Record Details

NHER Number:11743
Type of record:Monument
Name:Early, Middle and Late Saxon ditches and activity, possible medieval house platforms and multi-period finds scatter

Summary

Rectangular cropmarks indicative of house platforms can be seen on aerial photographs of this site and metal detecting has recovered a range of finds dating from the Roman to the post-medieval period. Highlights include a Roman steelyard terminal, fragments of Early Saxon brooches, a Carolingian gold coin minted in the late 9th or early 10th century and a Merovingian gold tremiss coin minted in the 6th century in the Netherlands. These finds are indicative of a Middle Saxon settlement site, part of a larger Roman to Late Saxon settlement and Early Saxon cemetery complex encompassing NHER 3565, NHER11816, NHER 25765, NHER 30690, NHER 30754, and NHER 31073. Excavation in the southeastern corner of this site between 2010 and 2011 recorded Early Saxon, Middle Saxon, and medieval ditches which likely formed part of a field system as well as undated pits and post holes. It is likely that the Saxon and medieval occupation in this area was focused to the south and east of this site, towards NHER 3565, NHER 30754, and NHER 30690 where high densities of finds and at least one Middle Saxon domestic feature have been recorded. Medieval occupation appears to have ceased in the 12th or 13th century, and this field was likely subsequently used for open field arable practices.

Images - none

Location

Grid Reference:Not displayed
Map Sheet:TF72SW
Parish:CONGHAM, WEST NORFOLK, NORFOLK

Full description

1975. Rectangular cropmarks suggestive of house platforms.
See Notes and (S1).
E. Rose (NAU), 24 October 1976.

Metal detecting on arable. Context 2 (see Notes).
Groat, Edward III series G 1356-6, Annulet under bust only.
E.M. James (KLM), 20 December 1985.

Early Summer 1990. Metal detecting. Extending into site [1].
Roman, Early Saxon, Late Saxon and medieval metalwork.
See (S2) and lists in file.
A. Rogerson (NAU), 1990.

April 1990. Metal detecting.
Copper alloy Middle Saxon wedge-shaped strap-end made of folded sheet with rivet in round lobe at open end; decorated with zones of ribbing, and ring- and-dot in between. Like Harling. Engraving on reverse of lobe too. See (S3).
I.D. S. Margeson (NCM).
Medieval 13th century buckle.
14th century strap-end buckle.
Trapezoidal buckle, trapezoidal hasp.
Post medieval thimble and harness buckle.
W. Milligan (NCM), 22 May 1990.

4 July 1994.
Farthing of Edward I. See list in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 2 August 1994.

1994. Metal detecting (see Notes).
Undated fine white ware, wheel-thrown, 7mm thick body with profuse rounded voids of various sizes and one piece of reduced grog (17g). Middle Saxon flanged rim of spouted pitcher with part of spout, hard oxidised slightly sandy, with reduced core. Imported. (33g).
A. Rogerson (NLA), 30 March 2004.

3 February 1995. Metal detecting.
Medieval and post medieval belt fittings and vessel.
Roman, Early Saxon, Medieval coins.
See list in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA) 6 March 1995.

February 1995.
Medieval coins, post medieval coins, medieval jetton.
Early Saxon brooches and buckles.
Late Saxon box.
Medieval metalwork.
A. Rogerson (NLA) 25 March 1995.

1 April 1997. Metal detecting.
Roman brooch.
See list in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA) 2 May 1997.

January 2000. Metal detecting.
Roman, Middle Saxon, Late Saxon, medieval and post medieval metal objects.
See list in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 7 March 2000.

10 June 2008. Metal Detecting.
4 Roman, 3 medieval, 5 late Saxon, 1 medieval and 1 post- medieval coins.
Early bronze age, iron age, roman, early Saxon, mid Saxon, late Saxon, medieval, post-medieval and undatable metal objects, Iron Age, Early/Middle Saxon, Middle Saxon, Late Saxon and medieval sherds.
See map and lists in file, as well as (S4) and (S5).
A. Rogerson (NLA), 17 November 2008.

