Record Details

NHER Number:4947
Type of record:Find Spot
Name:Unprovenanced Upper Palaeolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic and Late Neolithic/Early Bronze Age worked flints (Cranwich, marginal)

Summary

Various Upper Palaeolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic and Late Neolithic/Early Bronze Age worked flints known to have been recovered in Cranwich during the late 19th century or early 20th century, but with little additional information regarding provenance. The early finds include several Late Upper Palaeolithic blades, a potentially Upper Palaeolithic tanged point and a Mesolithic blade core.

Images - none

Location

Parish:CRANWICH, BRECKLAND, NORFOLK

Full description

Various Upper Palaeolithic, Mesolithic and Neolithic worked flints known to have been recovered in Cranwich during the late 19th century or early 20th century, but with little additional information regarding provenance. This record details various small assemblage that are in museums collections and a number of other reported discoveries. Several large collections from unknown sites are recorded seperately, including material recovered by H. H. Halls and W. G. Clarke (NHER 4952); material collected by J. S. Warburton (NHER 4965) and material collected by T. F. Newman (NHER 14567).

FINDS IN THE NORWICH CASTLE MUSEUM

In 1970 the Norwich Castle Museum acquired two potentially Upper Palaeolithic worked flints from Cranwich (NWHCM : 1970.304). These were from the collection held by the late J. J. Wymer and had been found at unknown sites in the parish by his father B. O. Wymer during the 1920s. These finds are listed in (S1) and were described and figured in (S2). One is described as a backed blade (NWHCM : 1970.304.1) and the other as a tanged point (NWHCM : 1970.304.2). Wymer regarded these, along with several other finds from Cranwich, as evidence of a Late Upper Palaeolithic site in Cranwich (S2). Jacobi and Martingell (S3) have however described the objects he selected as not "…immediately convincing…" as Upper Palaeolithic finds. Information from (S4).

The Norwich Castle Museum's H. H. Halls collection (NWHCM : 1924.83) includes a Mesolithic flint blade core from Cranwich. This object is described in (S8).

T. Clough (NCM). Amended and expanded by P. Watkins (HES), 1 May 2013.

FINDS IN THE THETFORD MUSEUM

The Thetford Museum holds a number of worked flints from Cranwich. Most were donated by W. G. Clarke and, with the exception of a small number from his Site 28 (NHER 4952), these lack any additional information regarding provenance. It is however quite probably that the majority were from this site, where he and H. H. Halls recovered hundreds of worked flints. The museum's records list:
- 5 fabricators (THEHM : 1976.12).
- 1 "Cissbury-type" fabricator (THEHM : 1976.13).
- 1 horseshoe scraper (THEHM : 1978.564.1).
- 1 end scraper (THEHM : 1978.564.2).
- 1 scraper (THEHM : 1978.564.3).
- 3 ?knives (THEHM : 1979.11). Two listed as (S10) as 1 triangular arrowhead and 1 projectile head.
- 1 retouched flake (THEHM : 1979.133.1).
- 1 retouched flake (THEHM : 1979.133.3).
- 1 fragmentary flint axehead (THEHM : 1979.134).
- 1 "Cissbury" type disc (THEHM : 1979.137).
- 1 bladelet core/fabricator (THEHM : 1979.138).
- 2 flint cores. Part of a collection of 12 some of which are "possibly Mesolithic" (THEHM : 1979.27.5-6).
- 1 bladelet core. ?Mesolithic (THEHM : 1979.41).

According to (S11) the Thetford Museum holds 3 Mesolithic flints; 2 blade/flakes and 1 core. These are recorded in (S8) as being amongst Clarke finds, although the object numbers cannot be matched to the accession numbers at present (the core is presumably THEHM : 1979.41). The blades are listed as potentially Upper Palaeolithic. The remaining pieces are most likely Neolithic.

