag associated with smelting, furnaces and kilns. In August 2011 excavation revealed a continuation of a Roman droveway previously recorded and post-medieval field boundaries. 17 pits were excavated, two of which contained 2nd to 4th century Roman pottery.

Images - none

Location

Grid Reference:TF 684 151
Map Sheet:TF61NE
Parish:EAST WINCH, WEST NORFOLK, NORFOLK

Full description

February 2003. Strip Map and Sample Excavation.
Excavation in advance of mineral extraction (Phase 1).
Revealed three phases of occupation dating mainly to the 2nd to 4th centuries.
The landscape was laid out in the late 2nd to 3rd century. A series of Roman field ditches and enclosures oriented northeast to southwest included two possible droveway ditches. This phase also included the construction of a fenced enclosure containing an aisled timber building.
Later phases saw the construction of a well, an apsidal-ended masonry building and a pottery kiln. Domestic settlement appears to have moved away from this area in the late 3rd to 4th century, when the buildings may have been demolished and the area was used for dumping iron smelting waste.
Post-medieval activity on the site comprised Parliamentary enclosure ditches and small pits.
See report (S1) for further details. The results of this work are also summarised in (S2). A draft publication report (S3) written shortly after this excavation took place has now been superceded by reports produced following subsequent phases of work (see below).
M. Horlock (NLA), 29 August 2003. Amended by P. Watkins (HES), 19 May 2015.

October 2003. Strip Map and Sample Excavation.
Excavation of second area in advance of mineral extraction (Phase 2).
Revealed three small undated pits and tree hollows. The latter contained charcoal suggesting that the features may be indicative of land clearance. The lack of archaeological features and finds suggests this area is beyond the main area of Roman occupation.
See report (S4) for further details. The results of this work are also summarised in (S5).
J. Allen (NLA), 25 January 2005. Amended by P. Watkins (HES), 19 May 2015.

March-June 2005. Strip Map and Sample Excavation.
Excavation of a further area in advance of mineral extraction (Phase 3).
This work revealed the eastern extent of the Roman agricultural/industrial site discovered in 2002 during the excavation of the area immediately to the west.
The earliest activity on the site was represented by a pit and a ditch. The pit contained a deliberately deposited, near complete, pottery vessel of Iron Age/early Roman date.
The apsidal building first seen in 2002 was subject to further excavation and identified as a bath-house. A droveway, field boundaries and a timber building were also recorded. Also revealed were four pottery kilns and two corn-dryers, as well as evidence for extensive remodelling of the landscape during the Late Roman period.
Parliamentary enclosure ditches dating from the 18th century bisected the site.
See report (S6) for further details. The results of this work are also summarised in (S7).
J. Allen (NLA), 28 February 2007. Amended by P. Watkins (HES), 19 May 2015.

Before 28 July 2005. Stray Find.
Found in an unexcavated part of cut feature after end of excavation:
2 Roman jet beads, from a bracelet.
See description in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 26 September 2005.

March 2007. Strip Map and Sample Excavation.
Excavation of a further area in advance of mineral extraction (Phase 4).
An isolated Iron Age pit was identified, the fill of which contained charcoal and pottery. A potentially medieval pit was located in the centre of the site. Its fill contained abraided medieval pottery, which may have been residual.
Two ditches crossing the site are likely to have been post-medieval enclosure ditches.
Five undated tree throws were also excavated, the majority containing charcoal-rich fills indicative of burning during tree clearance. These have been interpreted as evidence of clearance during the Roman period in order to provide fuel for the kilns and the bath house excavated in Stages 1 and 3.
See report (S8) for further details. The results of this work are also summarised in (S9).
M. Dennis (NLA), 2 October 2007 and H. White (NLA), 16 January 2009. Amended by P. Watkins (HES), 19 May 2015.

April 2008. Strip Map and Sample Excavation.
Excavation of a further area in advance of mineral extraction (Phase 5).
Topsoil stripping revealed that nearly all of the area had been previously excavated for mineral extraction. A small area in the southern section of the site was undisturbed by previous excavations, but produced no finds or features.
See report (S10) for further information
H. White (NLA), 16 January 2009.

Pre August 2008. Strip Map and Sample Excavation.
Excavation of a further area in advance of mineral extraction (Phase 6).
Continuation of various linear features previously identified during the Phase 3 excavation.
Several discrete features also investigated.
This phase of work was not the subject of a separate report, although its results are integrated with those of the earlier excavations in the subsequently produced draft publication and archive reports (see below).
P. Watkins (HES), 19 May 2015.