Before 22 December 2008. Metal detecting.
Late Saxon stirrup-strap mount and medieval secular badge.
See list in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 11 June 2009.

April 2010. Evaluation.
A number of ditches containing Early Saxon, Middle Saxon and medieval artefacts were revealed. The orientation of the majority of ditches reflected the alignment of the Icknield Way located to the west (NHER 1398).
The three trenches in the eastern area of the site produced a variety of metal objects including two iron objects, possible medieval comb tooth and a possible medieval stirrup fragment during metal-detecting of the topsoil. The trenches also contained Early, Middle and Late Saxon and medieval pottery. A large amount of iron tap slag and a posthole containing one sherd of prehistoric shell tempered pottery was observed in the trench on the far eastern edge of the site. The trench located centrally in the southern area of the site contained a large amount of animal bone, fragments of lava quernstone and a posthole containing Early Saxon pottery. The terminus and alignment of a ditch located in the south of this area suggests a post-medieval date for this feature. A possible pond containing two fragments of building stone could possibly indicate the site of All Saints' Church is within the vicinity.
The trenches excavated in the western area of the site recovered more Early Saxon to medieval period pottery, a possible prehistoric flint waste flake and a medieval/post-medieval brick fragment. A pit in the centre of this area contained one sherd of Early Saxon pottery and one sherd of medieval pottery.
This site provides evidence for pre-Anglo-Saxon activity in the form of a sherd of prehistoric pottery and possible flint waste flake. There is evidence for Late Saxon settlement within this area and possibly Early and Middle Saxon activity in the form of field systems that may have developed from earlier prehistoric field systems. During the medieval period settlement appears to have moved elsewhere. No features associated with the site of All Saints' Church (NHER 3562) were recorded but the presence of architectural fragments in the fills of some later features could suggest that it may have been located nearby.
See (S6) and (S7).
S. Howard (NLA), 5 August 2010.

2010. Metal-detecting.
Knob from Early Saxon brooch found in spoil from this site dumped in Grimston.
See description in file.
A. Rogerson (HES), 14 June 2011.

August 2010. Topsoil Stripping.
A large quantity of finds were collected and recorded during removal of topsoil for the construction of a stable block and menage and associated services. Items included lava fragments; prehistoric worked flint and pottery; Roman brick, pottery and metal objects; 95 sherds of Early to Middle Saxon pottery, 87 sherds of Late Saxon pottery; Early, Middle and Late Saxon metal objects including Late Roman or Early Saxon tweezers, Early Saxon brooches, and a Middle Saxon silver penny; medieval brick, pottery and metal objects; post medieval metal objects; and undated iron slag.
Analysis of the distribution of these finds identified a small concentration of iron slag in the northwestern corner of the investigated area which may represent a second location of metal working (separate from that identified during the previous evaluation). Early Saxon objects were most dense within the north of the area while Late Saxon objects were more concentrated towards the centre of the area, both consistent with the location of features excavated during the evaluation. A marked concentration of medieval brick was observed in the southeastern corner of the site, reflecting the presence of the remains of All Saints Church (NHER 3562) just outside of the investigated area.
See (S8) for further information.
H. Hamilton (HES), 27 November 2012.

December 2010 to April 2011. Watching Brief.
Monitoring of further topsoil stripping for construction of the menage recorded two post holes, four ditches, and a pit in the southeastern portion of the investigated area. One of the ditches contained Early Saxon, Middle Saxon, and medieval pottery and is likely of medieval date. Other features contained fragments of animal bone and worked flint.
Monitoring of excavation of eight soakaways in the northwestern portion of the area collected additional finds from the topsoil including burnt flint, Roman brick, Early Saxon, Middle Saxon and Late Saxon pottery, and undated iron slag.
The paucity of structural features encountered during the 2010-2011 investigations suggests that the Saxon and medieval occupation in this area was focused to the south and east of this site, towards NHER 3565, NHER 30754, and NHER 30690 where high densities of finds and at least one Middle Saxon domestic feature have been recorded. The topsoil in this area was rich in manuring material including highly abraded pottery, but poor in structural materials such as daub. Medieval occupation appears to have ceased in the 12th or 13th century, and this field was likely subsequently used for open field arable practices.
See (S8) for further information.
H. Hamilton (HES), 27 November 2012.

