Record Details

NHER Number:1903
Type of record:Monument
Name:Stanhoe Roman villa site

Summary

Roman objects, including numbers of pottery sherds and tile fragments, have been recovered from this area since the 1940s. In 1946 aerial photography recorded the cropmarks of what was thought to be a large building or villa. Excavation took place in 1968, and sections cut across the ditch enabled the excavators to date this to no later than AD 250. Rubbish dumping into this ditch occurred frequently and has been dated to the late third and fourth centuries. A section to the west was excavated after the discovery of some post holes on the western bank, and building materials including dressed flints, tegulae, imbrices, hypocaust flue tiles and one fragment of painted plaster were recovered. Stray finds between the 1960s and 2010 included beaker (Late Neolithic/Early Bronze Age), Romano-British, Late Saxon, medieval and post-medieval pottery, Romano-British tiles, quern and spindle-whorl. Some of these might originate from NHER 1905.

Images

  • Finds from the site of a Roman villa in Stanhoe.  © Norfolk Museums & Archaeology Service
  • Finds from the site of a Roman villa in the parish of Stanhoe.  © Norfolk Museums & Archaeology Service

Location

Grid Reference:Not displayed
Map Sheet:TF83NW
Parish:STANHOE, WEST NORFOLK, NORFOLK

Full description

1946. Aerial photograph discovery of villa 1957.
Finds of Roman building material, foundations, pottery, etc 1966-1967.
Roman statuette and coins found 1960s-1970s.
Roman pottery, tile and millstone found.

1968. Excavation of Roman villa.
Pottery, metalwork and coins found, including Romano-Saxon ware.
'Romano-Saxon' pottery sherds are probably from the Roman kilns at Much Hadham, the products from which reached Norfolk during the later 4th century.
D. Gurney (NLA), 5 December 2006

See full details in file.
E. Rose (NLA), 12 November 1990

1968. Excavation.
Two sections cut through ditch, which was traced for over 100ft (30m). The average width of the ditch was 11ft (3.4m), average depth 7ft (2.1m), and the sectioned parts were found to be 'V' shaped, with a neatly cut 1ft (30cm) drainage channel running along the bottom.
One certain and several uncertain postholes were located on western lip where upcast seems to have been thrown. Trial trenches to the west recovered dressed flints, tegulae, imbrices and hypocaust flue tiles occasionally, with one fragment of painted plaster.
The primary silting level of the ditch and sandy fill above it contained animals bones but no datable pottery. A possible recut to 4ft (1.2m) contained domestic refuse and later third century pottery sherds. The original cut is not thought to be later than AD 250. The recut was covered with sterile gravel, some of which had been removed at some later point and the site again used as a rubbish dump. Distribution suggests that rubbish was frequently dumped. At the bottom of the deposit lay a coin of Constantine the Great, and within the deposit lay a coin of Constans, struck 337 to 341. This level also contained many animal bones and oyster shells with cockle, mussel, whelk and winkle. A decorated bone panel to fit a casket, two copper alloy bracelets, and a deposit of broken iron tools including a pilum or ballista bolt head were also recovered together with several hones. The pottery comprised predominantly cooking pots, jars, mortaria, flanged bowls and dishes. Late Castor, calcite-gritted and polished red ware was common.
The state of wear of the coins suggests a dumping date of around 360 to 380 or later. The excavators thought that the nature of the discoveries suggests that this site was connected with the nearby fort of Brancaster.
R. Fillery-Travis (NLA), 23 May 2007.

Brief summary of finds made since the 1960s (perhaps with some material from HER 1905) includes Beaker, Romano-British, Late Saxon, medieval and post-medieval pot sherds, Romano-British tiles, quern and spindle whorl.
See list in file.
A. Rogerson (HES), 17 December 2010.

Monument Types

  • FINDSPOT (Unknown date)
  • FINDSPOT (Late Neolithic to Early Bronze Age - 3000 BC to 1501 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Early Iron Age to Roman - 800 BC to 409 AD)
  • DITCH (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • POST HOLE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • VILLA (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)

Associated Finds

  • ARCHITECTURAL FRAGMENT (Unknown date)
  • POT (Late Neolithic to Early Bronze Age - 3000 BC to 1501 BC)
  • POT (Early Iron Age to Roman - 800 BC to 409 AD)
  • ANIMAL REMAINS (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • ARCHITECTURAL FRAGMENT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • ARCHITECTURAL FRAGMENT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BALLISTA BOLT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BOX (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • COIN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FIGURINE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FLUE TILE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FLUE TILE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • KNIFE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • MILLSTONE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • MOLLUSCA REMAINS (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • PALETTE (COSMETIC) (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • POT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • QUERN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • ROOF TILE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • ROOF TILE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • SLING SHOT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • SPEAR (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • SPINDLE WHORL (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • TILE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • UNIDENTIFIED OBJECT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • POT (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • POT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • CLAY PIPE (SMOKING) (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • POT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)

Protected Status - none

Sources and further reading

---Aerial Photograph: RAF. TF 8038C RAF AP 3075.
---Archive: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Roman. Stanhoe [4].
---Secondary File: Secondary file.
<S1>Serial: 1968. Council for British Archaeology Group 7 Bulletin of Archaeological Discoveries for 1968. No 15. pp 10-11.

Related records

1905Related to: Possible Roman ditch, Early Bronze Age arrowhead, Roman objects (Monument)

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