Record Details

NHER Number:14240
Type of record:Monument
Name:Cropmarks of possible medieval enclosures and hollow ways

Summary

The earthworks, cropmarks and soilmarks of medieval and post medieval trackways, enclosures and boundaries are visible on aerial photographs within the former parkland around Stoke Hall (NHER 9766). A probable Roman road (NHER 53347) may form the earliest component of this site, later becoming a medieval to post medieval trackway through the park. Many of these features would appear to form part of an agricultural landscape that pre-dates the mid-nineteenth century establishment of parkland around the hall. Although the possibility of an Elizabethan precursor to the hall raises some interpretational issues with regards to the date and function of the features.

Images - none

Location

Grid Reference:TG 2421 0064
Map Sheet:TG20SW
Parish:STOKE HOLY CROSS, SOUTH NORFOLK, NORFOLK

Full description

Note left by C. J. S. Green (NAU) records soil marks of enclosures and hollow ways around Stoke Hall.
Sketch plan in file.
Compiled by A. Gregory (NAU), 20 November 1978.

Aerial photograph at Norfolk County Highways Department (S1).
Appear to be pre-park field boundaries (ie pre 16th century) and old park roads.
1 March 1979.

Visited by E. Rose (NAU).
Mostly ploughed land, only faint soilmarks visible

Also on Ordnance Survey aerial photograph.
Compiled by D. Edwards (NAU), 2 April 1981.

The extent of this site has been enlarged, as a result the central grid reference has been altered from TG 2414 0074 to TG 2419 0074.

March 2009. Norfolk NMP.
The earthworks, cropmarks and soilmarks of medieval and post medieval trackways, enclosures and boundaries are visible on aerial photographs (S2-S5) within the former parkland around Stoke Hall (NHER 9766). The site is centred on TG 2419 0074. A probable Roman road (NHER 53347) may form the earliest component of this site, later becoming a medieval to post medieval trackway through the park. See record for NHER 53347 for details. These features have been suggested as being pre -16th century as the first phase of Stoke Hall is thought to have dated to the Elizabethan period. However the actual evidence for this earlier hall is limited, see NHER 9766 for details. A farm is marked on at this location Faden’s map of 1797 (S6) and is named as Gurney Farm on Bryant’s map of 1826 (S7). It has been suggested that the Elizabethan hall degenerates into a farm, marked as Warren Farm on 1836 Ordnance Survey One inch map (S8).
The aerial photographs reveal a high level of detail about the landscape features within and pre-dating the parkland. However only those components that would seem to be of the greatest archaeological interest have been mapped and those that differ from what is depicted on the historical map evidence. For example the 1844 Stoke Holy Cross Tithe map (S9) reveals the layout of many of the features that are visible on the aerial photographs (S2-S5).
The main component of features visible on the aerial photographs is an embanked trackway running through the parkland from southwest to northeast. The route would appear to lead towards Blackford Hall, a medieval moated site, to the northeast (NHER 9908), however as stated above this route is now thought to be a Roman road in origin, see NHER 53347 for details. A number of the trackways and related features appear to run to and from small-scale quarries and ponds suggesting that they formed part of the medieval and post medieval agricultural landscape, rather than a planned landscape associated with an earlier hall. Although it is worth noting that a hollow way, 8-9m wide, leads from the main diagonal trackway towards the main complex of current and historic building ranges. It is feasible that this feature formed part of an entrance and access track to the hypothetical earlier hall complex.
In-between these tracks and hollow ways is a large ditched and banked trapezoidal enclosure at TG 2435 0088, measuring approximately 100m by 90m. This is clearly visible as surviving earthworks in 1946 (S2). The soilmarks of the plough-levelled earthworks in 1963 (S3) potentially indicate the former presence of internal banks and/or structures. This enclosure is situated next to one possibly two ponds and, as mentioned above, is alongside trackways. This positioning may suggest that it was used as an stock enclosure of some sort. Although it is also feasible that it originally enclosed structures, domestic or otherwise.
The line of the main diagonal route through the park is depicted on the 1836 Ordnance Survey One inch map (S8) as an intermittent track running through and alongside areas of widely dispersed trees, which could represent the remnants of the landscape associated with the possible Elizabethan Hall. Parts of the route are depicted as a dotted line suggesting an unfenced or minor track. This may explain why the route is not included in either Faden’s or Bryant’s maps (S6-S7), presumably it was not considered significant enough to depict, rather than suggesting that the road was laid out in-between 1826 and 1836. The line of the trackway is depicted as a single boundary on the 1844 Stoke Holy Cross Tithe map, which may indicate that the route had gone out of use entirely by this period, although it may again relate to the relevance of the route to the Tithe map apportionments. By the time of the Ordnance Survey first edition map) as either a single or double line of trees (S10).
S. Horlock (NMP), 16 March 2009.

