Record Details

NHER Number:16015
Type of record:Monument
Name:Cropmarks of undated field systems, ditches, trackways, pits and possible grubenhauser

Summary

Undated field systems, ditches, trackways, pits and other features are visible as cropmarks on aerial photographs. They could be Iron Age, Roman, Saxon, medieval or post medieval in date and there may be more than one phase of activity present. Some of the pits could be Saxon grubenhauser. A road previously recorded under this number has been moved to NHER 38773.

Images - none

Location

Grid Reference:TG 3874 3040
Map Sheet:TG33SE
Parish:HAPPISBURGH, NORTH NORFOLK, NORFOLK

Full description

30 July 1977. NAU aerial photography.
Cropmarks of recently removed field boundaries and other miscellaneous linear features, including those of a trackway.
See overlay at 6in scale (S1) for NHER Record Maps, compiled March 1980.
D. Edwards (NAU), 25 March 1980.

Difficult to tell how much of this is artificial; note also proximity of World War Two defensive station.
E. Rose (NAU).

28 June 1996. NLA aerial photography. NGR amended from TG 3890 3030.
Cropmarks of linears and field system can be seen to continue to the north.
A parched linear is also visible running southeast from a track still in use. The linear may be where vehicles have cut across the field, possibly dating to military activity in the close proximity. Although it may be an earlier road or track.
S. Massey (NLA), 9 October 2001.

September 2004. Norfolk NMP.
Cropmarks of Iron Age to Roman, Saxon, medieval and post medieval enclosures, field systems, trackways and pits or possible grubenhauser are visible on aerial photographs ((S2) to (S9)). The road previously recorded under this number has been moved to NHER 38773. These cropmarks are centred around TG 3880 3040. Ditches and trackways relating to a north to south and west to east aligned coaxial field system are present across the whole of this area. Two areas of denser cropmarks are present in the western part of the group. The first of these is centred around TG 3849 3047 where several adjoining rectilinear enclosures are located. These lie to the south of a west to east ditch that extends intermittently for 155m between TG 3842 3040 and TG 3857 3039. A continuation of this ditch 120m further east, extends for a further 70m before meeting a north to south trackway. A further section of this trackway is present 90m to the south. A second areas of incomplete enclosures is present further to the north around TG 3852 3056. These also appear to be arranged along a west to east ditch which extends intermittently from TG 3840 3056 to TG 3874 3054. Elements of this field system continue to the east and include positive cropmarks representing field boundary banks around TG 3886 3052. Overlapping features, such as the ditches and banks at TG 3882 3052, suggest that more than phase of activity is represented by these cropmarks. It is possible that parts of two field systems of different dates are represented. Pottery and coins of Roman date have been found in this area (NHER 32028, 34332 and 31461) and it is possible that the field system represented by the cropmarks in the western part of the group could also be of Iron Age to Roman date. Ditches belonging to these field systems appear to be crossed by cropmarks of two medieval to post medieval roads (NHER 38772 and 38773). The origin of these roads is not known and it is possible that the field systems are of an earlier medieval to post medieval date. Several sub rectangular pits are present in the eastern part of this field system. These measure between 2 to 2.5m by 4 to 6m in size. It is possible that these could represent early to Middle Saxon grubenhauser, but they may be extractive pits of unknown date. If these features are of Saxon date, it is possible that some of the ditches recorded in this area are also of this date. Two parallel linear pits are located at TG 3891 3038. These features measure 17m by 3m and are of uncertain date and function. The eastern part of this group of cropmarks has already been lost to coastal erosion.
J. Albone (NMP), 3 September 2004.

Monument Types

  • DITCH (Unknown date)
  • FIELD BOUNDARY (Unknown date)
  • FIELD SYSTEM (Unknown date)
  • LINEAR FEATURE (Unknown date)
  • PIT (Unknown date)
  • ROAD (Unknown date)
  • TRACKWAY (Unknown date)
  • COAXIAL FIELD SYSTEM (Early Iron Age to Roman - 800 BC to 409 AD)
  • DITCH (Early Iron Age to Roman - 800 BC to 409 AD)
  • DITCH (Early Saxon to Middle Saxon - 410 AD to 850 AD)
  • GRUBENHAUS (Early Saxon to Middle Saxon - 410 AD to 850 AD)
  • SETTLEMENT (Early Saxon to Middle Saxon - 410 AD to 850 AD)
  • DITCH (Medieval to 19th Century - 1066 AD to 1900 AD)
  • FIELD SYSTEM (Medieval to 19th Century - 1066 AD to 1900 AD)
  • ROAD (Early 20th Century to 21st Century - 1901 AD to 2100 AD)

Associated Finds - none

Protected Status - none

Sources and further reading

---Record Card: NAU Staff. 1974-1988. Norfolk Archaeological Index Primary Record Card.
<S1>*Overlay: NAU. Aerial photograph overlays.
<S2>Oblique Aerial Photograph: Edwards, D.A. (NLA). 1977. NHER TG 3830A-D (NLA 52/AKJ1-4) 30-JUL-1977.
<S3>Oblique Aerial Photograph: Edwards, D.A. (NLA). 1995. NHER TG 3830AR-AS (NLA 357/HHJ10-11) 15-AUG-1995.
<S4>Oblique Aerial Photograph: Edwards, D.A. (NLA). 1996. NHER TG 3830AT-AV (NLA 365/JFD6-8) 28-JUN-1996.
<S5>Oblique Aerial Photograph: Edwards, D.A. (NLA). 1996. NHER TG 3830AW (NLA 365/JFD9) 28-JUN-1996.
<S6>Oblique Aerial Photograph: Edwards, D.A. (NLA). 1996. NHER TG 3830AX (NLA 365/JFD10) 28-JUN-1996.
<S7>Oblique Aerial Photograph: Edwards, D.A. (NLA). 1996. NHER TG 3830AY-AZ (NLA 365/JFD11-12) 28-JUN-1996.
<S8>Oblique Aerial Photograph: Edwards, D.A. (NLA). 1979. NHER TG 3830E (NLA 73/AMS8) 17-JUL-1979.
<S9>Vertical Aerial Photograph: Ordnance Survey. 1981. OS/81081 164-5 17-AUG-1981 (NMR).

Related records - none

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