Record Details

NHER Number:4965
Type of record:Find Spot
Name:?Palaeolithic, Mesolithic and Neolithic worked flints from unknown site(s) (Cranwich marginal)

Summary

Various prehistoric worked flints collected in Cranwich parish by J. S. Warburton in the early 20th century, many of which are now held by the NCM. The material collected included two possible Palaeolithic handaxes (not found in any museum collection). Mesolithic objects include two possible tranchet axes, a microlith and several blades. It does however appear that the bulk of the collection is of Neolithic date, with various diagnostic tool types now identified including arrowheads, axes and knives.

Images - none

Location

Parish:CRANWICH, BRECKLAND, NORFOLK

Full description

Early 20th century.
Various prehistoric worked flints collected in Cranwich parish by J. S. Warburton in the early 20th century, many of which are now held by the NCM (NWHCM : 1929.153). Warburton described many of his Cranwich finds in an article published in 1914 (S1). Although the precise location of these discoveries is not known, it appears that many came from "…the part of the estate where the great majority of implements have been found" (S1). This would appear to suggest that many of his finds came from an area where others were also finding artefacts, most likely the same area where H. H. Hall had found over 1000 worked flints (see NHER 4952).

Although the terminology used is somewhat archaic, it is clear from Warburton's descriptions that he had found objects of more than one date. At least one implement may have been Palaeolithic as he notes being told that one axe had "...every chance of being a Palaeolithic hand axe (subtriangular late)". Another axe is described as “related to St. Acheul II but exact date at present uncertain”. It does however appear that no Palaeolithic was amongst the material given to NCM, as no objects from this collection are listed by either (S2) or (S3).

It also appears that Warburton had collected a number of Mesolithic objects. These include a patinated microlith that was illustrated and described by Wymer in 1971 (S4). This microlith (NWHCM : 1929.153.2) is almost certainly one of the two unprovenanced microliths from Cranwich listed in (S5). It is also described in (S6). Although Wymer suggested this may be Upper Palaeolithic, this seems unlikely. Warburton also describes having found two axes that “…possess a kitchen midden feature in that they have transverse flaking at ends” (S1); these are almost certainly Mesolithic tranchet axes.

The bulk of the collection held by the NCM is however almost certainly of Neolithic date. Several arrowheads are noted by (S7), taking this information from notes by W. G. Clarke (S8). More recently this assemblage was examined by F. Healy, how listed the following implements in (S9):
1 transverse petit tranchet derivative, 1 oblique petit tranchet derivative, 1 triangular arrowhead, 1 projectile head, 5 long-pointed piercers, 1 polished-edge knife, 1 flaked discoidal knife, 3 flaked flint axes, 2 fragmentary flaked flint axes, 1 partly polished flint axe and 1 fragmentary partly polished flint axe

P. Watkins (HES), 2 May 2013.

Monument Types

  • FINDSPOT (Lower Palaeolithic to Middle Palaeolithic - 500000 BC? to 40001 BC?)
  • FINDSPOT (Mesolithic - 10000 BC to 4001 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)

Associated Finds

  • HANDAXE (Lower Palaeolithic to Middle Palaeolithic - 500000 BC to 40001 BC)
  • MICROLITH (Mesolithic - 10000 BC to 4001 BC)
  • TRANCHET AXEHEAD (Mesolithic - 10000 BC to 4001 BC)
  • BORER (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • DISCOIDAL KNIFE (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • FLAKED AXEHEAD (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • LITHIC IMPLEMENT (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • POLISHED AXEHEAD (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • POLISHED KNIFE (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • PROJECTILE (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • TRANSVERSE ARROWHEAD (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • TRIANGULAR ARROWHEAD (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)

Protected Status - none

Sources and further reading

---Archive: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Neolithic. Cranwich.
<S1>Article in Serial: Warburton, J. S. 1914. Some Implements of 'Cissbury Type' found in Norfolk. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society of East Anglia. Vol I Pt IV (for 1913-14) pp 420-427. pp 424-425.
<S2>Monograph: Roe, D. A. 1968. A Gazetteer of British Lower and Middle Palaeolithic Sites. CBA Research Report. No 8.
<S3>Publication: Wymer, J. J. 1985. Palaeolithic Sites of East Anglia.
<S4>Article in Serial: Wymer, J. J. 1971. A Possible Late Upper Palaeolithic Site at Cranwich, Norfolk. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XXXV Pt II pp 259-263.
<S5>Monograph: Wymer, J. J. and Bonsall, C. J. (eds). 1977. Gazetteer of Mesolithic Sites in England and Wales with a Gazetteer of Upper Palaeolithic Sites in England and Wales. Council for British Archaeology Research Report. No. 20. p 205.
<S6>Archive: R. Jacobi. -. Jacobi Archive. 10199.
<S7>Archive: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Neolithic.
<S8>Publication: Clarke, W.G.. Ms 126.
<S9>Thesis: Healy, F.. 1978. The Neolithic in Norfolk. pp 415-416.

Related records - none

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