Monument Types

  • DITCH (Unknown date)
  • FINDSPOT (Unknown date)
  • PIT (Unknown date)
  • POND? (Unknown date)
  • POST HOLE (Unknown date)
  • FINDSPOT (Early Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 1501 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • DITCH (Saxon - 410 AD to 1065 AD)
  • FIELD SYSTEM? (Early Saxon to Middle Saxon - 411 AD to 850 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Early Saxon to Middle Saxon - 411 AD to 850 AD)
  • POST HOLE (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • DITCH (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Middle Saxon to Late Saxon - 651 AD to 1065 AD)
  • DITCH (Late Saxon - 851 AD? to 1065 AD?)
  • FINDSPOT (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • SETTLEMENT? (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • FIELD SYSTEM? (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • HOUSE PLATFORM (Medieval - 1066 AD? to 1539 AD?)
  • PIT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • SITE (Medieval - 1066 AD? to 1539 AD?)
  • DITCH (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)

Associated Finds

  • ANIMAL REMAINS (Unknown date)
  • AWL (Unknown date)
  • CHISEL? (Unknown date)
  • COMB (Unknown date)
  • HORSESHOE (Unknown date)
  • KNIFE? (Unknown date)
  • METAL WORKING DEBRIS (Unknown date)
  • METAL WORKING DEBRIS (Unknown date)
  • MOULD (Unknown date)
  • NAIL (Unknown date)
  • PIN (Unknown date)
  • POT (Unknown date)
  • POT MEND (Unknown date)
  • PUNCH? (Unknown date)
  • SLAG (Unknown date)
  • WEIGHT (Unknown date)
  • BLADE (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • FLAKE (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • KNIFE (Prehistoric - 500000 BC? to 42 AD?)
  • AWL (Early Neolithic - 4000 BC? to 3001 BC?)
  • FLAKE (Early Neolithic - 4000 BC? to 3001 BC?)
  • ARROWHEAD (Late Neolithic - 3000 BC? to 2351 BC?)
  • FLAT AXEHEAD (Early Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 1501 BC)
  • POT (Middle Bronze Age to Early Iron Age - 1600 BC? to 401 BC?)
  • BROOCH (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • POT (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • BRACELET (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BRICK (Roman - 43 AD? to 409 AD?)
  • BROOCH (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • COIN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • COIN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FINGER RING (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FLAT AXEHEAD (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FLOOR TILE? (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • HARNESS MOUNT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • HOB NAIL? (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • MINIATURE OBJECT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • MOUNT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • NAIL? (Roman - 43 AD? to 409 AD?)
  • PANTILE? (Roman - 43 AD? to 409 AD?)
  • PIN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • POT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • ROOF TILE? (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • STEELYARD (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • TILE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • TILE? (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • STRAP END (Roman to Early Saxon - 200 AD to 650 AD)
  • TWEEZERS (Roman to Early Saxon - 200 AD to 650 AD)
  • ARROWHEAD (Saxon to Medieval - 410 AD to 1250 AD)
  • PIN (Saxon - 410 AD to 1065 AD)
  • BROOCH (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • BUCKLE (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • COIN (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • CRUCIFORM BROOCH (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • GIRDLE HANGER (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • POT (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • POT (Early Saxon to Middle Saxon - 411 AD to 850 AD)
  • SLEEVE CLASP (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • COIN (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • HOOKED TAG (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • HOOKED TAG (Middle Saxon to Late Saxon - 651 AD to 1065 AD)
  • HOOKED TAG (Middle Saxon to Late Saxon - 651 AD to 1065 AD)
  • PIN (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • PIN (Middle Saxon to Late Saxon - 651 AD to 1065 AD)
  • POT (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • STRAP END (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • STRAP END (Middle Saxon to Late Saxon - 651 AD to 1065 AD)
  • STRAP FITTING (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • TWEEZERS (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • TWEEZERS (Middle Saxon to Late Saxon - 651 AD to 1065 AD)
  • ADZE? (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • BELL (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • BOX (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • BUCKLE (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • BUCKLE (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • COIN (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • FINGER RING (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • HARNESS FITTING (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • HOOKED TAG (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • KNIFE (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • PLOUGH (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • POT (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • SHEARS (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • STIRRUP (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • STRAP END (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • STRAP END (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • WEIGHT (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • BADGE (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • BARREL PADLOCK (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • BRICK (Medieval to Post Medieval - 1066 AD to 1900 AD)
  • BROOCH (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • BUCKLE (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • BUCKLE (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • BUCKLE (Medieval to Post Medieval - 1066 AD to 1900 AD)
  • COIN (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • COMB (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • FINGER RING (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • FURNITURE FITTING (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • HARNESS FITTING (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • HORSESHOE (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • KNIFE (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • KNIFE (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • MOUNT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • PENDANT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • PENDANT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • POT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • POT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • RIDGE TILE (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • ROOF TILE (Medieval to Post Medieval - 1066 AD to 1900 AD)
  • SHOEING NAIL (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • SPUR (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • STIRRUP (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • STRAP END (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • STRAP FITTING (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • STRAP FITTING (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • STRAP FITTING (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • TOKEN (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • TWEEZERS (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • UNIDENTIFIED OBJECT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • VESSEL (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • WEIGHT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • BUCKLE (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • BUTTON (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • CLAY PIPE (SMOKING) (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • COIN (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • DOOR FITTING (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • DRESS FASTENER (DRESS) (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • FURNITURE FITTING (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • HARNESS (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • HARNESS FITTING (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • KNIFE (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • MUSKET BALL (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • PANTILE (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • PANTILE? (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • PERSONAL ORNAMENT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • POT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • STRAP FITTING (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • THIMBLE (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • TOKEN (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)