November 2009. Strip Map and Sample Excavation.
Excavation of a further area in advance of mineral extraction (Phase 7).
A continuation of the drove road was observed in the area excavated which cut a number of gullies containing ceramic building material dating to the Romano-British period. Two circular pits were revealed in the north-western area of the site containing a large quantity of slag indicating the possible disposal of industrial waste. At the south-western end located between the two ditches of the drove road was a large sub-rectangular pit containing mid-3rd century Roman pottery. The lower deposits comprised of a dark grey brown sandy silt with charcoal inclusions and late 2nd to 4th century Roman pottery, animal bone and slag. The sub-rectangular pit post-dated the Roman drove road. A number of co-axial linear gullies, post-holes, pits and a ring ditch with an outer diameter of 3.93m were excavated but no datable material was recovered to assign a date to these features.
See report (S11) for further details. Note that the Phase 7 excavation is incorrectly located in this report - see (S12) for its correct position.
S. Howard (NLA), 18 August 2010. Amended by P. Watkins (HES), 19 May 2015.

August 2011. Strip Map and Sample Excavation.
Excavation of a further area in advance of mineral extraction (Phase 8).
The excavation revealed a continuation of a Roman droveway previously recorded and post-medieval field boundaries. 17 pits were excavated, two of which contained 2nd to 4th century Roman pottery.
See report (S12) for further details.
S. Howard (HES), 29 December 2011.

A final publication integrating the results from all phases of work at this site is awaited. The reports produced to date include a draft publication that incorporates that results from excavation Phases 1-6 (S13). This report followed an Assessment Report and Updated Project Design that was produced after the completion of Phases 1-3 (S14) and an Archive Report that also details the results of Phases 1-6 (S15). A subsequently issued updated Archive report (S16) incorporates the results of Phase 7. The Roman aisled building uncovered at this site is discussed in (S17)/(S18).
P. Watkins (HES), 19 May 2015.

The archive associated with the archaeological work at this site has been deposited with the Norwich Castle Museum (accessioned as NWHCM : 2013.119 (Phases 1-8), NWHCM : 2016.273 (Phases 9-10) and NWHCM : 2005.10 (finds from unspecified phases)).
P. Watkins (HES), 27 April 2019.

Monument Types

  • DITCH (Unknown date)
  • PIT (Unknown date)
  • POST HOLE (Unknown date)
  • RING DITCH (Unknown date)
  • FINDSPOT (Prehistoric - 1000000 BC to 42 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Early Neolithic to Late Bronze Age - 4000 BC to 701 BC)
  • DITCH (Middle Iron Age - 400 BC? to 101 BC?)
  • FINDSPOT (Middle Iron Age - 400 BC to 101 BC)
  • PIT (Middle Iron Age - 400 BC? to 101 BC?)
  • RITUAL PIT (Middle Iron Age - 400 BC? to 101 BC?)
  • DITCH (Late Iron Age - 100 BC? to 42 AD?)
  • FINDSPOT (Late Iron Age - 100 BC to 42 AD)
  • PIT (Late Iron Age - 100 BC to 42 AD)
  • RITUAL PIT (Late Iron Age - 100 BC to 42 AD)
  • BONE WORKING SITE? (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BUILDING (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • DRAINAGE DITCH (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • GARDEN WALL? (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • HYPOCAUST? (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • INDUSTRIAL SITE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • LINEAR FEATURE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • METAL WORKING SITE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • METAL WORKING SITE? (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • RITUAL PIT? (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • SHELTER? (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • STAKE HOLE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • WALL (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • WOODWORKING SITE? (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BEAM SLOT (Roman - 100 AD to 299 AD)
  • DITCH (Roman - 100 AD to 399 AD)
  • DROVE ROAD (Roman - 100 AD to 299 AD)
  • ENCLOSURE (Roman - 100 AD to 299 AD)
  • FIELD BOUNDARY (Roman - 100 AD to 299 AD)
  • FIELD SYSTEM (Roman - 100 AD to 299 AD)
  • GULLY (Roman - 100 AD to 299 AD)
  • PIT (Roman - 100 AD to 299 AD)
  • PIT (Roman - 100 AD to 399 AD)
  • POST HOLE (Roman - 100 AD to 299 AD)
  • SETTLEMENT (Roman - 100 AD to 299 AD)
  • STOCK ENCLOSURE (Roman - 100 AD to 299 AD)
  • RUBBISH PIT (Roman - 175 AD to 250 AD)
  • AISLED BUILDING (Roman - 200 AD to 299 AD)
  • BATH HOUSE? (Roman - 200 AD to 399 AD)
  • BUILDING (Roman - 200 AD to 399 AD)
  • CORN DRYING OVEN (Roman - 200 AD to 399 AD)
  • DITCH (Roman - 200 AD to 399 AD)
  • ENCLOSURE (Roman - 200 AD to 399 AD)
  • FENCE (Roman - 200 AD to 299 AD)
  • GULLY (Roman - 200 AD to 399 AD)
  • PIT (Roman - 200 AD to 399 AD)
  • POST HOLE (Roman - 200 AD to 399 AD)
  • POTTERY KILN (Roman - 200 AD to 399 AD)
  • WELL (Roman - 200 AD to 399 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Roman to Early Saxon - 300 AD to 499 AD)
  • POTTERY KILN (Roman - 300 AD to 399 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • PIT (Medieval - 1066 AD? to 1539 AD?)
  • FINDSPOT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • DITCH (17th Century to 19th Century - 1700 AD to 1900 AD)
  • ENCLOSURE (17th Century to 19th Century - 1700 AD to 1900 AD)
  • FIELD SYSTEM (17th Century to 19th Century - 1700 AD to 1900 AD)
  • PIT (17th Century to 21st Century - 1700 AD to 2100 AD)

