Record Details

NHER Number:13025
Type of record:Monument
Name:Neolithic, Bronze Age and Iron Age features and a medieval moot at Salter's Lane, Longham

Summary

Fieldwalking, excavations and watching briefs ahead of gravel quarrying. Excavated features included an Earlier Neolithic pit containing pottery and work ed flints and groups of Later Neolithic or Early Bronze Age pits with pottery and flint artefacts. Iron Age features included a square enclosure (a possible barrow), a four post structure and pits. Pottery and iron working debris are amongst the Iron Age finds. The fieldwalking recovered scattered finds from the prehistoric to the medieval period. The medieval Hundred Court may have met at the site and a map from the 1590s shows a gibbet on the site.

Images - none

Location

Grid Reference:TF 92 17
Map Sheet:TF91NW
Parish:LONGHAM, BRECKLAND, NORFOLK

Full description

Site of gibbet marked on (S1), information from (S2).
This is presumably the Hundred Court site mentioned by [1] as 'where the Norwich Road crosses the Launditch'.
See site NHER 7235.
E. Rose (NAU), 9 July 1984.

Context 1 at TF 9240 1710.

1990. Excavation.
Watching brief and excavation during topsoil stripping in advance of gravel extraction.
Approximately thirty pits and post holes were excavated, yielding prehistoric pottery and worked flints. Nineteen of these were of pre-Iron Age date.
The largest of the pits, measuring nearly 3m long and 0.7m deep, contained nine sherds of pottery, representing at least four undecorated earlier Neolithic bowls. Although the pit may have been used as a quarry or storage pit, the reason for its excavation is unclear. Two concentrations of pits dating from the Later Neolithic to Early Bronze Age were excavated in the northeastern part of the site. The more easterly of these groups of pits (nine pits in total) yielded a total of 203 worked flints and 344 sherds of Beaker pottery (representing at least 96 vessels). Three very similar pits further to the west produced a large assemblage of lithic material. Six features excavated in the northwestern corner of the site produced pottery of Late Neolithic to Early Bronze Age date along with worked flints.
Later features excavated on the site included an Iron Age four-post structure and a small square enclosure measuring 10m by 10m. Eight pits of probable Iron Age date were recorded. A total of 221 sherds of Iron Age pottery were recovered during the excavation.
See (S3) for further information on the pre-Iron Age finds and features and (S4) for further information on Iron Age finds and features. The results of this work are summarised in (S11) and the pre Iron Age pits are also discussed in (S16) and (S17).
E. Rose (NLA), 24 February 1992 and A. Cattermole (NLA), 18 December 2007.

Could the skeletons mentioned under site NHER 7236 in fact be burials around the gallows?
D. Gurney (NLA), June 1995.

According to map in (S5) the site of the 1990 excavation was not at the same location as Context 1, but further to the east. The actual excavation is not published in this volume. The NHER therefore has had to be extended to cover the whole area southwest of the road.
E. Rose (NLA), 2 September 1996.

January 1997. Fieldwalking and Metal-detecting Survey.
Survey across whole area prior to gravel extraction.
Prehistoric potboilers and worked flint including flakes, a scraper, a core and an awl.
Late Saxon Ringerike harness mount.
6 medieval pottery sherds.
Smithing slag.
See report (S6) for further details.
E. Rose (NLA), 25 April 1997.

March-June 1998. Excavation.
Excavation of features exposed during topsoil stripping. Contexts 1000-1179 used.
Numerous features were excavated, most of which were small pits and post holes. Some of these features contained sherds of Early Bronze Age, Late Bronze Age and Iron Age pottery while a single small pit contained fragments of iron-smelting slag of probable Iron Age date.
Twenty-four pieces of worked flint were also recovered, most of which were small irregular flakes of probable Late Neolithic or Early Bronze Age date. Only two potentially earlier pieces were present: a probable long blade of Late Upper Palaeolithic or Mesolithic date and a Mesolithic/Early Neolithic blade.
This evidence indicates domestic occupation, perhaps on a seasonal or periodic basis, over a long period during the Bronze Age and Iron Age periods.
See report (S7) for further details. The results of this work are also summarised in (S12).
E. Rose (NLA), 30 June 1999 and A. Cattermole (NLA), 18 December 2007.