September 2006.
A series of trackways and enclosures can be seen on Google Earth imagery.
See (S11) for further details.
D. Lefeuvre (HES), 21 February 2011.

Monument Types

  • BANK (EARTHWORK) (Unknown date)
  • BOUNDARY DITCH (Unknown date)
  • DITCH (Unknown date)
  • ENCLOSURE (Unknown date)
  • FIELD BOUNDARY (Unknown date)
  • HOLLOW WAY (Unknown date)
  • ROAD (Unknown date)
  • TRACKWAY (Unknown date)
  • BANK (EARTHWORK) (Roman - 43 AD? to 409 AD?)
  • DITCH (Roman - 43 AD? to 409 AD?)
  • ENCLOSURE (Roman - 43 AD? to 409 AD?)
  • ROAD (Roman - 43 AD? to 409 AD?)
  • SQUARE ENCLOSURE (Roman - 43 AD? to 409 AD?)
  • TRACKWAY (Roman - 43 AD? to 409 AD?)
  • BANK (EARTHWORK) (Medieval to Post Medieval - 1066 AD? to 1900 AD?)
  • BOUNDARY DITCH (Medieval to Post Medieval - 1066 AD? to 1900 AD?)
  • DITCH (Medieval to Post Medieval - 1066 AD? to 1900 AD?)
  • ENCLOSURE (Medieval - 1066 AD? to 1539 AD?)
  • ENCLOSURE (Medieval to Post Medieval - 1066 AD to 1900 AD)
  • HOLLOW WAY (Medieval to Post Medieval - 1066 AD? to 1900 AD?)
  • ROAD (Medieval to Post Medieval - 1066 AD to 1900 AD)
  • SQUARE ENCLOSURE (Medieval to Post Medieval - 1066 AD to 1900 AD)
  • TRACKWAY (Medieval to Post Medieval - 1066 AD to 1900 AD)

Associated Finds - none

Protected Status

  • SHINE

Sources and further reading

---Secondary File: Secondary file.
<S1>Aerial Photograph: Fairey AP 1956 7230, OS AP 72 034 057, NAU AP TG 2400A-C.
<S2>Vertical Aerial Photograph: RAF. 1946. RAF 106G/UK/1429 3156-7 16-APR-1946 (NMR).
<S3>Vertical Aerial Photograph: RAF. 1963. RAF 58/5942 (F22) 0084-5 27-SEP-1963 (NMR).
<S4>Vertical Aerial Photograph: CUCAP. 1964. CUCAP (AJI91) 29-JUN-1964 (NHER TG 2300L).
<S5>Vertical Aerial Photograph: CUCAP. 1964. CUCAP (AJI85-7, 89) 29-JUN-1964 (NHER TG 2300R-U).
<S6>Publication: Faden, W. and Barringer, J. C. 1989. Faden's Map of Norfolk in 1797.
<S7>Map: Bryant, A.. 1826. Bryant's Map of Norfolk.
<S8>Map: Ordnance Survey. 1824-1836. Ordnance Survey First Edition 1 inch..
<S9>Map: Newton and Woodrow. 1844. Stoke Holy Cross Tithe Map..
<S10>Map: Ordnance Survey. 1824-1836. Ordnance Survey First Edition 1 inch..
<S11>Vertical Aerial Photograph: Infoterra and Bluesky Ltd. 2006. Infoterra Ltd and Bluesky 11-SEP-2006 (Google Earth TG24010070).

Related records - none

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