Associated Finds

  • BURNT FLINT (Unknown date)
  • CHARCOAL (Unknown date)
  • KNIFE (Unknown date)
  • NAIL (Unknown date)
  • PLANT MACRO REMAINS (Undated)
  • SAMPLE (Undated)
  • CORE (Lower Palaeolithic to Late Iron Age - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • END SCRAPER (Lower Palaeolithic to Late Iron Age - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • FLAKE (Lower Palaeolithic to Late Iron Age - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • LITHIC IMPLEMENT (Lower Palaeolithic to Late Iron Age - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • BLADE (Early Neolithic to Late Bronze Age - 4000 BC to 701 BC)
  • END SCRAPER (Early Neolithic to Late Bronze Age - 4000 BC to 701 BC)
  • FLAKE (Early Neolithic to Late Bronze Age - 4000 BC to 701 BC)
  • LITHIC IMPLEMENT (Early Neolithic to Late Bronze Age - 4000 BC to 701 BC)
  • SCRAPER (TOOL) (Early Neolithic to Late Bronze Age - 4000 BC to 701 BC)
  • POT (Middle Iron Age - 400 BC to 101 BC)
  • POT (Late Iron Age - 100 BC to 42 AD)
  • POT (Late Iron Age to Roman - 100 BC to 409 AD)
  • VESSEL (Late Iron Age to Roman - 100 BC to 409 AD)
  • COIN (Late Iron Age to Roman - 0 AD to 299 AD)
  • JUG (Late Iron Age to Roman - 0 AD to 299 AD)
  • AMPHORA (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • ANIMAL REMAINS (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BEAD (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BEAD (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BOTTLE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BRACELET (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BRICK (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • CAULDRON? (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • CHAIN? (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • CHARCOAL (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • DAUB (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FIRE SHOVEL? (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FLESH HOOK? (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FLUE TILE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • HAIR PIN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • HANDLE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • HANDLE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • HANDLE? (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • HANGER? (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • HEARTHSTONE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • HOOK (Roman to 19th Century - 43 AD? to 1900 AD?)
  • IMBREX (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • JAR (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • JUG (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • LAMP HANGER? (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • METAL WORKING DEBRIS (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • MORTARIUM (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • NAIL (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • NEEDLE? (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • PIN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • PIN? (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • POLISHER (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • POLISHING IRON (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • POT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • PUNCH? (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • ROOF TILE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • ROTARY QUERN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • SLAG (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • SPINDLE WHORL (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • SPOON (Roman - 43 AD to 199 AD)
  • SPOON (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • SPOON? (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • TAP (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • TEGULA (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • TILE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • WALL PLASTER (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • XFIRED CLAY (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • KILN FURNITURE (Roman - 150 AD to 399 AD)
  • QUERN (Roman - 150 AD to 250 AD)
  • ANIMAL REMAINS (Roman - 200 AD to 399 AD)
  • HANDLE (Roman - 200 AD to 399 AD)
  • NEEDLE (Roman - 200 AD to 399 AD)
  • VESSEL (Roman - 200 AD to 399 AD)
  • POT (Roman to Early Saxon - 300 AD to 499 AD)
  • WHETSTONE (Roman to Early Saxon - 300 AD to 499 AD)
  • COIN (Roman - 364 AD to 378 AD)
  • BRICK (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • POT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • BUCKLE (12th Century to 14th Century - 1200 AD to 1350 AD)
  • BUTTON (Post Medieval to 21st Century - 1540 AD to 2050 AD)
  • CLAY PIPE (SMOKING) (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • POT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)

