Record Details

NHER Number:21726
Type of record:Monument
Name:Earthworks of possible medieval hollow way

Summary

The earthworks of a probable medieval to post medieval routeway and common-edge settlement and/or stock enclosures are visible on aerial photographs at Church Farm, Wattlefield. Faden’s map of 1797 shows that this site was located on the northern edge of Wattlefield Common.

Images - none

Location

Grid Reference:TM 115 965
Map Sheet:TM19NW
Parish:WYMONDHAM, SOUTH NORFOLK, NORFOLK

Full description

5 February 1984. NAU aerial photographs.
Earthworks, possible hollow way.
See (S1).
D. A. Edwards (NAU), 13 September 1985.

Field now divided by post and rail fences into paddocks for horses.
H. Paterson (A&E), 7 January 1999.


The central grid reference for this site has been altered from TM 114 965 to TM 1151 9654.

March 2012. Norfolk NMP.
Assessment of the aerial photographs (S1-S8) and historic maps (S9-S11) for this site revealed that the features were previously more extensive and complex than previously recognised, possibly representing a medieval to post medieval routeway and common-edge settlement and/or stock enclosures. The central grid reference for this site has been altered from TM 114 965 to TM 1151 9654 due to the expansion of the site to include a continuation of trackway/hollow way to the east and other features.
Comparison of the earthworks in relation to Faden’s map of 1797 (S9) suggests that this site was located on the edge of Wattlefield Common, although due to some apparent problems with the Faden survey in this area, it is hard to confidently locate some components of the historic landscape depicted with that of the modern map base. The track/hollow way appears to form a branching route between two of the roads depicted running across the common. The 1839 Wymondham Tithe map (S10) and Ordnance Survey First Edition map (1889-1891, 6”) (S11) shows the western end of this route continuing as a boundary and/or drainage channel and a trackway. It must be noted that the sinuous and irregular nature of the 'hollow way' is also reminiscent of a water course and it is therefore possible that much of this site actually relates to water management. Although the relationship with the roads across the common on Faden would tend to suggest that this also acted as a routeway.
The ditches and/or drains coming off the main route, some of which are continued by boundaries and drains depicted on the Tithe map (S10), appear to form a broadly rectangular enclosed area alongside the common edge boundary as shown on Faden (S9). It is therefore possible that these earthworks relate to common edge settlement or stock enclosures, within which the modern farm is now situated. It is worth noting that a fifteenth century date find has been recovered from within this area (NHER 16267). The possible L-shaped platform or embankment at TM 1141 9655 looks different on a number of the photographs, on some looking like a rectangular platform and on others it looks continuous and L-shaped, depending on angle of sun. Many of the earthworks at this site were hard to decipher in terms of mapping and correlating the differing information and apparent appearance of the earthworks on different date photography. The removal of trees, hedges and boundaries also appeared to have impacted on the appearance of the earthworks on the later photography. The mapping therefore represents a reasonable representation of the features visible, within the time available.
S. Horlock (NMP), 07March 2012.

Monument Types

  • HOLLOW WAY (Unknown date)
  • BANK (EARTHWORK) (Medieval to Post Medieval - 1066 AD to 1900 AD)
  • BOUNDARY BANK (Medieval to Post Medieval - 1066 AD to 1900 AD)
  • BOUNDARY DITCH (Medieval to Post Medieval - 1066 AD to 1900 AD)
  • HOLLOW WAY (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • PLATFORM (Medieval to Post Medieval - 1066 AD to 1900 AD)
  • SETTLEMENT? (Medieval to Post Medieval - 1066 AD to 1900 AD)
  • STOCK ENCLOSURE (Medieval to Post Medieval - 1066 AD to 1900 AD)
  • TRACKWAY (Medieval to Post Medieval - 1066 AD to 1900 AD)

Associated Finds - none

Protected Status - none

Sources and further reading

<S1>Oblique Aerial Photograph: Edwards, D. A. (NLA). 1984. NHER TM 1195A-E (NLA 215/DXL11-15) 20-FEB-1989.
<S2>Vertical Aerial Photograph: Ordnance Survey. 1972. OS/72034 173-5 22-MAR-1972 (NMR).
<S3>Vertical Aerial Photograph: Ordnance Survey. 1973. OS/73359 235-7 03-JUL-1973.
<S4>Vertical Aerial Photograph: Ordnance Survey. 1995. OS/95513 119-21 09-APR-1995 (NMR).
<S5>Vertical Aerial Photograph: 1988. BKS 8803-5 (NCC 1991-3) 06-AUG-1988.
<S6>Vertical Aerial Photograph: RAF. 1964. RAF 58/6209 (F21) 0003-4 11-MAR-1964 (NMR).
<S9>Publication: Faden, W. and Barringer, J. C. 1989. Faden's Map of Norfolk in 1797.
<S10>Map: Bircham, W.G.. 1839. Wymondham Tithe Map.
<S11>Map: Ordnance Survey. 1889 - 1891. Ordnance Survey first edition 6 inch map.. 1:10,560.

Related records - none

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