Record Details

NHER Number:18560
Type of record:Monument
Name:Cropmarks/earthworks of medieval enclosures/tofts


Numerous aerial photographs of this area show a series of rectangular enclosures and raised platforms. These features may relate to medieval tofts and agricultural systems but cut the modern field boundaries. Fieldwalking in 1995 recovered sherds of Roman and medieval pottery in association with these enclosures.

Images - none


Grid Reference:TF 9415 4062
Map Sheet:TF94SW

Full description

1970. Ordnance Survey aerial photographs.
Show series of subrectangular, probably ditched enclosure or terrace above flood plain.

Pre 1982. St Joseph aerial photography.
Earthworks of rectangular enclosures partly crossing present field boundaries.
Small squarish plots.
Not drainage (at least not recent).
Similar to other sets of earthworks in area.
E. Rose (NAU) 2 December 1982.

1995. Area to south of The Carr is now arable. Medieval and Roman pottery found (Context 1) mostly in western part. Grassland area still shows subdued boundary features including one track like terrace, near to a banked incomplete enclosure at flood plain level.
One medieval unglazed bowl rim.
One medieval unglazed body sherd.
One base and three body sherd glazed Grimston.
One shattered rim and ten Roman greyware.
Surface finds. Identified by A. Rogerson (NLA).
B. Cushion (NLA) October 1995.

October 2002. Norfolk NMP.
Earthworks of rectangular enclosures are visible on Cambridge University Collection Aerial Photographs images from 1951 (S2) and 1973 (S1), RAF aerial photographs from 1946 (S3), Ordnance Survey aerial photographs from 1970 (S4) and NLA aerial photographs from 1976 (S5), and AAF aerial photographs from 1978 (S6). Raised platforms separated by ditches, these appear to be probable medieval tofts and crofts. They are located a short distance to the southwest of Warham Camp, with the site approximately centred on NGR TF9410 4068. These features are partly crossing present field boundaries. They mainly form squarish plots and are similar to other sets of earthworks in area (for example NHER 1850, 31528 and 30711). The whole complex stretches from NGR TF9394 4077 in the northwest to TF9432 4051 in the southeast. It is approximately 450m x 125m in size. At the eastern end there seems to be a large, low, wide bank (at about TF9429 4053) of uncertain origin and purpose. It seems to form three sides of an enclosure and is slightly curving. There appears to be a shallow ditch around the outside. There are also some linear ditches and banks in this area.
There may be additional earthwork features in amongst the mapped features of this site, but they are indistinct and so have been omitted.
The site has some good clear aerial photograph coverage, although nothing particularly recent.
H. Clare (NMP) 7 May 2003.

Monument Types

  • BANK (EARTHWORK) (Unknown date)
  • DITCH (Unknown date)
  • RECTILINEAR ENCLOSURE (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • TOFT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)

Associated Finds

  • POT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • POT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)

Protected Status


Sources and further reading

---Aerial Photograph: TF 9440AE (St. Joseph BLO82), TF 9940AM (AAF), 70 008 208.
---Record Card: NAU Staff. 1974-1988. Norfolk Archaeological Index Primary Record Card.
<S1>Oblique Aerial Photograph: CUCAP. 1973. NHER TF 9440AE (CUCAP BLO82) 31-JAN-1973.
<S2>Oblique Aerial Photograph: CUCAP. 1951. NHER TF 9440ACT (CUCAP FQ0044) 15-JUN-1951.
<S3>Aerial Photograph: RAF. 1946. RAF 106G/UK/1571 3247 07-JUN-1946 (Norfolk SMR TF 9439B).
<S4>Aerial Photograph: 1970. OS70008 208-9 19-MAR-1970 (SMR/NMR).
<S5>Aerial Photograph: 1976. SMR TF 9440S (NLA fl.25 / AEL18) 17-JUN-1976 (SMR).
<S6>Aerial Photograph: 1978. SMR TF 9440AK (AAF 161/8) 25-MAY-1978 (SMR).

Related records - none

Find out more...

Norfolk County Council logo Heritage Lottery Fund logo

Powered by HBSMR-web and the HBSMR Gateway from exeGesIS SDM Ltd, and mojoPortal CMS
© 2007 - 2020 Norfolk Historic Environment Service