Record Details

NHER Number:45439
Type of record:Monument
Name:Bronze Age round barrow, medieval building and hearths, 93-101 Ber Street

Summary

An archaeological evalutation carried out on this site in 2006 discovered the site of a Bronze Age round barrow, and a number of flint tools and Beaker pottery sherds. Beam slots and post holes provided evidence for a medieval building close to the street frontage, and the remains of two small ovens or hearths dating from the early medieval period were also recovered.

Images - none

Location

Grid Reference:TG 23306 07967
Map Sheet:TG20NW
Parish:NORWICH, NORWICH, NORFOLK

Full description

Nos 93 to 101 Ber Street.

Site of a Bronze Age round barrow. Flint tools and Beaker pottery have been recovered from the site.
Also a medieval building in the form of beam slots and post holes close to the street frontage and the remains of two small ovens or hearths dating from the early medieval period.
See press cutting (S1).
J. Allen (NLA), 19 September 2006.

August 2006. NAU Archaeology evaluation. From context 1.
The southern quarter of a prehistoric ring-ditch was exposed to the rear of 91 Ber Street. Deposits from the ditch contained worked flint and one sherd of iron age pottery. To the south of the ring ditch was a large solution hollow containing an assemblage of prehistoric pottery and worked flint. Heat-cracked quartize pebbles and burnt flint were also recovered.
Several sand extraction pits which have been attributed to the late saxon/ early medieval period were identified, along with smaller medieval waste pits. A sub-square thirteenth century pit was identified and may represent an infilled well shaft. Two hearths were identified, both dated to the medieval period.
A linear arrangement of post-holes, stake- holes and a thin beam slot were identified. The features were sterile of pottery, and was truncated by a 16th century pit. The NE-SW alignment respects the property alignment of Ber street. A further group of three post holes and a very large post- pit were located to the north- west. Medieval pottery was recovered from the pit fills, suggesting a medieval date.
A rectangular structure of post-medieval 'Norfolk Red' brick was identified, and may have remained in use as late as the post- war period.
See (S2) for more information.
See also (S3).
See also (S5).
H. White (NLA), 3 March 2009.

August - September 2009. Strip, map and sample excavation.
This excavation revealed further information about many of the features revealed during the evaluation.
Artefacts recovered from the solution hollow suggest two distinct phases of activity, the first dating to the Late Neolithic-Early Bronze Age, and the other to the Iron Age. The Late Neolithic/Early Bronze Age pottery recovered from this feature is typical of a domestic assemblage. No features associated with the ring ditch were found. The presence of Saxo-Norman/early medieval structures across the area of the ring ditch indicates that it had been levelled by this time. Dating evidence was recovered from the upper fill of the ring ditch in the form of a small number of Iron Age pottery sherds. These suggest a Middle to Late Iron Age date. The discovery of Iron Age finds in the fills of Bronze Age ring ditches suggests a secondary use for these barrows during the Iron Age, and may be derived from occupation in the vicinity or from the deliberate dumping of domestic refuse in the partially filled ditch.
Saxo-Norman features included two clay-lined hearths and several extractive pits (see above). Several further sand extraction pits were dated to the 13th-14th centuries as they contained pottery sherds of this date (see above). The notable absence of medieval and post-medieval features (which cover the majority of the site) to the north-east of the site may indicate the presence of a building throughout this period. This postulated building may have been approximately 10m wide, and may have extended up to 16m back from the street frontage. To the rear of this area are several features including post-holes, stake-holes and a beam-slot which may indicate associated structural elements to the rear of this building.
Later medieval and post-medieval features include a chalk-lined well, pits and post-holes dating from the 15th to 16th centuries. A circular well constructed of chalk blocks and lime mortar was discovered on the northern boundary of the site, and appears to have been infilled from the 16th to 17th century. A large number of pits dating from the 15th to 16th centuries were recorded across the site, and appear to have originally been excavated for the extraction of sand, but many were subsequently used for the disposal of domestic waste. Some evidence for hornworking in the vicinity was also recovered from these waste pits. A cluster of four small cess pits may indicate the location of a latrine at the rear of the late-medieval plots.
See (S4) for further information.
A. Cattermole (NLA), 25 June 2009.