Protected Status - none

Sources and further reading

---Photograph: I & RS. Digital finds image.
---Thesis: Davies, G.. 2010. Settlement, economy and lifestyle: The changing social identities of the coastal settlements of West Norfolk, 450-1100 AD..
---Photograph: 1990. LCF 14-21, Medieval coin of Stephen..
---Photograph: 1995. LDG 28-30, Late Saxon foot or mount of box..
---Photograph: 1995. LDG 31-32, Two Early Saxon buckles..
---Photograph: 1995. LDG 33-35, Romano British/Early Saxon statz arm brooch..
---Secondary File: Secondary file.
---Photograph: FTN 13-26.
<S1>Aerial Photograph: TF 7123A ABU 1 to B ABU 2, E-K, N-P.
<S2>Map: Ordnance Survey. 1902-7. Ordnance Survey 25 inch 2nd edition (revised 1902-7).
<S3>Photograph: I&RS. Finds Polaroid. Polaroid.
<S4>Illustration: Gibbons, J.. 2008. Drawing of an Early Bronze Age flat axe fragment.. Film. 1:1.
<S5>Illustration: Gibbons, J.. 2008. Drawing of a Late Saxon tongue shaped strap-end.. Film. 2:1.
<S6>Unpublished document: Hickling, S.. 2010. NAU Archaeology Report No. 2149. An archaeological evaluation at land off St Andrew's Lane, Congham, Norfolk..
<S7>Slide: Phelps, A. & Hickling, S.. 2010. Slides 1-20 An archaeological evaluation at land off St Andrew's Lane, Congham. By NAU Archaeology.
<S8>Unpublished document: Hickling, S.. 2012. NPS Archaeology Report 2483. Archaeological Excavation and Watching Brief at St Andrew's Lane, Congham, Norfolk..

Related records - none

Find out more...

Norfolk County Council logo Heritage Lottery Fund logo

Powered by HBSMR-web and the HBSMR Gateway from exeGesIS SDM Ltd, and mojoPortal CMS
© 2007 - 2019 Norfolk Historic Environment Service