Protected Status - none

Sources and further reading

---Secondary File: Secondary File.
<S1>Unpublished Contractor Report: Roberts, B. and Wilkins, B. 2003. Land at Fosters End Drove, Blackborough End, East Winch, Norfolk. An Archaeological Interim Report. Hertfordshire Archaeological Trust. 1278.
<S2>Article in Serial: Gurney, D. and Penn, K. (eds). 2003. Excavations and Surveys in Norfolk, 2002. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XLIV Pt II pp 368-384. p 371.
<S3>Unpublished Contractor Report: O'Brien, L., Roberts, B. and Wilkins, B. 2003. Archaeological Excavations on Land at Fosters End Drove, Blackborough End, East Winch, Norfolk. An Archaeological Excavation Publication Report. Hertfordshire Archaeological Trust. 1370.
<S4>Unpublished Contractor Report: Grant, J., Roberts, B. and Weston, P. 2003. Fosters End Drove, Blackborough End, East Winch, Norfolk. Phase 2. An Archaeological Interim Report. Archaeological Solutions. 1453.
<S5>Article in Serial: Gurney, D. and Penn, K. 2004. Excavations and Surveys in Norfolk 2003. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XLIV Pt III pp 573-588. p 577.
<S6>Unpublished Contractor Report: McConnell, D. 2006. Fosters End, Blackborough End, East Winch, Norfolk. Archaeological Excavation, An Interim Report. Archaeological Solutions. 1953.
<S7>Article in Serial: Gurney, D. and Penn, K. 2006. Excavations and Surveys in Norfolk in 2005. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XLV Pt I pp 124-136. p 127.
<S8>Unpublished Contractor Report: House, J. and Pole, C. 2007. Phase 4A, Fosters End, East Winch, Norfolk. Archaeological Excavation. An Interim Report. Archaeological Solutions. 2870.
<S9>Article in Serial: Gurney, D. and Hoggett, R. (eds). 2008. Excavations and Surveys in Norfolk in 2007. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XLV Pt III pp 441-452. p 444.
<S10>Unpublished Contractor Report: Greene, R. 2008. Fosters End Drove, Blackborough End, East Winch, Norfolk. Archaeological 'Strip Map and Sample' Excavation, Phase 5. Archaeological Solutions. 3073.
<S11>Unpublished Contractor Report: McCall, W. 2009. Fosters End Drove, Blackborough End, East Winch, Norfolk. Archaeological Excavation 'Strip, Map and Sample' (Phase 7). Archaeological Solutions. 3453.
<S12>Unpublished Contractor Report: Leonard, C. 2011. Fosters End Drove, Blackborough End, East Winch, Norfolk. Archaeological Excavation Strip, Map & Sample (Phase 8). Archaeological Solutions. 3896.
<S13>Unpublished Contractor Report: Lally, M., Nicholson, K. and Peachey, A. 2010. A Romano-British Industrial Site and Associated Ritual Activity at East Winch, Norfolk. Archaeological Solutions.
<S14>Unpublished Contractor Report: Graham, E. and McConnell, D. 2007. Fosters End, Blackborough End, East Winch, Norfolk. Post Excavation Assessment and Updated Project Design. Archaeological Solutions. 2043.
<S15>Unpublished Contractor Report: Lally, M. and Nicholson, K. 2008. Fosters End Drove, Blackborough End, East Winch, Norfolk. Research Archive Report. Archaeological Solutions. 2922.
<S16>Unpublished Contractor Report: Lally, M., Nicholson, K., O'Brien, L. and Newton, A. 2011. Fosters End Drove, Blackborough End, East Winch, Norfolk. Research Archive Report. Archaeological Solutions. 3735.
<S17>Article in Serial: O'Brien, L. 2005. Reconstructing a Roman aisled building in Norfolk. The Archaeologist. No 55 p 37.
<S18>Unpublished Report: O'Brien, L. 2004. A Roman aisled building at Blackborough End, East Winch, Norfolk. Publication draft.

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