|Type of record:||Monument|
|Name:||Cropmarks of Neolithic long barrows or mortuary enclosures|
The remains of two Neolithic long barrows or mortuary enclosures are visible as cropmarks on aerial photographs. A possible round or oval barrow, also likely to be of Neolithic date, is visible to the east of these. All three monuments lie approximately 40m to the north of a Neolithic causewayed enclosure (NHER 13358) and two further possible oval enclosures or barrows have been identified 115m to the south-west (NHER 38496).
Images - none
|Grid Reference:||TG 2205 3543|
|Parish:||ROUGHTON, NORTH NORFOLK, NORFOLK|
March 2004, Norfolk NMP
The cropmarks described below were previously recorded as NHER 13358.
The remains of a Neolithic long barrow or mortuary enclosure are visible as cropmarks on aerial photographs taken over a number of years (S1-7), centred at TG 2204 3543. A second barrow or enclosure, of similar form and dimensions and sharing the same alignment, is visible as a cropmark 7m to its north-west. 40m to the south-east, and in alignment with the two long barrows or mortuary enclosures, the ditch of a possible oval or round barrow, also likely to date to the Neolithic period, is visible as a cropmark. The features occupy the north side of a slight knoll, between two minor tributaries of the River Bure. They lie in close proximity to a Neolithic causewayed enclosure (NHER 13358) and two further oval enclosures or barrows (NHER 38496), and the recovery of a Neolithic axe has been reported from the area (NMR TG 23 NW 18).
The long barrow or mortuary enclosure is sub-rectangular in shape, with sub-parallel sides, a narrow, rounded north-west end and a wider, relatively square south-east end. It measures 72m long and up to 24m wide, and is defined by a ditch up to 2.5m wide. There are two apparent entrances, one at the south-west corner and one along the north side. The northern entrance may have had a shallow ditch across it at some point in its history, and the variation in the width of the ditch as a whole suggests several phases of recutting. A pit in the north-east corner of the enclosure appears to be contemporary feature.
Only the south-east end of the second long barrow or enclosure is visible as a cropmark on the consulted aerial photographs, centred at TG 2199 3546. As with the enclosure to its east, its south-east end is fairly square in plan. It measures 20m wide and is visible for 35m of its length; its ditch is approximately 2m wide. No entrances or internal features are visible.
The possible oval or round barrow is centred at TG 2213 3540. It is only faintly visible on a small number of photographs, and is clearest on oblique aerial photographs from 1977 (S1). It measures 34m long and 22.5m wide. It is visible as a number of ditch segments, but there is no evidence of any entrances or that it was originally defined by an interrupted ditch. It was mapped, together with the long barrows or enclosures and the causewayed enclosure, by the Aerial Survey section of RCHME in December 1996 (S8), by whom it was described as a possible Neolithic round barrow, and consequently has been mapped as part of the Norfolk NMP. It is less convincing, however, than the other archaeological cropmarks in the area, and could be a reflection of the underlying geology.
It should be noted that a large number of linear features are visible as cropmarks on the consulted aerial photographs (S1-7). These lie both within and around the features described above and the majority appear to be post-medieval or modern in date, comprising field boundaries, field drains and other features associated with buildings (Hagon Beck Cottages) and enclosures visible on historic maps (S9). It is possible, however, that other features associated with the Neolithic barrows or enclosures lie unrecognised within this group of later features.
S. Tremlett (NMP), 11 March 2004
- DITCHED ENCLOSURE (Unknown date)
- OVAL ENCLOSURE (Unknown date)
- PIT (Unknown date)
- RECTILINEAR ENCLOSURE (Unknown date)
- DITCHED ENCLOSURE (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
- LONG BARROW (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
- MORTUARY ENCLOSURE (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
- OVAL BARROW (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
- OVAL ENCLOSURE (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
- PIT (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
- RECTILINEAR ENCLOSURE (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
- ROUND BARROW (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
Associated Finds - none
Sources and further reading
|<S1>||Oblique Aerial Photograph: Edwards, D.A.. 1977. NHER TG 2235F (NLA 53/AKP24) 31-JUL-1977. |
|<S2>||Oblique Aerial Photograph: Edwards, D.A.. 1980. NHER TG 2235AK-L (NLA 95/APY19-20) 15-JUL-1980. |
|<S3>||Oblique Aerial Photograph: Edwards, D.A.. 1990. NHER TG 2235ABS-T (NLA 267/GBP11-2) 29-JUN-1990. |
|<S4>||Oblique Aerial Photograph: Edwards, D.A.. 1990. NHER TG 2235AS (NLA 272/GDG5) 12-JUL-1990. |
|<S5>||Oblique Aerial Photograph: Edwards, D.A.. 1996. NHER TG 2235ACE (NLA 373/JBP10) 19-JUL-1996. |
|<S6>||Oblique Aerial Photograph: Edwards, D.A.. 1996. NHER TG 2235ACV-W (NLA 365/JFM3-4) 28-JUN-1996. |
|<S7>||Vertical Aerial Photograph: BKS. 1988. BKS 2368-9 03-SEP-1988 (NCC 4562-3). |
|<S8>||Monograph: Oswald, A., Dyer, C. & Barber, M. (English Heritage, Swindon). 2001. The Creation of Monuments: Neolithic Causewayed Enclosures in the British Isles.. |
|<S9>||Map: Ordnance Survey. 1889 - 1891. Ordnance Survey first edition 6 inch map.. 1:10,560. |
Related records - none
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