The Thetford Museum also holds a number of flint from Cranwich that were donated by a Miss Davies, the majority (if not all) of which were collected by S. Causton between 1909 and 1911. These are as follows:
- 1 barbed and tanged arrowhead. Ex Miss Davies. Found 1909 (THEHM : 1975.450 (S497)). Noted in (S10).
- 1 hammerstone. Ex Miss Davies. Found 1909 by S. Causton (THEHM : 1975.470).
- 2 Neolithic fabricators. Ex Miss Davies. Found 1910 by S. Causton (THEHM : 1976.21).
- 1 borer. Ex Miss Davies. Found 1911 by S. Causton (THEHM : 1978.264).
- 1 scraper. Ex Miss Davies. Found 1910 by S. Causton (THEHM : 1978.540).
- 1 hammerstone. Ex Miss Davies. Found 1911 by S. Causton (THEHM : 1978.635).
- 1 fragmentary flint axehead. Ex Miss Davies (THEHM : 1979.146).

This museum also holds a Neolithic polished axehead fragment that was donated by Rev. H. T. Green in 1975 (THEHM : 1979.81).

Some of these finds were previously recorded as NHER 4963.

FINDS IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM

The British Sturge Collection includes a number of worked flints from Cranwich. These are listed in (S5) as 1 long knife, 2 long blades, 1 arrowhead and 2 'Neol[iths]' implements of unspecified type. Information from (S6). Three of these objects have now been identified as Late Upper Palaeolithic blades (S7). These blades, one of which is described in (S8), are presumably the reason that (S9) notes this collection includes Mesolithic material. The arrowhead is listed in (S10) as a barbed and tanged arrowhead.
Previously recorded as NHER 4962.

These British Museum also holds several other small collections of worked flints that are recorded as being Upper Palaeolithic/Mesolithic (the majority presumably the latter):
- 1 core and 6 scrapers. Ex Armstrong (unregistered).
- 2 cores and 1 scraper. Ex S. H. Warren (unregistered).
- 1 scraper. Donor unknown (unregistered).
Information from museum records.

FINDS IN OTHER COLLECTIONS

The J. J. Wymer Collection, now held by Royal Holloway (University of London), includes a number of worked flints from Cranwich. These were originally collected by B. O. Wymer (his father):
- 1 small "celt-like" implement (W211), 1 end scraper (W273) and 1 semi-circular scraper (W274). Listed in (S12).
- 1 blade (W2627), 1 fabricator (W2628), 1 ?strike-a-light (W2634), 1 crude axe (W2640) and 1 scraper (W2709). Listed in (S13).

Amended by P. Watkins (HES), 6 August 2014.

Monument Types

  • FINDSPOT (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Upper Palaeolithic - 40000 BC to 10001 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Mesolithic - 10000 BC to 4001 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Late Neolithic to Early Bronze Age - 3000 BC to 1501 BC)