Monument Types

  • WELL (Undated)
  • RING DITCH (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • ROUND BARROW (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • CESS PIT (Late Saxon to Medieval - 1000 AD to 1099 AD)
  • EXTRACTIVE PIT (Late Saxon to Medieval - 1000 AD to 1199 AD)
  • HEARTH (Late Saxon to Medieval - 1000 AD to 1099 AD)
  • PIT (Late Saxon to Medieval - 1000 AD to 1099 AD)
  • BEAM SLOT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • BUILDING? (Medieval to Post Medieval - 1066 AD to 1900 AD)
  • OVEN? (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • POST HOLE (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • EXTRACTIVE PIT (Medieval - 1200 AD to 1399 AD)
  • SAND PIT (Medieval - 1200 AD to 1399 AD)
  • CESS PIT (Medieval to Post Medieval - 1400 AD to 1599 AD)
  • LATRINE PIT? (Medieval to Post Medieval - 1400 AD to 1599 AD)
  • WELL (Medieval to Post Medieval - 1400 AD to 1599 AD)

Associated Finds

  • BURNT FLINT (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • LITHIC IMPLEMENT (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • CORE (Late Neolithic to Late Iron Age - 3000 BC to 42 AD)
  • END SCRAPER (Late Neolithic to Late Iron Age - 3000 BC to 42 AD)
  • FLAKE (Late Neolithic to Late Iron Age - 3000 BC to 42 AD)
  • HAMMERSTONE (Late Neolithic to Late Iron Age - 3000 BC to 42 AD)
  • RETOUCHED FLAKE (Late Neolithic to Late Iron Age - 3000 BC to 42 AD)
  • THUMB NAIL SCRAPER (Late Neolithic to Late Iron Age - 3000 BC to 42 AD)
  • PLANT MACRO REMAINS (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • POT (Beaker - 2300 BC to 1700 BC)
  • ANIMAL REMAINS (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • POT (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • METAL WORKING DEBRIS (Late Saxon to Medieval - 900 AD to 1099 AD)
  • ANIMAL REMAINS (Medieval to Post Medieval - 1066 AD to 1900 AD)
  • ANIMAL REMAINS (Medieval to Post Medieval - 1066 AD to 1900 AD)
  • COIN (Medieval to Post Medieval - 1066 AD to 1900 AD)
  • COLANDER (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • KNIFE (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • NAIL (Medieval to Post Medieval - 1066 AD to 1900 AD)
  • PLANT MACRO REMAINS (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • POT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • QUERN (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • WHETSTONE (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • COIN (Medieval - 1180 AD to 1247 AD)
  • BUCKLE (Medieval - 1300 AD to 1399 AD)
  • CLOTH SEAL (Medieval to Post Medieval - 1400 AD to 1599 AD)
  • COMB (Medieval to Post Medieval - 1400 AD to 1700 AD)
  • METAL WORKING DEBRIS (Medieval to Post Medieval - 1400 AD to 1599 AD)
  • OYSTER SHELL (Medieval to Post Medieval - 1400 AD to 1699 AD)
  • VESSEL (Medieval to Post Medieval - 1400 AD to 1599 AD)
  • DRESS FASTENER (DRESS) (Medieval to Post Medieval - 1500 AD to 1599 AD)
  • WINDOW GLASS (Medieval to Post Medieval - 1500 AD to 1599 AD)
  • BOSS (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • BOTTLE (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • HANDLE (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • PIPE (SMOKING) (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • STRAP FITTING (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • COIN (Post Medieval - 1566 AD to 1566 AD)
  • LINEN SMOOTHER (Post Medieval - 1600 AD to 1699 AD)
  • PHIAL (Post Medieval - 1600 AD to 1699 AD)
  • THIMBLE (Post Medieval - 1600 AD to 1699 AD)
  • VESSEL (Post Medieval - 1600 AD to 1799 AD)
  • COIN (Post Medieval - 1694 AD to 1694 AD)

Protected Status - none

Sources and further reading

---Secondary File: Secondary file.
---Slide: Various. Slide. 1-258.
<S1>Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 2006. Fragments found from once sacred landscape IN Eastern Daily Press. 18 September.
<S2>Unpublished document: Emery, G.. 2008. NAU Archaeology Report No. 1328. An Archaeological Evaluation and Strip, Map and Sample Excavation at 93- 101 Ber Street, Norwich.
<S3>Photograph: Emery, G.. 2006. PEE-PEN.
<S4>Unpublished document: Emery, G.. 2009. NAU Archaeology Report No. 1393. An Archaeological Evaluation and Strip, Map and Sample Excavation at 93-101 Ber Street, Norwich..
<S5>Article in serial: Gurney, D. (ed.). 2007. Excavations and Surveys in Norfolk in 2006. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XLV Pt II pp 261-273. p 266.

Related records - none

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