Record Details

NHER Number:11325
Type of record:Monument
Name:Probable Roman enclosures and features


A cropmark site of probable Roman date, although some elements may be older and post medieval. The site consists of rectilinear enclosures and linear features, possibly representing a small farmstead, visible as cropmarks on aerial photographs.

Images - none


Grid Reference:TF 9696 4345
Map Sheet:TF94SE

Full description

Linear cropmarks on Ordnance Survey air photograph.
E. Rose (NAU).

October 2002. Norfolk NMP.
A group of cropmarks that appear to represent at least two phases of enclosures, field systems and activity, are visible on Ordnance Survey aerial photographs from 1970 (S1) and 1973 (S2) and NLA oblique aerial photographs from 1990 (S3). Although no definite dating is available, the main components of the site would appear to represent an area of Roman settlement and fields. Whilst the more regular enclosures on the different alignment may be much later and are possibly post medieval in date. The site is centred on TF 9698 4349.

A large rectilinear enclosed area is centred on TF 9684 4343, measuring approximately 155m by 120m. There is much visible overlapping of linear features, so it is hard to tell exactly which boundaries relate to which phase. Although as many of these ditches are parallel to the main axis of the site, it is probable that they are contemporary. Some of these appear to suggest internal subdivisions of the larger enclosure. In particular a small, 15m square are centred on TF 9677 4340, which appears to be co-joined to what seem to be main enclosure boundaries. The internal subdivisions may imply that this site represents a farmstead or similar small settlement, with a variety of domestic and agricultural activities taking place.

Several linear elements are visible, many of which parallel to one another and may represent trackways. These include two ditches running from TF 9679 4346 to TF 9694 4347, then the southern example continues to TF 9685 4346. Another obvious double linear alignment can be seen from TF 9683 4345 to TF 9694 4347. This ditch appears to be parallel to a group of enclosed areas, which are on a separate alignment to the rest of the site. The main boundary runs from TF 9682 4343 to TF 9701 4349. This has two perpendicular ditches running up to it, forming very regular rectangular areas. Cropmarks with some linear elements can be seen to the north of the site, centred on TF 9680 4357, on the 1990 NLA oblique aerial photographs (S3). These may indicate further ditches, however, they were not mapped as they are within a noisy area of geological striping and therefore may not be archaeological in origin.
S. Massey (NMP), 24 October 2002.

Monument Types

  • DITCH (Unknown date)
  • LINEAR FEATURE (Undated)
  • PIT (Unknown date)
  • TRACKWAY (Unknown date)
  • FARMSTEAD (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FIELD BOUNDARY (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • RECTILINEAR ENCLOSURE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FIELD BOUNDARY (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)

Associated Finds - none

Protected Status


Sources and further reading

---Record Card: NAU Staff. 1974-1988. Norfolk Archaeological Index Primary Record Card.
<S1>Aerial Photograph: Ordnance Survey. 1970. OS/70009 037 19-MAR-1970.
<S2>Aerial Photograph: Ordnance Survey. 1973. OS/73244 189-90 05-JUN-1973.
<S3>Oblique Aerial Photograph: Edwards, D.. 1990. NHER TF 9643D (NLA 268/GBW/3) 29-JUN-1990.

Related records - none

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