June-July 2002. Strip Map and Sample Excavation. From Context 1200.
Excavation recorded prehistoric pits and post-holes, a fence-line and a burnt flint scatter associated with a hearth. Most features were Iron Age, with some Neolithic/Bronze Age evidence.
Details to come. The results of this work are summarised in (S13).
D. Holburn (HES), 14 October 2011.

August-October 2003. Strip Map and Sample Excavation. Contexts 12700 to 13192.
Prehistoric post holes.
Late Neolithic/Early Bronze Age and ?Iron Age and ?Roman pits.
Undated ditches, possible cremation.
Details to come. The results of this work are summarised in (S14).
J. Allen (NLA), 28 October 2004.

November 2004. Strip Map and Sample Excavation.
Contexts 14000-14105.
Details to come.
See (S8) and (S9).
J. Allen (NLA), 28 October 2004.

2005. Strip Map and Sample Excavation.
Contexts 14200-14332.
Details to come. The results of this work are summarised in (S15).
A. Cattermole (NLA), 19 November 2008.

2006. Strip Map and Sample Excavation.
Contexts 21500-21882.
Details to come.
A. Cattermole (NLA), 19 November 2008.

2007. Strip Map and Sample Excavation.
Contexts 16000-16207.
Details to come.
A. Cattermole (NLA), 19 November 2008.

2008. Strip Map and Sample Excavation.
Contexts 16300-16825.
Details to come.
A. Cattermole (NLA), 19 November 2008.

2009. Strip Map and Sample Excavation.
Details to come.
P. Watkins (HES), 7 February 2017.

2010. Strip Map and Sample Excavation.
Details to come.
P. Watkins (HES), 7 February 2017.

2011. Strip Map and Sample Excavation.
Details to come.
P. Watkins (HES), 7 February 2017.

August-September 2012. Strip Map and Sample Excavation.
Details to come.
P. Watkins (HES), 7 February 2017.

August-September 2014. Strip Map and Sample Excavation.
Details to come.
P. Watkins (HES), 9 February 2017.

September 2016. Strip Map and Sample Excavation.
Details to come.
P. Watkins (HES), 9 February 2017.

The archive associated with the various phases of archaeological work at this site has now been deposit with the Norwich Castle Museum (NWHCM : 2017.82).

Monument Types

  • CREMATION (Unknown date)
  • DITCH (Unknown date)
  • FINDSPOT (Prehistoric - 1000000 BC to 42 AD)
  • POST HOLE (Prehistoric - 1000000 BC to 42 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Upper Palaeolithic - 40000 BC to 10001 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Early Mesolithic to Early Neolithic - 10000 BC to 3001 BC)
  • PIT (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Late Neolithic - 3000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Late Neolithic to Late Bronze Age - 3000 BC to 701 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Early Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 1501 BC)
  • HEARTH (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • PIT (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • SETTLEMENT (Early Bronze Age to Late Iron Age - 2350 BC to 42 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Beaker - 2300 BC to 1700 BC)
  • PIT (Beaker - 2300 BC to 1700 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Late Bronze Age - 1000 BC to 701 BC)
  • FEATURE (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • GRANARY (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • PIT (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • POST HOLE (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • SQUARE BARROW (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • SQUARE ENCLOSURE (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • PIT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • GALLOWS (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • MOOT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)

