Record Details

NHER Number:2397
Type of record:Monument
Name:Probable Iron Age to Roman period farmstead, with possible saltworks and corn drier, Garbold’s Gravel Pit

Summary

The site of a probable Iron Age to Roman period farmstead and possible salt works and corn drying oven, is indicated by finds and features recorded at Garbold's Gravel Pit, first discovered during gravel extraction. Finds ranging in date from the Mesolithic to the post medieval period have also been recovered.

Images - none

Location

Grid Reference:TF 618 091
Map Sheet:TF60NW
Parish:RUNCTON HOLME, WEST NORFOLK, NORFOLK

Full description

1931-33, 1935 and 1936. From pit. Roman salt working debris, pottery and metalwork. Neolithic, Beaker and Iron Age pottery. Mesolithic flints.
1975. Medieval/post medieval sherd found.
1990. Found with metal detector. Roman brooch.
See details and pottery drawings (S1) in file.
E. Rose (NAU) 18 December 1990.

September 2007. ALSF NHER Enhancement: Sub-Unit D.
1931. From Garbolds Gravel Pit.
Much Roman pottery found, iron spade sheath, traces of evaporating saltworking, kilns or furnaces for drying grain, plus supports, amphora, Samian, tiles and firebars.

1931 to 1933 and 1936. Garbolds Pit One, east of road.
Probable farm site. Much pottery from Iron Age continuing into Roman period. Loomweights, crucible, clay bars from salt working (?) furnace.

August 1935. From surface of Garbolds Pit.
Pressure flaked flint scraper probably Bronze Age.

1935.
Two sherds Late Bronze Age pottery from gravel pit where Beaker and Iron Age pottery found in 1935.

1936.
Seven Beakers.

February 1936.
Eight sherds of pottery, probably Late Bronze Age or Early Iron Age.

February-March 1936. Stray Find.
Found by P. L. K. Schwabe and I. J. Thatcher in restricted area on last remaining soil above quarry, about 46cm (18 inches) down:
"About 12 characteristic Mesolithic microliths".
Information from (S1). The Norwich Castle Museum holds a number of worked flints that were recovered at this site by Schwabe and Thatcher (NWHCM : 1946.164). These flints are labelled as being Mesolithic and although no genuine microliths are present several small blade fragments may well to of this date. The remaining flakes are not closely datable.
P. Watkins (HES), 1 October 2013.

1975. Found on surface of building site on edge of former Garbolds Pit, now filled in, along north south road.
13th to 16th century sherds, glazed and unglazed, including one base, with Grimston ware.

Undated.
In box left by C.J.S. Green (NCM) marked Garbolds Pit was found one Roman sherd.

Summer 1990. Found with metal detector.
Roman brooch.
See details and pottery drawings (S2) in file.
M. Dennis (NLA), 11 September 2007.

Monument Types

  • FINDSPOT (Mesolithic - 10000 BC to 4001 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • SETTLEMENT? (Beaker - 2300 BC to 1700 BC)
  • FARMSTEAD (Early Iron Age to Roman - 800 BC to 409 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • SALT WORKS? (Early Iron Age to Roman - 800 BC to 409 AD)
  • SETTLEMENT? (Early Iron Age to Roman - 800 BC to 409 AD)
  • CORN DRYING KILN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FURNACE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • KILN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)

Associated Finds

  • BLADE (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • BLADE (Mesolithic - 10000 BC? to 4001 BC?)
  • MICROLITH (Mesolithic - 10000 BC to 4001 BC)
  • POT (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • LITHIC IMPLEMENT (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • POT (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • POT (Beaker - 2300 BC to 1700 BC)
  • CRUCIBLE (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • KILN FURNITURE (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • LOOMWEIGHT (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • POT (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • BROOCH (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • KILN FURNITURE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • POT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • SPADE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • TILE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • POT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • POT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)

Protected Status - none

Sources and further reading

---Article in Serial: Clarke, J. G. D. 1933. Early Settlement at Runcton Holme, Norfolk. Part I. The First Occupation: Neolithic and Beaker Remains. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society of East Anglia. Vol VII Pt II pp 199-202.
---Monograph: 1987. East Anglian Archaeology. East Anglian Archaeology. Vol 31. p 144.
---Photograph: NLA. Finds Photograph.
---Archive: Ordnance Survey Staff. 1933-1979?. Ordnance Survey Record Cards. TF 60 NW 2 [4].
---Archive: NAU Staff. 1974-1988. Norfolk Archaeological Index Primary Record Card.
---Article in Serial: Hawkes, C. 1933. Early Settlement at Runcton Holme. Part II. The Second Occupation: A Peasant Settlement of the Iceni. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society of East Anglia. Vol VII Pt II pp 231-262. pp 231-262.
---Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 2010. Back to the future for saltworkings?. 12 January.
---Archive: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Neolithic. Runcton Holme [3].
---Archive: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Bronze Age. Runcton Holme [2].
---Archive: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Iron Age. Runcton holme.
---Archive: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Roman. Runcton Holme.
---Secondary File: Secondary file.
<S1>Illustration: Finds Illustrations.
<S1>Archive: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Mesolithic.

Related records - none

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