Record Details

NHER Number:16971
Type of record:Monument
Name:World War Two heavy machine gun pillbox

Summary

A rare World War Two heavy machine gun pillbox is located to the north of St Mary's Church (NHER 7091). Aerial photographs show that during World War Two it was surrounded by barbed wire obstructions (see NHER 38786).

Images

  • A rare example of a World War Two heavy machine gun pillbox  © Norfolk Museums & Archaeology Service

Location

Grid Reference:TG 3800 3125
Map Sheet:TG33SE
Parish:HAPPISBURGH, NORTH NORFOLK, NORFOLK

Full description

Pillbox. Square, of brick with concrete roof. First reported by Pillbox Survey.
Accurately located by E. Rose (NAU), 14 January 1981.

See record form (S1) in file by source [1], who adds: Very rare 1940 heavy machine gun post (type HMG/3).
D. Walker (NLA) August 1996.

September 2004. Norfolk NMP.
An extant World War Two pillbox is visible on aerial photographs ((S2) to (S3)). The exact location of this pillbox is TG 38005 31255. This structure is not square, but has at least one angled corner on its northwest side. Its position in the hedgerow means that it is not visible on World War Two aerial photographs, although a curve in the surrounding barbed wire (recorded as part of NHER 38786) confirms its presence. See also other adjacent World War Two defences (NHER 38786 and 38784).
J. Albone (NMP), 8 September 2004.

December 2004. Norfolk Rapid Coastal Zone Archaeological Survey.
Land-based survey; Area A49, Context 1:
The pillbox was monitored. It is built into a field boundary bank.
See assessment report (S4) for further details.
The associated archive has been deposited with the Norwich Castle Museum (NWHCM : 2017.421).
D. Robertson (NLA), 17 February 2006. Amended by P. Watkins (HES), 20 July 2019.

Monument Types

  • GUN EMPLACEMENT (World War Two - 1939 AD to 1945 AD)
  • PILLBOX (World War Two - 1939 AD to 1945 AD)

Associated Finds - none

Protected Status - none

Sources and further reading

---Record Card: NAU Staff. 1974-1988. Norfolk Archaeological Index Primary Record Card.
---Secondary File: Secondary File.
<S1>Recording Form: [various]. Norfolk Defensive Structures Survey Recording Form. Norfolk Defensive Structures Survey.
<S2>Oblique Aerial Photograph: Edwards, D.A. (NLA). 1983. NHER TG 3731A-C (NLA 131/ASP16-18) 15-APR-1983.
<S3>Vertical Aerial Photograph: Environment Agency. 2002. EA 040 AF/02C/339 6982-3 22-JUL-2002 (EA).
<S4>Unpublished Contractor Report: Robertson, D., Crawley, P., Barker, A., and Whitmore, S. 2005. Norfolk Rapid Coastal Zone Archaeological Survey. Assessment Report and Updated Project Design. Norfolk Archaeological Unit. 1045. p 132; Fig 59.

Related records - none

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