Record Details

NHER Number:9598
Type of record:Monument
Name:Site of probable post medieval post mill


A ring ditch and ploughed out mound is visible as cropmarks on aerial photographs. It probably marks the site of Keswick post mill, recorded in documents since at least the mid 18th century, although an earlier origin, perhaps as a Bronze Age round barrow, cannot be entirely ruled out. The site has since been destroyed by mineral extraction.

Images - none


Grid Reference:TG 2128 0510
Map Sheet:TG20NW

Full description

12 July 1935.
Circle seen in barley field near Keswick Mill from air.
Not photographed.

Now destroyed by gravel pit.

(S1) notes 'ploughed barrow' found here by revisers. Perhaps the site of that marked by S. Woodward but this is more likely site NHER 9710.
A.J. Lawson (NAU), 8 March 1978.

November 2009. Norfolk NMP.
NMP mapping has led to the alteration of the central grid reference of the site from TG 2130 0505 to TG 2128 0510.
What is presumed to be the ‘circle’ or ring ditch described above is visible as a cropmark, vegetation mark, soilmark, thaw mark and slight earthwork on aerial photographs (S2)-(S8), centred at TG 2128 0510. It probably represents the site of Keswick post mill, which is recorded in documents dating from at least 1766 (S9). This mill was operated in tandem with Keswick watermill (NHER 4005), approximately 100m to its west. The clarity of the soilmark on certain aerial photographs (S4) could reflect this relatively late origin. Similarly the off-centre pit within the mound appears to be a relatively fresh earthwork in 1942 (S2). More significantly, the location of the site correlates approximately with a circular feature of roughly similar size depicted on Keswick Tithe Map of 1847 (S10). Nevertheless, even if it was used as a post medieval post mill mound, this does not preclude an origin as a Bronze Age round barrow, as suggested above, although there is little strong supporting evidence for this.
The site shows differently on different photographs, and therefore its precise morphology is somewhat uncertain. It appears to comprise up to three rather oval and non-concentric ring ditches, the outer two of which are only occasionally visible and might relate to the natural knoll on which the site sits rather than representing genuine archaeological features. The innermost ditch, which is most clearly visible on photographs taken in 1953 (S8), is more substantial and has a somewhat ‘hengiform’ appearance, with an apparent entrance to the southeast, although the ditch seems more continuous on some of the other aerial photographs. The ditch encloses a largely plough-levelled mound, in which an apparently freshly-dug pit is visible on the 1942 aerial photographs. This could relate to its relatively recent use as a post mill, or perhaps the site was subject to an opportunistic excavation (in the expectation it was prehistoric in date) following its initial identification from the air in 1935 (see above). Alternatively, the natural knoll on which it sits might have been a useful location for other, unrelated activity, associated with the World War Two defences in the area for example (NHER 32530, 52498, 52499).
The site is broadly circular in plan and measures 31.5m long and at least 26.75m wide (the postulated eastern portion of the outer two ring ditches is not visible on the aerial photographs). The internal mound is circular in plan and measures 12.5m in diameter.
S. Tremlett (NMP), 27 November 2009.

Monument Types

  • RING DITCH (Unknown date)
  • HENGIFORM MONUMENT? (Late Neolithic to Late Bronze Age - 3000 BC to 701 BC)
  • RING DITCH (Bronze Age - 2350 BC? to 701 BC?)
  • ROUND BARROW? (Bronze Age - 2350 BC? to 701 BC?)
  • POST MILL (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • RING DITCH (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • WINDMILL (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • WINDMILL MOUND (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)

Associated Finds - none

Protected Status - none

Sources and further reading

---Record Card: NAU Staff. 1974-1988. Norfolk Archaeological Index Primary Record Card.
---Record Card: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Miscellaneous. Keswick.
<S1>Record Card: Ordnance Survey Staff. 1933-1979?. Ordnance Survey Record Cards. TG 20 NW 151.
<S2>Aerial Photograph: RAF. 1942. RAF HLA/447 2118-9 30-APR-1942 (NMR).
<S3>Aerial Photograph: RAF. 1945. RAF 106G/UK/772 6005-6 06-SEP-1945 (NMR).
<S4>Vertical Aerial Photograph: RAF. 1946. RAF 3G/TUD/UK/70 5181 28-FEB-1946 (NMR).
<S5>Vertical Aerial Photograph: RAF. 1946. RAF 106G/UK/1429 4144-5 16-APR-1946 (NMR).
<S6>Vertical Aerial Photograph: RAF. 1946. RAF 106G/UK/1606 6068-9 27-JUN-1946 (NMR).
<S7>Vertical Aerial Photograph: RAF. 1947. RAF CPE/UK/2063 5020-1 14-MAY-1947 (NMR).
<S8>Vertical Aerial Photograph: RAF. 1953. RAF 82/759 350-1 09-APR-1953 (NMR).
<S9>Website: Neville, J.. 2007. Keswick postmill. 27 November 2009.
<S10>Map: Drane, W.. 1847. Keswick Tithe map.

Related records - none

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