Record Details

NHER Number:44828
Type of record:Monument
Name:Cropmarks of medieval to post medieval enclosures and fields

Summary

Cropmarks of possible medieval to post medieval moats, enclosures and field boundaries are visible on aerial photographs. Two small enclosures, one sub-rectangular the other trapezoidal, may be moats. These are surrounded by field boundaries, some of which have a curvilinear form suggesting medieval strip cultivation.

Images - none

Location

Grid Reference:TM 3349 9455
Map Sheet:TM39SW
Parish:THWAITE, SOUTH NORFOLK, NORFOLK

Full description

July 2006. Norfolk NMP
Cropmarks of possible medieval to post medieval moats, enclosures and field boundaries are visible on aerial photographs (S1-S3). These cropmarks are centred on TM 3349 9456 and extend for a distance of 770m to the south of Thwaite St Mary village. Two possible rectilinear enclosures or moats are present in the centre of the complex. The smaller of the two is centred on TM 3351 9464 and has a complete sub-rectangular plan with a 4m wide ditch. It measures 28m by 24m internally. The second enclosure is located 80m to the south at TM 3352 9457. It is open on its eastern side and has a trapezoidal plan. Its ditches are 5m wide and it measures at least 44m by 35m internally. A narrow ditch cropmark leads eastwards from the southeast corner of this enclosure. On the available aerial photographs, both of these enclosures surround areas of rough ground, which are not under cultivation and appear to be marked as ponds on the current Ordnance Survey map. The pond-like interiors of these enclosures make it unlikely that they are conventional moats and their function is not clear. Neither enclosure is clearly marked on the 1838 Thwaite tithe map (S4), but the area of the large enclosure is shown as a separate land holding.

Both of the enclosures, particularly that to the north, are linked into a system of field boundary ditch cropmarks. These include a sub-square enclosure with straight and curved sides which is located further to the west at TM 3344 9461. A curving field boundary ditch extends for approximately 500m from TM 3342 9463 to TM 3351 9418. It is aligned roughly parallel to the course of Bungay Road to its west and it also follows the contours of the slope. Its curving alignment is continued for a further 200m to the north between TM 3343 9471 and TM 3338 9490.

The long narrow fields that these cropmarks and the surviving field boundaries create are likely to relate to medieval strip cultivation. Other fields in the eastern part of this group have rectilinear and polygonal plans. Although some of these field boundaries are marked on the Thwaite tithe map (S4) it is likely that they have a medieval or early post medieval origin. Medieval finds have been recorded within the vicinity of these cropmarks (NHER 30941).
J. Albone (NMP), 04 July 2006

Monument Types

  • FIELD (Medieval to Post Medieval - 1066 AD to 1900 AD)
  • FIELD BOUNDARY (Medieval to Post Medieval - 1066 AD to 1900 AD)
  • MOAT? (Medieval to Post Medieval - 1066 AD to 1900 AD)
  • RECTILINEAR ENCLOSURE (Medieval to Post Medieval - 1066 AD to 1900 AD)
  • SQUARE ENCLOSURE (Medieval to Post Medieval - 1066 AD to 1900 AD)
  • TRAPEZOIDAL ENCLOSURE (Medieval to Post Medieval - 1066 AD to 1900 AD)

Associated Finds - none

Protected Status - none

Sources and further reading

<S1>Oblique Aerial Photograph: Edwards, D.A. (NLA). 1975. NHER TM 3394A-B (NLA 20/ADV14-5) 28-JUL-1975.
<S2>Vertical Aerial Photograph: RAF. 1963. RAF 58/5942 (F21) 68-9 27-SEP-1963 (NMR).
<S3>Vertical Aerial Photograph: RAF. 1945. RAF 106G/UK/930 3094-5 16-OCT-1945 (NHER TM 3294A / TM 3394A).
<S4>Map: Jones, W. G.. 1838. Thwaite, Norfolk (tithe map).

Related records - none

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