Associated Finds

  • BRIQUETAGE (Undated)
  • METAL WORKING DEBRIS (Undated)
  • POT BOILER (Lower Palaeolithic to Late Iron Age - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • BLADE (Upper Palaeolithic - 40000 BC to 10001 BC)
  • BLADE (Early Mesolithic to Early Neolithic - 10000 BC to 3001 BC)
  • BLADE (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • FLAKE (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • LITHIC IMPLEMENT (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • LITHIC IMPLEMENT (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • LITHIC IMPLEMENT (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • POT (Early Neolithic - 4000 BC to 3001 BC)
  • SCRAPER (TOOL) (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • DEBITAGE (Late Neolithic to Late Bronze Age - 3000 BC to 701 BC)
  • FLAKE (Late Neolithic to Late Bronze Age - 3000 BC to 701 BC)
  • POT (Late Neolithic - 3000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • FLAKE (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • FLAKE (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • LITHIC IMPLEMENT (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • PLANT MACRO REMAINS (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • POT (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • POT (Early Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 1501 BC)
  • PLANT MACRO REMAINS (Beaker - 2300 BC to 1700 BC)
  • POT (Beaker - 2300 BC to 1700 BC)
  • POT (Late Bronze Age - 1000 BC to 701 BC)
  • METAL WORKING DEBRIS (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • POT (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • POT (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • HARNESS (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • POT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)

Protected Status - none

Sources and further reading

---Aerial Photograph: TF9217 W-Z,AA-AE,AF-AH,AJ-AK,AM-AX,AZ,ABG-ABP,AJ-AK,AM-AN.
---Photograph: NAU. [unknown].
---Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 1992. Dig dates ditch to the Iron Age. 12 March.
---Newspaper Article: Mid Norfolk Advertiser. 1990. Dig may unearth the past. 22 March.
---Record Card: NAU Staff. 1974-1988. Norfolk Archaeological Index Primary Record Card.
---Secondary File: Secondary File.
---Slide: Various. Slide. 1-159.
---Fiche: Exists.
<S1>Map: 1590s. Beeston with Bittering.
<S2>*Verbal Communication: Wade-Martins, P.. 1984. [unknown].
<S3>Article in Serial: Ashwin, T. 1998. Excavations at Salter's Lane, Longham, 1990: Neolithic and Bronze Age features and artefacts. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XLIII Pt I pp 1-30.
<S4>Article in Serial: Ashwin, T. 1999. The Launditch and its Setting: Excavations at the Launditch, Beeston with Bittering, and Iron Age features and finds from it vicinity. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XLIII Pt II pp 217-256.
<S5>Article in Monograph: Wymer, J. J. and Healy, F. 1996. Neolithic and Bronze Age Activity and Settlement at Longham and Beeston with Bittering. Barrow Excavations in Norfolk, 1984-88. East Anglian Archaeology. Wymer, J. J. No 77 pp 28-53.
<S6>Unpublished Contractor Report: Percival, S. 1997. Field Survey at Ennemix Quarry Extension, Longham. Norfolk Archaeological Unit. 214.
<S7>Unpublished Contractor Report: Bates, S. 1999. Report on Excavations at Redland (formerly Ennemix) Quarry Extension, Salter's Lane, Longham. Norfolk Archaeological Unit. 396.
<S8>Slide: Various. Slide. 466-.
<S9>Photograph: NAU. 2004-7. MPL-MQE.
<S10>Photograph: Bates, S.. 2008. MSQ-MTG.
<S11>Article in Serial: Gurney, D. (ed.). 1991. Excavations and Surveys in Norfolk 1990. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XLI Pt II pp 240-246. p 242.
<S12>Article in Serial: Gurney, D. and Penn, K. (eds). 1999. Excavations and Surveys in Norfolk 1998. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XLIII Pt II pp 369-387. p 377.
<S13>Article in Serial: Gurney, D. and Penn, K. (eds). 2003. Excavations and Surveys in Norfolk, 2002. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XLIV Pt II pp 368-384. p 369.
<S14>Article in Serial: Gurney, D. and Penn, K. 2004. Excavations and Surveys in Norfolk 2003. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XLIV Pt III pp 573-588. p 574.
<S15>Article in Serial: Gurney, D. and Penn, K. 2006. Excavations and Surveys in Norfolk in 2005. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XLV Pt I pp 124-136. p 129.
<S16>Thesis: Garrow, D.. 2006. Pits, Settlement and Deposition during the Neolithic and Early Bronze Age in East Anglia. during the Neolithic and Early Pits, Settlement and Deposition during the Neolithic and Early Bronze Age in East Anglia.
<S17>Article in Serial: Garrow, D. 2007. Placing Pits: Landscape Occupation and Depositional Practice During the Neolithic in East Anglia. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society. Vol 73 pp 1-24.

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