Associated Finds

  • BLADE (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • BORER (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • BORER (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • END SCRAPER (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • FABRICATOR (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • FLAKED AXEHEAD (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • FLAKED AXEHEAD? (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • HAMMERSTONE (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • HAMMERSTONE (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • SCRAPER (TOOL) (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • SCRAPER (TOOL) (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • STRIKE A LIGHT? (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • BACKED BLADE (Upper Palaeolithic - 40000 BC? to 10001 BC?)
  • BLADE (Upper Palaeolithic - 40000 BC to 10001 BC)
  • BLADE (Upper Palaeolithic - 40000 BC to 10001 BC?)
  • CORE (Upper Palaeolithic to Late Mesolithic - 40000 BC? to 4001 BC?)
  • CORE (Upper Palaeolithic to Late Mesolithic - 40000 BC? to 4001 BC?)
  • POINT (Upper Palaeolithic - 40000 BC? to 10001 BC?)
  • SCRAPER (TOOL) (Upper Palaeolithic to Late Mesolithic - 40000 BC? to 4001 BC?)
  • SCRAPER (TOOL) (Upper Palaeolithic to Late Mesolithic - 40000 BC? to 4001 BC?)
  • SCRAPER (TOOL) (Upper Palaeolithic to Late Mesolithic - 40000 BC? to 4001 BC?)
  • BLADE CORE (Mesolithic - 10000 BC to 4001 BC)
  • BLADE CORE (Mesolithic - 10000 BC to 4001 BC)
  • BLADE CORE? (Neolithic - 4000 BC? to 2351 BC?)
  • CORE (Neolithic - 4000 BC? to 2351 BC?)
  • DISCOIDAL KNIFE? (Neolithic - 4000 BC? to 2351 BC?)
  • END SCRAPER (Neolithic - 4000 BC? to 2351 BC?)
  • FABRICATOR (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • FABRICATOR (Neolithic - 4000 BC? to 2351 BC?)
  • FABRICATOR (Neolithic - 4000 BC? to 2351 BC?)
  • FLAKED AXEHEAD (Neolithic - 4000 BC? to 2351 BC)
  • FLAKED AXEHEAD (Neolithic - 4000 BC? to 2351 BC)
  • FLAKED AXEHEAD (Neolithic - 4000 BC? to 2351 BC?)
  • KNIFE? (Neolithic - 4000 BC? to 2351 BC?)
  • LITHIC IMPLEMENT (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • PROJECTILE (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • RETOUCHED FLAKE (Neolithic - 4000 BC? to 2351 BC?)
  • RETOUCHED FLAKE (Neolithic - 4000 BC? to 2351 BC?)
  • SCRAPER (TOOL) (Neolithic - 4000 BC? to 2351 BC?)
  • SIDE AND END SCRAPER (Neolithic - 4000 BC? to 2351 BC?)
  • TRIANGULAR ARROWHEAD (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • BARBED AND TANGED ARROWHEAD (Late Neolithic to Early Bronze Age - 3000 BC to 1501 BC)
  • BARBED AND TANGED ARROWHEAD (Late Neolithic to Early Bronze Age - 3000 BC to 1501 BC)

Protected Status - none

Sources and further reading

---Archive: NAU Staff. 1974-1988. Norfolk Archaeological Index Primary Record Card.
<S1>Unpublished Document: Wymer, J. J. Journal. Vol 4. pp 13-14.
<S2>Article in Serial: Wymer, J. J. 1971. A Possible Late Upper Palaeolithic Site at Cranwich, Norfolk. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XXXV Pt II pp 259-263.
<S3>Article in Serial: Jacobi, R. M. and Martingell, H. E. 1980. A Late-Glacial Shouldered Point from Cranwich, Norfolk. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XXXVII Pt III pp 312-314.
<S4>Archive: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Upper Palaeolithic.
<S5>Publication: Smith, R. A. 1931. The Sturge Collection: an illustrated selection of flints from Britain bequeathed in 1919 by William Allen Sturge. p 126.
<S6>Archive: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Neolithic. Cranwich.
<S7>Article in Serial: Robins, P. and Wymer, J. 2006. Late Upper Palaeolithic (Long Blade) Industries in Norfolk. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XLV Pt I pp 86-95. p 94.
<S8>Archive: R. Jacobi. -. Jacobi Archive. 202; 572; 10199.
<S9>Archive: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Mesolithic. Cranwich.
<S10>Thesis: Healy, F.. 1978. The Neolithic in Norfolk. p 413.
<S11>Monograph: Wymer, J. J. and Bonsall, C. J. (eds). 1977. Gazetteer of Mesolithic Sites in England and Wales with a Gazetteer of Upper Palaeolithic Sites in England and Wales. Council for British Archaeology Research Report. No. 20. p 205.
<S12>Unpublished Document: Wymer, J. J. Journal. Vol 1. pp 31-32, 37.
<S13>Unpublished Document: Wymer, J. J. Journal. Vol 4. pp 9, 12.

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